- Robert Schumann - Through the Eyes of a Child [Chronology]
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Robert Schumann
(1810 - 1856)


VA : Caspar David Friedrich : Morning in the Riesengebirge
LT : Sir Walter Scott: The Lady in the Lake
M : Carl Maria von Weber : Piano Concerto No.1
M : Ludwig van Beethoven : Overture and incidental music to Egmont
VA : Caspar David Friedrich : Cloister Graveyard in the Snow
PH : Napoleon annexes Holland, Hanover, Bremen, Hamburg, Lauenburg, and Lübeck
PH : Venezuela breaks away from Spain
RP : Lazare Carnot: De la défense des places fortes
RP : Société de Amis formed in Geneva by Protestant revivalists
RP : Joseph de Maistre: Essay on the Generation of Political Constitutions
VA : The "Nazarenes" founded by J.F. Overbeck to revive German religious art
ST : Gail and Spurzheim: Anatomie et physiologie du systèm nerveux
ST : Samuel Hahnemann founds homeopathy
ST : François Appert develops techniques for canning food
DL : First public billiards rooms in England at the Piazza, Covent Garden, London
M : Frederic Chopin born 1 March
M : Robert Schumann born 8 June


LT : Anna Lætitia Barbauld: Eighteen Hundred And Eleven, A Poem
M : Carl Maria von Weber : Opera, Abu Hassan
M : Carl Maria von Weber : Clarinet Concertos No.1 and No.2
M : Ludwig van Beethoven : 'Archduke' Piano Trio
VA : Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres : Jupiter and Thetis
PH : George III of England insane; Prince of Wales becomes Prince Regent
DL : Austria bankrupt
PH : Paraguay independent of Spain
RP : K.A. Böttiger: Kunstmythologie
PH : Civil Code introduced in Austria
RP : "Great Schism" of Welsh Protestants; two thirds leave Anglican Church
ED : Barthold G. Niebuhr: Roman History
ED : J.P.A. Récusat: Essai sur la langue et la littérature
ED : University of Christiania, Oslo, founded
ED : National University of Nicaragua founded
DL : John Rennie begins the building of Waterloo Bridge, London
M : Prague Conservatoire is opened
ST : Amadeo Avogadro: hypothesis of the molecular composition of gases
ST : Sir Charles Bell: New Idea of the Anatomy of the Brain
ST : S.O. Poisson: Traité de Mécanique
DL : French Press Agency founded (later to becomes Agence Havas)
DL : "Luddites" destroy industrial machines in North England
M : Franz Liszt born 22 October


LT : George Gordon, Lord Byron: Childe Harold cantos I and II, published
M : ErnstTheodor Amadeus Hoffmann : Opera, Aurora
M : Carl Maria von Weber : Piano Concerto No.2
M : Giaocchino Antonio Rossini : Comic Opera, La scala di seta ('The Silken Ladder')
M : Ludwig van Beethoven : Symphonies No.7 and No.8
VA : Jacques-Louis David : Napoleon in His Study
PH : U.S. declares war on Britain    GO !
RP : Baptist Union of Great Britain formed
ED : H.F. Genesius: Hebrew and Chaldaic Dictionary
RP : Hegel: Die objective Logik
RP : Jews in Prussia emancipated (Hardenberg reforms)
VA : Elgin Marbles brought to England
M : Founding of Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde, Vienna
VA : Swiss explorer Burckhardt discovers the Great Temple of Abu Simbel
ST : Georges Cuvier: Recherches sur les ossements fossiles de quadrupèdes
ST : Humphry Davy: Elements of Chemical Philosophy
ST : Philippe Girard invents machine for spinning flax
ST : Laplace: Thérie analytique
DL : Royal Yacht Squadron founded
DL : Gas, Light and Coke Company, London developed by F.A. Winsor
VA : Pierre-Etienne-Théodore Rousseau born 15 April
LT : Robert Browning born 7 May


LT : Sir Walter Scott: Rokeby
LT : Johann Wolfgang von Goethe: Aus meinem Leben: Dichtung und Wahrheit
LT : George Gordon, Lord Byron: The Giaour and The Bride of Abydos
M : Giaocchino Antonio Rossini : Comic Opera, L'italiana in Algeri ('The Italian Girl in Algiers')
M : Nicolò Paganini : Le streghe ('Witches Dance')
PH : Prussia declares war on France
PH : Austria declares war on France
PH : French expelled from Holland; return of William of Orange
PH : Simón Bolivar becomes dictator of Venezuela
PH : Mexico declares itself independent
RP : J.F. Herbart: Introduction to Philosophy
RP : Methodist Missionary Society founded
RP : Robert Owen: A New View of Society
RP : Schopenhauer: Über die vierfache Wurzel des Satzes vom sureichenden Grunde
M : London Philharmonic Society founded
DL : Last gold guinea coins issued in England
M : The waltz conquers the European ballrooms
M : Richard Wagner born 22 May
M : Giuseppe Verdi born 10 October


LT : William Wordsworth: The Excursion
LT : Sir Walter Scott: Waverly
LT : George Gordon, Lord Byron: The Corsair and Lara published
M : Franz Schubert : Song, Gretchen am Spinnerade ('Gretchen and the Spinning Wheel')
VA : Francisco José de Goya Y Lucientes : The Third of May, 1808
VA : Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres : Grand Odalisque
VA : Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres : Raphael
and the Fornarina
PH : Napoleon abdicates and is banished to Elba
PH : Louis XVIII enters Paris and takes up the throne as his hereditary right
PH : Congress of Vienna opens
PH : Christian Frederick of Denmark elected King of Norway
PH : Treaty of Ghent ends British-American war    GO !
PH : Hanover proclaimed a kingdom
PH : Lord Hastings, Governor-General of India, declares war on the Gurkhas (Nepal)
ED : Chateaubriand: De Buonaparte et le Bourbons
RP : Pope Pius VII returns to Rome and restores the Inquisistion
RP : Savigny: The Claim of Our Age on Legislation
VA : Dulwich Gallery, London, opened
M : J.N. Maelzel invents the metronome
ST : Berzelius: Theory of Chemical Proportions and the Chemical Action of Electricity
ST : M.J.B. Orfila: Toxicologie générale
ST : At Killingworth Colliery, George Stephenson constructs the first practical steam locomotive
DL : English Statute of Apprentices (1563) repealed
M : Johann Friedrich Reichardt dies 27 June
VA : Jean-François Millet born 4 October


LT : William Wordsworth: Collected Poems
LT : Sir Walter Scott: Guy Mannering
LT : Sir Walter Scott: The Lord of the Isles
LT : Samuel Taylor Coleridge: Biographia Literaria
LT : George Gordon, Lord Byron: Hebrew Melodies
M : Carl Maria von Weber : Clarinet Quintet
M : Franz Schubert : Songs, Der Erlkönig, Heidenröslein
PH : Napoleon leaves Elba; the "Hundred Days"; Napoleon abdicates again and is banished to St. Helena
PH : Swiss Federal Pact ratified; the Confederation now consists of 22 cantons
PH : Joachim Murat, King of Naples executed after attempt to regain Naples
PH : Brazil declares itself an independent empire
RP : Protestant Baseler Missiongesellschaft founded
RP : T.R. Malthus: An Inquiry into the Nature and Progress of Rent
ED : Savigny: History of Roman Law in the Middle Ages
RP : Dugald Stewart: Progress of Metaphysical, Ethical, and Political Philosophy
VA : The Biedermeier styles arrives
ST : Miner's safety lamp invented
ST : Augustin Fresnel: research on the diffraction of light
ST : Lamarck: Histoire naturelle des animaux
ST : L.J. Prout: hypothesis on relation between specific gravity and atomic weight
DL : Apothecaries Act forbids unqualified doctors to practice in Britain
DL : British income tax ended
DL : British road surveyor John Macadam constructs roads of crushed stone
DL : Eruption of Sumbawa Volcano in Indonesia - more than 50,000 dead
ED : Technological College, Vienna, founded
VA : Ernest Meissonier born 21 February


LT : Sir Walter Scott: Tales of my Landlord
LT : George Gordon, Lord Byron: Childe Harold canto III and The Prisoner of Chillon
LT : George Gordon, Lord Byron: The Siege of Corinth and Parisina
M : ErnstTheodor Amadeus Hoffmann : Opera, Undine
M : Franz Schubert : Symphonies No.4 'Tragic', and No.5
M : Giaocchino Antonio Rossini : Comic Opera, Il barbiere di Siviglia ('The Barber of Seville')
PH : Maria I, Queen of Portugal dies; succeeded by her son, Dom John VI
PH : Argentina declared independent
PH : Prince Metternich opens Diet of German Confederation at Frankfurt
RP : American Bible Society founded
ED : Nikolai Karamzin: History of the Russian Empire
ST : Sir David Brewster invents kaleidoscope
ST : Stethoscope invented
DL : Blackwood's Magazine founded, Edinburgh
DL : English economic crisis causes large-scale emigration to Canada and U.S.


LT : Sir Walter Scott: Rob Roy
LT : John Keats: Poems
LT : George Gordon, Lord Byron: Manfred
LT : William Cullen Bryant: Thanatopsis
M : Franz Schubert : Songs, Die Forelle ('The Trout'), Der Tod und das Mädchen (Death and the Maiden'), An die Musik
M : Giaocchino Antonio Rossini : Opera, Armida
M : Giaocchino Antonio Rossini : Opera, La gazza ladra ('The Thieving Magpie')
M : Giaocchino Antonio Rossini : Comic Opera, La Cenerentola ('Cinderella')
M : Nicolò Paganini : Violin Concerto No.1
VA : Caspar David Friedrich : Cemetery at Dusk
VA : Caspar David Friedrich : City at Moonrise
PH : James Monroe inaugurated as fifth President of the U.S.    GO !
PH : Wartburg Festival of revolutionary German students
RP : August Böckh: The Public Economy of Athens
RP : Lutheran and Reformed Churches in Prussia form Evangelical Union
RP : Hegel: Encyclopaedia of the Philosophical Sciences
RP : H.F.R. de Lamennais: Essai sur l'indifférence en matière de religion
ED : Juan Llorente, a former secretary of the Inquisition, publishes his History of the Inquisition in Spain
RP : Joseph de Maistre: Du Pape
ED : Braccia Nuova begins building of Vatican Museum, Rome
ST : Berzelius discovers selenium and lithium
ST : Karl Ritter: Geographie in ihrer Beziehung zu Natur und Geschichte
DL : Riots in Derbyshire, England, against low wages
DL : Opening of Waterloo Bridge, London (replaced 1945)
VA : Charles-François Daubigny born 15 February


LT : Sir Walter Scott: The Heart of Midlothian
LT : John Keats: Endymion
LT : George Gordon, Lord Byron: Beppo and Childe Harold canto IV
M : Giaocchino Antonio Rossini : Opera, Mosè in Egitto
M : Ludwig van Beethoven : 'Hammerklavier' Piano Sonata
VA : Caspar David Friedrich : Wanderer above the Sea of Fog
VA : Jean Louis André Théodore Géricault : Severed Heads
PH : Act suspending Habeas Corpus is repealed
PH : Charles XIII of Sweden dies; succeeded by Jean Bernadotte as Charles XIV
PH : Chile proclaims its independence
PH : Border between Canada and U.S. agreed upon
ED : Bonn University founded
ED : Josef Dobrovsky: History of the Czech language
ED : Henry Hallam: The View of the State of Europe during the Middle Ages
ED : Prado Museum, Madrid, founded
ST : F.W. Bessel: Fundamenta Astronomiae, catalog of 3,222 stars
ST : Berzelius publishes molecular weights of 2,000 chemical compounds
ST : Cadmium discovered
DL : British Order of St. Michael and St. George instituted by the Prince Regent
DL : "Savannah" becomes the first steamship to cross the Atlantic (26 days)
M : Charles-François Gounod born 18 June


LT : William Wordsworth: Peter Bell and The Waggoner
LT : Sir Walter Scott: The Bride of Lammermoor, Ivanhoe, and A Legend of Montrose
LT : George Gordon, Lord Byron: Mazeppa and Don Juan cantos I and II
M : Carl Maria von Weber : Invitation to the Dance for piano (later orchestrated by Berlioz)
M : Franz Schubert : 'Trout' Quintet
VA : Jean Louis André Théodore Géricault : The Raft of the Medusa
VA : John Crome : Yarmouth Beach
PH : Florida purchased by U.S. from Spain
PH : Bolivar becomes President of Colombia
RP : Georg Hermes: Philosophical Introduction to Christian Theology
RP : Jean Sismondi: Nouveaux principes d'economie politique
ST : Mitscherelich discovers isomorphism
ST : David Napier constructs the flat-bed cylinder for printing
ST : Danish physicist Hans Oersted discovers electromagnetism
DL : Opening of Burlington Arcade, Piccadilly, London
VA : Mehemet Ali presents Cleopatra's Needle to Britain
DL : Freedom of the press in France
DL : Maximum 12-hour working day for juveniles in England
M : Franz von Suppé born 18 April
LT : Walt Whitman born 31 May
VA : Gustave Courbet born 10 June
M : Jacques Offenbach born 20 June
M : Clara Wieck Schumann born 13 September


LT : John Clare: Poems Descriptive of Rural Life and Scenery
LT : Elizabeth Barret Browning: Battle of Marathon
LT : William Blake: Jerusalem
VA : John Constable : Dedham Lock and Mill
VA : Henry Fuseli : Solitude at Dawn
PH : Revolution in Spain - King Ferdinand VII forced to restore Constitution of 1812
PH : King George III of England dies; succeeded by Prince Regent as George IV
DL : U.S. Land Law fixes land price at a minimum of $1.25 per acre
RP : Thomas Brown: Lectures on the Philosophy of the Human Mind
RP : Thomas Erskine: Internal Evidence for the Truth of Revealed Religion
RP : J.J. Görres: Germany and the Revolution
RP : Jesuits driven out of Rome
RP : T. R. Malthus: Principles of Political Economy
VA : Discovery of the Venus de Milo
ST : André Ampère: Laws of the Electrodynamic Action
DL : Washington Colonization Society founds Liberia for repatriation of Negros
VA : Benjamin West dies 11 March
LT : Joseph Rodman Drake dies 21 September


VA : Francisco José de Goya Y Lucientes : The Great He-Goat
LT : Sir Walter Scott: Kenilworth
LT : John Clare: The Village Minstrel
LT : George Gordon, Lord Byron: Marino Faliero, Don Juan cantos III-V, Cain, The Two Foscari, and Sardanapalus
VA : John Constable : Study of Clouds at Hampstead
VA : John Constable : The Hay Wain
M : Carl Maria von Weber : Opera, Der Freischütz
PH : James Monroe begins second term as U.S. president
PH : Revolution in Piedmont: Victor Emmanuel abdicates, names his brother Charles Felix successor
PH : Reign of Terror begins between Greeks and Turks
PH : Peru proclaimed independent from Spain, followed by Guatemala, Panama, and Santo Domingo
ED : Ecole des Chartes founded in Paris for historical studies
RP : George Grote: Statement of the Question of Parliamentary Reform
RP : Hegel: Grundlinien der Philosophie des Rechts
ED : Champollion deciphers Egyptian hieroglyphics using Rosetta Stone
ST : Faraday discovers fundamentals of electromagnetic rotation
ST : T.J. Seebeck discovers thermoelectricity
ST : Sir Charles Wheatstone demonstrates sound reproduction
DL : London Co-operative Society founded
DL : Manchester Guardian founded
LT : John Keats dies 23 February
VA : John Crome dies 22 April


LT : William Wordsworth: Ecclesiastical Sketches
LT : Sir Walter Scott: The Fortunes of Nigel and Halidon Hill
LT : George Gordon, Lord Byron: Vision of Judgment
VA : Eugène Delacroix : Dante and Virgil
in Hell
M : Franz Schubert : Fantasia in C, 'Wanderer' Fantasy
M : Franz Schubert : Symphony No.8, 'Unfinished'
M : Ludwig van Beethoven : Mass in D (Missa Solemnis)
VA : William Blake : The Parable of the Wise and Foolish Virgins
PH : Greeks adopt liberal republican constitution and proclaim independence
PH : Augustin de Iturbide elected Emperor of Mexico
PH : Brazil becomes independent of Portugal
PH : Congress of Verona opens to discuss European problem
PH : Bottle riots in Dublin, viceroy attacked by Orangemen
ED : Colebrooke founds Royal Asiatic Society (study of Eastern languages)
RP : Jean B. J. Fourier: Thèorie analytique de la chaleur
ST : J.V. Poncelet: Traité des propriétés projectives des figures on projective geometry
M : Royal Academy of Music, London, founded
VA : Daguerre and Bouton invent the diorama, paintings illuminated in dark room to give illusion of reality
ST : A.J. Fresnel perfects lenses for lighthouses
DL : Streets of Boston, Mass., lit by gas
DL : Sunday Times, London, founded
M : Franz Strauss born 26 February
M : ErnstTheodor Amadeus Hoffmann dies 25 June
LT : Mathew Arnold born 24 December


VA : Alexandre Cabanel born
LT : Sir Walter Scott: Macduff's Cross, Peveril of the Peak and Quentin Durward
LT : George Gordon, Lord Byron: Don Juan cantos VI-XIV
M : Carl Maria von Weber : Opera, Euryanthe
M : Franz Schubert : Moments Musicaux
M : Franz Schubert : Incidental music to Rosamunde
M : Franz Schubert : Song-cycle, Die schöne Müllerin
M : Giaocchino Antonio Rossini : Opera, Semiramide
M : Ludwig van Beethoven : 'Diabelli' Piano Variations
M : Ludwig van Beethoven : Symphony No.9 ('Choral')
PH : Mexico becomes republic, Iturbide forced to abdicate
PH : Guatemala, San Salvador, Nicaragua, Honduras, and Costa Rica form Confederation of United Provinces of Central America
PH : The Monroe Doctrine closes American continent to colonial settlements by European powers    GO !
RP : Oxford Union Society founded
RP : Pope Pius VII dies; succeeded by Pope Leo XII (Annibale de la Genga)
RP : Saint-Simon: Catéchisme des industriels
ED : Louis Thiers: Histoire de la Révolution Française
ED : Sir Robert Smirke designs British Museum, London
ST : Charles Babbage's early attempts to construct a calculating machine
ST : Faraday succeeds in liquefying chlorine
ST : Charles Macintosh invents waterproof fabric
ED : Mechanic's Institute founded in London and Glasgow
ST : Walter Oudney, discovers Lake Chad in Central Africa
ST : British medical journal The Lancet first issued
DL : First Cologne Carnival festivities
DL : Death penalty for over 100 crimes abolished in Britain
ED : George IV presents the library of George III to British Museum
DL : Founding of Royal Thames Yacht Club
DL : Rugby Football originates at Rugby School, England
VA : Pierre-Paul Prud'hon dies 16 February
VA : Sir Henry Raeburn dies 8 July


VA : Anne-Louis Girodet-Trioson dies
VA : Eugène Delacroix : Massacre at Chios
M : Franz Schubert : Sonata for two pianos, 'Grand Duo'
M : Franz Schubert : Octet in F
M : Franz Schubert : String Quartet No.14, 'Der Tod und das Mädchen
M : Mikhail Glinka : Symphony in B-flat
M : Ludwig van Beethoven : Last five string quartets
VA : Caspar David Friedrich : Evening
PH : Bolivar proclaimed Emperor of Peru
PH : Frontier treaty signed between Russia and U.S.
PH : U.S. House of Representatives elects John Quincy Adams as president when none of the four candidates wins a majority in the national election    GO !
ED : August Böckh: Corpus Inscriptionum Graecum (ed.)
ED : Carlo Botta: History of Italy, 1789-1814
ED : Leopold von Ranke: History of the Latin and Teutonic People, 1494-1535
RP : Sunday School Union formed in U.S.
VA : National Gallery, London, founded
ST : Portland Cement developed
ST : Nicolas Carnot: Puissance motrice du feu (on therodynamics)
DL : Founding of Athenaeum Club, London
DL : Combinations Law of 1799-1800 repealed; British workers are allowed to unionise
DL : Le Globe, Paris begins publication
DL : R.S.P.C.A. founded in London
VA : Jean Louis André Théodore Géricault dies 26 January
M : Bedrich Smetana born 2 March
LT : George Gordon, Lord Byron dies 19 April
VA : Jean Léon Gérôme born 11 May
M : Anton Bruckner born 4 September


VA : Eugène Delacroix : Female Nude
Reclining on a Divan
LT : William Wordsworth: Yarrow Revisited, and Other Poems
LT : Sir Walter Scott: The Talisman
M : Felix Mendelssohn : Octet for strings
M : Vincenzo Bellini : Opera, Adelson e Salvini
VA : William Blake : The Body of Abel Found by Adam & Eve
VA : William Blake : Queen Katherine's Dream
PH : Ferdinand IV of Naples dies; succeeded by Francis I
PH : Anglo-Russian Treaty of British territory in north-western N. America
PH : Bolivia becomes independent of Peru, Uruguay of Brazil
PH : Maximilian I, King of Bavaria, dies; succeeded by his son Louis I
PH : Czar Alexander I dies; succeeded by Nicholas I
RP : William Hazlitt: The Spirit of the Age, or Contemporary Portraits
RP : French law makes sacrilege a capital offence
ED : Augustin Thierry: Histoire de la Conquête de l'Angleterre par les Normands
ST : Faraday isolates benzene
ST : Oxygen-hydrogen limelight invented
ED : Hungarian Academy of Sciences founded in Budapest
DL : Opening of Stockton-Darlington railroad - the first line to carry passengers
DL : A Baseball Club organised at Rochester, New York
DL : Tea roses from China introduced in Europe
LT : Anna Lætitia Barbauld dies 9 March
VA : Henry Fuseli dies 16 April
M : Johann Strauss II born 25 October
VA : Sir Adolph William Bouguereau born 30 November
VA : Jacques-Louis David dies 29 December


LT : Sir Walter Scott: Woodstock
LT : Elizabeth Barret Browning: An Essay on Mind and Other Poems published anonymously
LT : William Blake: Job
M : Carl Maria von Weber : Opera, Oberon
M : Franz Schubert : Symphony No.9
M : Nicolò Paganini : Violin Concerto No.3
M : Nicolò Paganini : Violin Concerto No.2, including La campanella ('The Little Bell')
M : Felix Mendelssohn : Overture, A Midsummer Night's Dream
M : Vincenzo Bellini : Opera, Bianca e Gernando
M : Hector Berlioz : Opera, Les Francs-juges
VA : William Blake : Satan Inflicting Boils on Job
PH : Treaty of Yandabu ends Burmese War
PH : John VI, King of Portugal, dies; succeeded by Peter IV
PH : Russia declares war on Persia
PH : Dost Mohammed becomes Amir of Kabul
RP : Ngüan Ngüan edits the writings of Confucius
VA : U.S. Academy of Design founded
ST : André Ampère: Electrodynamics
ST : N.J. Lobachevsky develops his system of non-Euclidean geometry
ED : Munich University founded
ST : Galvanometer invented
DL : Unter den Linden, Berlin, lit by gas
ST : Stamford Raffles founds Royal Zoological Society, London
DL : First railroad tunnel, on Liverpool-Manchester line, in England
M : Carl Maria von Weber dies 5 June


VA : Eugène Delacroix : Death of Sardanapalus
LT : Alfred, Lord Tennyson: Poems by Two Brothers
LT : Sir Walter Scott: The Surgeon's Daughter and Life of Napoleon
LT : John Clare: The Shepherd's Calendar with Village Stories and Other Poems
M : Franz Schubert : Song-cycle, Winterreise ('Winter Journey')
M : Frederic Chopin : Nocturne in E-flat
M : Frederic Chopin : Variations for piano and orchestra on 'La ci darem la mano' (aria from Mozart opera Don Giovanni
M : Vincenzo Bellini : Opera, Il pirata ('The Pirate')
PH : Count Kapodistrias elected President of Greece
PH : By the Treaty of London the Allies agree to force a truce on the Sultan
RP : John Darby founds the Plymouth Brethren
ED : Henry Hallam: The Constitutional History of England
RP : John Keble: The Christian year
ST : J. J. Audubon : Birds of North American
ST : Karl von Baer: Epistola de Ova Mammalium et Hominis Generis
ST : English physician describes Bright's disease
VA : Joseph Niepce produces photographs on a metal plate
ST : George Ohm formulates Ohm's Law, defining electrical current potential and resistance
ST : James Simpson constructs sand filter for purification of London's water supply
DL : Karl Baedeker begins publishing his travel guides
DL : Evening Standard, London, appears
DL : Sulfur friction matches introduced by John Walker
M : Ludwig van Beethoven dies 26 March
VA : William Holman Hunt born 26 April
LT : William Blake dies 12 August


LT : Sir Walter Scott: Anne of Geierstein
LT : Samuel Taylor Coleridge: Poetical Works (3 volumes) and Work without Hope
M : Franz Schubert : String Quintet in C
M : Franz Schubert : Song-cycle, Schwanengesang ('Swan Song')
M : Giaocchino Antonio Rossini : Comic Opera, Le Comte Ory ('Count Ory')
M : Hector Berlioz : Overture, Waverly
PH : Maria II deposed, Dom Miguel proclaimed King of Portugal
PH : Russia declares war on Turkey
PH : Mehemet Ali agrees to Britain's demand to quit Greece
PH : Uruguay becomes independent republic following Treaty of Rio de Janeiro
PH : Liberal revolt in Mexico, Vincente Guerrero becomes president
DL : British Test and Corporation Acts repealed; Catholics and Nonconformists may hold public office
VA : German scholar K.O. Müller publishes his treatise on Etruscan antiquities
ED : University College, London, opened
ED : American Dictionary of the English Language, by Noah Webster, published
ST : John Franklin publishes an account of his Arctic explorations
ST : Cap and ring spinning machines invented
ST : Friedrich Wöhler's synthesis of urea begins organic chemistry
DL : London weekly Athenaeum issued
DL : The Spectator, London weekly periodical, founded
DL : Working Men's Party founded in New York
VA : Francisco José de Goya Y Lucientes dies 16 April
VA : Dante Gabriel Rossetti born 12 May
LT : Dante Gabriel Rossetti born 12 May
M : Franz Schubert dies 19 November


VA : Anthony Frederick Sandys born
M : Giaocchino Antonio Rossini : Opera, Guillaume Tell ('William Tell')
M : Nicolò Paganini : Variations on 'God Save The King' for violin and orchestra
M : Felix Mendelssohn : Book I of 'Songs Without Words' (Lieder ohne Worte), for piano
M : Vincenzo Bellini : Opera, Zaira
M : Vincenzo Bellini : Opera, La straniera ('The Foreigner')
PH : Andrew Jackson inaugurated at President of the U.S.    GO !
DL : New Act of Parliament establishes an effective police force in London
PH : Peace of Adrianople ends Russo-Turk. war
DL : Slavery abolished in Mexico
PH : President Guerrero of Mexico overthrown by General Anastasio Bustamante
DL : Catholic Emancipation Act allows Roman Catholics in Great Britain to sit in Parliament and to hold almost any public office
RP : Pope Leo XII dies; Cardinal Francisco Castiglione elected Pope Pius VIII
M : The concertina patented
VA : L.J.M. Dagueerre forms a partnership with J.N. Niepce for the development of their photographic inventions
ST : Dobereiner: classification of similar elements
ST : Von Drayse invents the breechloading needle gun
ST : American physicist John Henry constructs and early version of the electromagnetic motor
ST : Hydropathy, the system of treating diseases by water, developed by Silesian farmer Vincenz Priessnitz
DL : The first co-operative stores in America
DL : The omnibus becomes part of London public transport
DL : First Oxford-Cambridge boat race takes place at Henley; Oxford wins
DL : Suttee, the Indian custom of immolating a widow along with her dead husband, abolished in British India
DL : The first U.S. patent on a typewriter granted this year
ST : The Royal Zoological Society takes over the menagerie at the Tower of London (origin of the London Zoo at Regent's Park)
PH : Uruguay declares war against Argentina
PH : Treaty of London settles the dispute between the Dutch and their former Belg. subjects
PH : Outbreak of First Opium War between Britain and China
PH : Frederick IV, King of Denmark dies; succeeded by Christian VIII
PH : The independent republic of Natal founded by the Boers
PH : Abdul Mejid becomes Sultan of Turkey
ED : Franz Bopp identifies Celtic as part of the Indo-European language family
ED : John Lloyd Stephens discovers and examines the antiquities of the ancient Maya culture in Central America
ST : Charles Goodyear makes possible the commercial use of rubber by discovering the process of "vulcanisation"
ST : Metallic element lanthanum discovered
ST : Ozone discovered
ST : First electric clock built
DL : Electrotyping process developed by Moritz Jacobi
DL : Abner Doubleday lays out first baseball field and conducts first baseball game ever played
RP : Louis Blanc publishes: L'Organization du Travail
DL : First Grand National run at Aintree, England
DL : Prussia restricts juvenile labour to a maximun of 10 hours a day
ED : Lowell Institute, Boston, founded
DL : George Weed's anti-slavery pamphlet, Slavery As It Is
M : Louis Moreau Gottschalk born 8 May
VA : Sir John Everett Millais born 8 June
M : Anton Grigoryevich Rubinstein born 28 November


LT : Sir Walter Scott: The Doom of Devorgoil, a Melodrama and Auchindrane
M : Gaetano Domenico Maria Donizetti : Opera, Anna Bolena ('Anne Boleyn')
M : Robert Schumann : Abegg Variations, for piano
M : Nicolò Paganini : Violin Concertos No.4 and No.5
M : Felix Mendelssohn : Overture, The Hebrides (Fingal's Cave)
M : Frederic Chopin : Piano Concertos No.1 and No.2
M : Vincenzo Bellini : Opera, I Capuleti e i Montecchi ('The Capulets and the Montagues)
M : Hector Berlioz : Symphony Fantastique
VA : Eugène Delacroix : The 28th July:
Liberty Leading the People
PH : Revolution in Paris
PH : William IV becomes King of Great Britain and Ireland
PH : Charles X, King of France abdicates
PH : Louis Philippe, King of the French, "the Citizen King"
PH : Peter II, last of the Vladikas dynasty ascends the throne of Montenegro
PH : Serbia a fully autonomous state
RP : Jeremy Bentham: Constitutional Code for all Nations
RP : William Cobbett: Rural Rides
RP : The religious society of Mormons (now known as Latter Day Saints) founded by Joseph Smith and his friends in New York
RP : Pope Pius VIII dies
ST : Robert Brown, Scottish botanist, discovers the cell nucleus in plants
ST : Scottish geologist Charles Lyell divides the geological system into three groups which he names eocene, miocene, and pliocene
ST : Paraffin discovered
ST : Founding of Royal Geographic Society, London
VA : End of the Nazarene Brotherhood
ST : French tailor Barthélemy Thimmonier devises a machine for utilitarian stitching (beginning of the sewing machine)
M : Hans von Bülow born 8 January
VA : Camille Pissarro born 10 July
VA : Lord Frederic Leighton born 3 December
LT : Christina Rossetti born 5 December
LT : Emily Dickinson born 10 December


M : Vincenzo Bellini : Opera, La sonnambula ('The Sleepwalker')
M : Hector Berlioz : Overture, King Lear
M : Hector Berlioz : Overture, The Corsair
PH : Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg elected Leopold I, King of the Belgians
PH : Separation of Belgium from the Netherlands
PH : Southampton insurrection: Virginia slave revolt led by Nat Turner
PH : The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, divided into two parts, the larger of which goes to Belgium
DL : Wretched conditions of the working classes in Lyons, France, lead to uprisings
DL : Mass demonstrations in Swiss cities lead to introduction for more liberal legislation and the principle of popular sovereignty
PH : Emperor Pedro I of Brazil abdicates; succeeded by Pedro II, his son
DL : U.S. Copyright law amended: 28 years, renewable for 14 years
M : Samuel Francis Smith writes the words to "My Country, Tis of Thee" (one of the national anthems until 1931)
RP : Cardinal Mauro Capellari elected Pope Gregory XVI
RP : William Miller, leader of the Second Adventists in America, begins his preachings
ST : Chloroform invented
ST : Sir James Clark Ross determines position of magnetic North Pole
DL : The great cholera pandemic, which began in India in 1826, spread from Russia into Central Europe, reaching Scotland in 1832
DL : William Lloyd Garrison begins publishing the abolitionist periodical The Liberator, in Boston
DL : Légion Etrangère (French Foreign Legion) formed
DL : London Bridge opened
DL : First horse-drawn trolleys appear in New York


LT : Alfred, Lord Tennyson: Poems
M : Gaetano Domenico Maria Donizetti : Opera, L'Elisir d'amore ('The Elixir of Love')
M : Felix Mendelssohn : Piano Concerto No.1
M : Frederic Chopin : 12 piano studies, Opus 10, including 'Black Key', 'Tristesse', and 'Revolutionary' studies
VA : Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres : M. Bertin
DL : Mass demonstrations at Hambach, Germany, in favour of the liberal and national cause
DL : The First Reform Act to enfranchise the upper-middle classes passed by the House of Lords; number of voters increased from 500,000 to 1,000,000
PH : Andrew Jackson re-elected President of the U.S.    GO !
PH : Giuseppe Mazzini, Italian patriot, founds the organisation "Giovine Italia" (Italian Youth), with the aim of achieving national independence
RP : The word "socialism" comes into use in English and French
ED : Zurich University founded
VA : Ando Hiroshige, great master of Japanese colour prints (Ukiyoe) publishes his series Fifty-three stages of the Tokaido
DL : The first French railroad line (from St. Etienne to Andrézieux) begins to carry passengers
ST : Hungarian mathematician Bolyai publishes his system of non-Euclidean geometry
ST : Reichenback discovers creosote in wood tar
DL : New England Anti-Slavery Society founded in Boston
VA : Edouard Manet born 23 January
VA : Arthur Hughes born 27 January
LT : Lewis Carroll born 27 January
LT : Johann Wolfgang von Goethe dies 22 March
LT : Sir Walter Scott dies 21 September


LT : Robert Browning: Pauline, A Fragment of a Confession published anonymously
M : Gaetano Domenico Maria Donizetti : Opera, Lucrezia Borgia
M : Felix Mendelssohn : Symphony No.4, 'Italian'
M : Clara Wieck Schumann : Romance in G Minor for Violin and Piano
PH : Prince Otto arrives in Nauplia to occupy the newly erected throne of Greece as King Otto
PH : Isabella II proclaimed Queen of Spain, with her mother Maria Christian as regent
PH : General Antonio López de Santa Anna becomes President of Mexico; country threatened by civil war
PH : Mehemet Ali is given Egypt and Syria; founds the dynasty that rules Egypt until 1952
PH : All German states join the Zollverein (customs union)
ED : Franz Bopp: Vergleichende Grammatik
ST : Gauss and Weber devise the electromagnetic telegraph which functions over a distance of 9,000 feet
ST : The Handbook of Human Physiology by Johannes Müller
ST : Wheatstone bridge, for the comparison of electric resistances, inductances, and capacitances devised
DL : British Factory Act provides a system for factory inspection
DL : Charity bazaars becomes popular in England
DL : New York Sun founded
DL : Olympic Club of Philadelphia organises two "Town Ball" teams
DL : Abolition of slavery in British Empire
M : Johannes Brahms born 7 May
VA : Sir Edward Coley Burne-Jones born 28 August
M : Alexander Porfiryevich Borodin born 12 November
M : Anton von Webern born 3 December


M : Gaetano Domenico Maria Donizetti : Opera, Maria Stuarda ('Mary Stuart')
M : Mikhail Glinka : Symphony on Two Russian Themes
M : Frederic Chopin : 12 piano studies, Opus 25, including 'Butterfly and 'Winter Wind' studies
M : Adolphe Adam : Opera, Le Chalet
M : Hector Berlioz : Symphony, Harold in Italy
M : Clara Wieck Schumann : Der Abendstern
VA : Eugène Delacroix : Women of Algiers
PH : Quadruple Alliance: Britain, France, Spain and Portugal
RP : Spanish Inquisition finally suppressed
PH : South Australia Act allows establishment of colony there
PH : Maria II ascends throne of Portugal
PH : Monopoly of the China trade by the East India Company abolished; friction between China and Britain
PH : Carlist Wars begin in Spain
ED : George Bancroft: History of the United States, first volume
RP : Leopold von Ranke: Die Römischen Päpste
VA : The Munich Glyptothek completed
ST : Françis Arago: Astronomie Populaire
ST : Babbage invents the principle of the "Analytical engine" (modern computer)
ST : Von Buch: Theory of Volcanism
ST : Faraday: Law of Electrolysis
ST : McCormick patents his reaping machine
ST : Discovery of phenol (carbolic acid)
DL : Disastrous fire in the British Houses of Parliament
DL : Gabelsberger publishes his system of German shorthand
DL : Hansom cabs introduced in London
DL : Poor Law Amendment Act decrees that no able-bodied man in Great Britain shall receive assistance unless he enters a workhouse
ED : University of Brussels founded
ED : Wilkins begins building the National Gallery, London
VA : William Morris born 24 March
VA : Hilaire Germain Edgar Degas born 19 July
LT : Samuel Taylor Coleridge dies 25 July
VA : Hilaire Germain Edgar Degas dies 27 September


LT : John Clare: The Rural Muse
LT : Robert Browning: Paracelsus
VA : John Constable : The Glebe Farm
M : Gaetano Domenico Maria Donizetti : Opera, Lucia di Lammermoor ('The Bride of Lammermoor')
M : Robert Schumann : Carnaval, for piano
M : Giaocchino Antonio Rossini : La danza taretella
M : Frederic Chopin : 'Fantaisie-impromptu'
M : Frederic Chopin : Piano Ballade No.1
M : Vincenzo Bellini : Opera, I puritani ('The Puritans')
PH : Francis II, the last Holy Roman Emperor (and Emperor of Austria as Francis I) dies
PH : Ferdinand I becomes Emperor of Austria
PH : The Municipal Corporation Act revolutionises borough government in England
PH : Second Seminole War    GO !
LT : Hans Christian Andersen publishes the first four of his 168 tales for children
LT : An edict of the German Federal Diet bans the books of Heine Börne, Gutzkow, and other "Young Germany" writers
RP : F.G. Dahlmann publishes Politics, traced back to the elements and extents of the given conditions
RP : Charles G. Finney: Lectures on Revivals of religion
RP : David Friedrich Strauss: The Life of Jesus
LT : The expression "L'Art pour l'Art", coined by French philosopher Victor Cousin, comes into general use
DL : Halley's Comet reappears
DL : U.S. showman P.T. Barnum begins his career with the exhibition of Joyce Heth (alleged to be George Washington's nurse and over 160 years old)
VA : Baron Antoine-Jean Gros dies 26 June
M : Vincenzo Bellini dies 23 September
M : Camille Saint-Saëns born 9 October


M : Adolphe Adam : Ballet, La Fille du Danube ('The Daughter of the Danube')
M : Adolphe Adam : Opera, Le Postillon de Longjumeau ('The Postman of Longjumeau')
DL : The People's Charter initiates the first national working-class movement in Great Britain
RP : Ralph Waldo Emerson: Nature
RP : Schopenhauer: Über den Willen in der Natur
ST : John Frederic Daniell develops a voltaic cell which effectively prevents polarisation
ST : Acetylene discovered and identified
M : "The Lancers" becomes the fashionable dance throughout Europe
PH : Boer farmers launch "The Great Trek"; founding of Natal, Transvaal, and Orange Free State
ST : Asa Gray: Elements of Botany, first botanical textbook
VA : Winslow Homer born
VA : Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema born 8 January
M : Léo Delibes born 21 February


LT : Robert Browning: Strafford
M : Robert Schumann : Études symphoniques
M : Robert Schumann : Davidsbündlertänz (Dances of the Adherents of the League of David)
M : Felix Mendelssohn : Piano Concerto No.2
M : Hector Berlioz : Grande messe des morts (Requiem)
M : Hector Berlioz : Opera, Benvenuto Cellini
PH : William IV, King of Great Britain dies
PH : Martin van Buren inaugurated President of the U.S.    GO !
PH : Ernst Augustus, successor to William IV as King of Hanover, cancels constitution of 1833
PH : Constitutional revolts in Lower and Upper Canada
ED : Founding of the University of Athens
RP : Bernhard Bolzano: Wissenschaftslehre
ED : Friedrich Fröbel opens his first kindergarten
ED : Mount Holyoke Female Seminary opens
ED : Horace Mann begins educational reforms in Mass.
RP : American Presbyterians split into the "old" and "new" school
ST : Wheatstone and W.F. Cooke patent electric telegraph
ST : Samuel Morse exhibits his electric telegraph at the College of the City of New York
ST : Siméon Poisson publishes Recherches sur la probabilité des jugements
DL : England introduces official birth registration
DL : Gag Law, aimed at suppressing debate on slavery, passed by U.S. Congress
VA : Baron François Gérard dies 11 January
VA : John Constable dies 31 March


LT : Elizabeth Barret Browning: The Seraphim and Other Poems
M : Robert Schumann : Kreisleriana, for piano
M : Robert Schumann : Scenes from Childhood 'Träumerei'
M : Frederic Chopin : Ballade No.2
VA : Joseph Mallord William Turner : The Fighting Téméraire
PH : First British-Afghan War
PH : Anti-Corn Law League established in Manchester
LT : Gustav Schwab: Die schönsten Sagen des klassischen Altertums
RP : French philosopher Auguste Comte gives the basic social science of sociology its name
VA : London National Gallery opened
ST : F.W. Bessel makes the first definite parallax measurement for a fixed star
ST : The Daguerre-Niepce method of photography presented to the Académie des Sciences and the Académie des Beaux Arts
DL : The New York Herald is the first U.S. newspaper to employ European correspondents
DL : The first travelling post office, running between Birmingham and Liverpool, England
M : Max Christian Friedrich Bruch born 6 January
M : Georges Bizet born 25 October


M : Frederic Chopin : 24 piano preludes, including 'Raindrop' prelude and Prelude in E-Minor
M : Frederic Chopin : Piano Sonata No.2
M : Hector Berlioz : Romeo and Juliet, Dramatic Symphony
DL : First bicycle constructed by Macmillan
VA : Paul Cézanne born 19 January
M : Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky born 21 March
VA : Alfred Sisley born 30 October


LT : Robert Browning: Sordello
M : Gaetano Domenico Maria Donizetti : La Favorite ('The Favourite')
M : Gaetano Domenico Maria Donizetti : Opera, La fille du régiment ('The Daughter of the Regiment')
M : Richard Wagner : Opera, Rienzi
M : Richard Wagner : A Faust Overture
M : Robert Schumann : Song-cycle, Dichterliebe (Poet's Love)
M : Robert Schumann : Song-cycle, Frauenliebe un Leben (Women's Love and Life)
M : Mikhail Glinka : Collection of Songs, Proshchaniye s Peterburgom ('Farewell to St. Petersburg')
M : Mikhail Glinka : Incidental music for the play Knyaz Kholmsky ('Prince Kholmsky')
M : Hector Berlioz : Grande symphonie funèbre et triomphale
M : Clara Wieck Schumann : Volkslied (on a poem by Heine)
M : Clara Wieck Schumann : Am Strande (on a poem by Burnes)
M : Clara Wieck Schumann : Ihr Bildnis
PH : Frederick William III, King of Prussia, dies; succeeded by Frederick William IV
PH : London Conference on Turko-Egyptian conflict signs the Protocol des Droits
PH : Lower and Upper Canada united by Act of Parliament
PH : William II ascends the throne of the Netherlands after abdication of his father William I
RP : French socialist writer Pierre Joseph Proudhon: Qu'est-ce que la propriété
VA : Nelson's Column erected in Trafalgar Square, London
ST : Louis Agassiz: Etudes sur les Glaciers
DL : Botanical Gardens at Kew, London, opened
DL : Transportation of criminals from England to New South Wales comes to end
DL : Penny postage established in Great Britain
DL : Washington Temperance Society formed
M : Pyotr Tchaikovsky born 7 May
VA : Caspar David Friedrich dies 7 May
M : Nicolò Paganini dies 27 May
LT : Thomas Hardy born 2 June
VA : Claude Monet born 14 November


LT : Walt Whitman: Death in the School Room
M : Richard Wagner : Opera, Der fliegende Holländer ('The Flying Dutchman')
M : Giuseppe Verdi : Opera, Nabucco ('Nebuchadnezzar')
M : Robert Schumann : Symphony No.1, 'Spring'
M : Frederic Chopin : Ballade No.3
M : Adolphe Adam : Ballet, Giselle
M : Hector Berlioz : Song cycle, Les Nuits d'été
M : Clara Wieck Schumann : Die gute Nacht, die ich dir sage
M : Clara Wieck Schumann : Gedichte aus Rückert's Liebesfrühling
PH : Britain's sovereignty proclaimed over Hong Kong
PH : William Henry Harrison dies one month after his inauguration, John Tyler succeeds him    GO !
DL : U.S.S. "Creole", carrying slaves from Virginia to Louisiana, is seized by the slaves and sails into Nassau where they become free
PH : New Zealand becomes British colony
PH : Lajos Kossuth becomes Hungarian nationalist leader
PH : Turkey's sovereignty guaranteed by the five Great Powers
DL : The London humorous periodical Punch begins to appear
RP : Carlye: On Heroes, Hero-Worship and the Heroic in History
RP : Emerson: Essays, First Series
RP : Ludwig Feuerback: Das Wesen des Christentums
M : Adolphe Sax invents the saxophone
ST : Bessel deduces a value 1/299 for the ellipticity of the earth
ST : Hypnosis discovered
DL : Barnum opens the "American Museum", and exhibition of freaks, curios, etc., in New York City
ED : The first university degrees granted to women in America
VA : Berthe Morisot born 14 January
M : Emmanuel Chabrier born 18 January
VA : Pierre-Auguste Renoir born 25 February
M : Antonin Dvorák born 8 September
VA : Jean-Frédéric Bazille born 6 December


VA : Pierre-Etienne-Théodore Rousseau : Under the Birches
LT : Walt Whitman: Franklin Evans
LT : William Wordsworth: Poems, Chiefly of Early and Late Years
LT : Elizabeth Barret Browning: The Cry of the Children
LT : Robert Browning: Dramatic Lyrics
M : Gaetano Domenico Maria Donizetti : Opera, Linda di Chamounix ('Linda of Chamonix')
M : Robert Schumann : Piano Quintet in E-flat
M : Giaocchino Antonio Rossini : Stabat mater
M : Felix Mendelssohn : more incidental music to A Midsummer Night's Dream
M : Felix Mendelssohn : Symphony No.3, 'Scotch'
M : Mikhail Glinka : Opera, Rusian and Lyudmila
M : Frederic Chopin : Ballade No.4
VA : Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres : Odalisque with a Slave
PH : Webster-Ashburton Treaty between Great Britain and the U.S. defines Canadian frontier
PH : Treaty of Nanking ends Opium War between Britain and China
DL : Riots and strikes in the industrial areas in the north of England
PH : Orange Free State set up by the Boers
ED : Macaulay: Lays of Ancient Rome
M : New York Philharmonic Society founded
RP : Martin Tupper: Proverbial Philosophy, second series
ST : Doppler publishes On the Colored Light of the Binary Stars (Doppler Effect)
ST : Joseph Henry's discovery of the oscillatory character of electrical discharge
ST : Ether first used to produce surgical anaesthesia
ST : Julius Robert von Mayer (German physicist) publishes On the Forces of the Inanimate Nature (beginnings of thermodynamics)
M : The polka, a lively dance of Czech origin, comes into fashion
DL : Queen Victoria makes her first railroad journey, Windsor to Paddington, London
M : Jules Massenet born 12 May
M : Arthur Sullivan born 13 May


PH : Military revolt in Spain drives General Espartero from power: Isabella II declared of age and Queen of Spain
PH : Maori revolts against Britain in New Zealand
PH : Serbian Skupstina summons Prince Alexander Karageorgevich to the throne
LT : D.D. Emmett produces the first minstrel show
ED : William H. Prescott: History of the Conquest of Mexico
RP : George Borrow: The Bible in Spain
RP : Thomas Carlyle: Past and Present
RP : John Stuart Mill: Logic
ED : British Archaeological Association and Royal Archaeological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland founded
ST : Oliver Wendell Homes: The Contagiousness of Puerperal Fever
ST : Alexander von Humboldt: Asie centrale
ST : James Prescott Joule determines the amount of work required to produce a unit of heat
ST : Metallic element erbium discovered
DL : American social reformer Dorothea Dix reveals in a report to the Mass. legislature the shocking conditions in prisons and asylums
DL : Guy's Hospital Football Club founded in London
DL : S.S. "Great Britain", first propeller-driven ship to cross the Atlantic
DL : Congress grants S.F.B. Morse $30,000 to build first telegraph line (Washington to Baltimore)
DL : Worlds' first night club, "Le Bal des Anglais", opens in Paris
DL : Beginning of skiing as sport (Norway)


DL : First painted Christmas card appears


M : Edvard Grieg born 15 June


LT : Elizabeth Barret Browning: publishes a two-volume edition of Poems
M : Franz von Suppé : Overture, Morning, Noon and Night in Vienna
M : Felix Mendelssohn : Violin Concerto
M : Frederic Chopin : Piano Sonata No.3
M : Hector Berlioz : Overture, Roman Carnival (from Benvenuto Cellini)
VA : Joseph Mallord William Turner : Rain, Steam and Speed
The Great Western Railway
PH : Charles XIV, King of Sweden and Norway since 1818 dies; succeeded by his son as Oscar I
RP : Emerson: Essays, second series
ED : Bishop Nikolais Grundtvig founds the first institute for adult education
ST : Hermann Günther Grassmann: Die Ausdehnungslehre (Calculus of extension)
DL : First public bath and wash houses opened in Liverpool, England
DL : Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers founded
DL : German humorous weekly paper Fliegende Blätter
DL : Wood-pulp paper invented by Friedrich Gottlob Keller
PH : Treaty of Tangier ends French war in Morocco
PH : Revolts of the weavers in Silesia
PH : China and the U.S. sign first treaty of peace, amity, and commerce
ST : A.W. Kinglake: Eothen
DL : Young Men's Christian Association founded in England
M : Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov born 18 March
VA : Henri Rousseau born in Laval, France`
VA : Mary Cassatt born 22 May


LT : Robert Browning: of Dramatic Romances and Lyrics
M : Richard Wagner : Opera, Tannhäuser
M : Robert Schumann : Piano Concerto in A-minor
M : Robert Schumann : Symphony No.2
M : Felix Mendelssohn : 'Spring Song' and 'Bee's Wedding' from 'Songs Without Words'
M : Mikhail Glinka : Capriccio brillante (First Spanish Overture)
M : Frederic Chopin : Cello Sonata
PH : James K. Polk inaugurated as President of the U.S.    GO !
PH : Anglo-Sikh War begins
PH : Swiss Sonderbund for the protection of Catholic cantons formed
ED : Thomas Carlyle: Oliver Cromwell's Letters and Speeches
RP : Friedrich Engels: The Condition of the Working Class in London
ED : Sir Austen Layard begins excavations in Nineveh
RP : Max Stirner: Der Einzige und sein Eigentum (egocentric anarchistic philosophy)
VA : First artistic photo portraits by David Octavius Hill
ST : Hydraulic craned patented
ST : Power loom for manufacturing carpets is constructed
ST : Arthur Cayler: Theory of Linear Transformations
ST : First submarine cable laid across English channel
ST : Machine for combing cotton and wool patented
ST : Acetic acid synthesised
ST : Compound steam engine developed
DL : Knickerbocker Baseball Club codifies rules of baseball
M : Gabriel Urbain Fauré born 12 May
VA : Walter Crane born


VA : Camille Corot : Forest of Fontainebleau
M : Franz von Suppé : Overture, Poet and Peasant
M : Felix Mendelssohn : Oratorio, Elijah
M : Franz Liszt : Hungarian Rhapsodies for piano
M : Frederic Chopin : Barcarolle
M : Hector Berlioz : Dramatic cantata, The Damnation of Faust
M : Clara Wieck Schumann : Cadenzas for Beethoven's C minor and G major concerti
VA : Joseph Mallord William Turner : Angel Standing in a Storm
PH : Treaty of Lahore ends First Sikh War
PH : Revolts break out in Poland
PH : Louis Napoleon escapes from the fortress of Ham to London
RP : Evangelical Alliance founded, London
RP : Pope Gregory XVI dies; succeeded by Cardinal Mastai-Rerretti as Pope Pius IX
RP : Friedrich Vischer: Aesthetics
RP : Theodor Waitz: Foundation of Psychology
RP : William Whewell: Elements of Morality
RP : Brigham Young leads the Mormons to the Great Salt Lake, Utah
DL : Electric arc lighting at the Opéra, Paris
ST : F.G.J. Henle: Manual of Rational Pathology
ST : Ether first used as an anaesthetic in dentistry
ST : Nitroglycerine first prepared
DL : Famine in Ireland caused by failure of potato crop
ED : Smithsonian Institution, Washington, founded
PH : 13 May - U.S. declares war against Mexico    GO !


LT : Alfred, Lord Tennyson: The Princess
LT : Dante Gabriel Rossetti: The Blessed Damozel
M : Giuseppe Verdi : Opera, Macbeth (later revised)
PH : Liberia proclaimed independent republic
PH : Sonderbund War in Switzerland; Catholic cantons refuse to dissolve union
ED : W.H. Prescott: History of the Conquest of Peru
ED : Louius Blanc: History of the Revolution
RP : Karl Marx attacks Proudhon's Philosophy of Poverty in The Poverty of Philosophy
RP : The Mormons found Salt Lake City
RP : Leopold von Ranke: Neun Bücher preussicher Geschichte
ST : George Bool: Mathematical Analysis of Logic
ST : Evaporated milk made for the first time
DL : First Swiss railroad between Baden and Zurich opens
ST : Helmholtz: On the Conservation of Energy
ST : I.T. Semmelweis, Hungarian physician, discovers connection between childbed fever and puerperal infection
DL : British Factory Act restricts the working day for women and children (between 13 and 18) to 10 hours
DL : First Roman Catholic working men's club, Cologne, Germany
DL : Gold discoveries in California lead to first gold rush
M : Felix Mendelssohn dies 4 November


VA : Sir John Everett Millais : Isabella
M : Richard Wagner : Opera, Lohengrin
M : Franz Liszt : Trois études de concert (including 'Un Sospiro')
M : Franz Liszt : Symphonic Poem, Les Préludes
M : Franz Liszt : Années de Pèlerinage (Years of Pilgrimage) for piano, Book I
M : Mikhail Glinka : Overture, Kamarinskaya
PH : King Christian VIII of Denmark dies; succeeded by Frederick III
PH : Revolt in Paris; Louis Philippe abdicates, Louis Napoleon elected President of French Republic in December
PH : Revolutions in Venice, Berlin, Milan and Parma
PH : Second Sikh War begins
PH : Sardinia declares war on Austria
PH : Revolutions in Vienna, the emperor abdicates in favour of his nephew who becomes Emperor Francis Joseph I
PH : Nasr-ed-Din becomes Shah of Persia
PH : Switzerland, by its new constitution, becomes a federal union
PH : Ibrahim, Viceroy of Egypt, dies; succeeded by Abbas
PH : Revolt in Rome; Pius IX flees to Gaeta
ED : Jakob Grimm: History of the German Language
ED : Macaulay: History of England
RP : Communist Manifesto issued by Marx and Engels
RP : Spiritualism becomes popular in U.S.
DL : Böttger: first safety matches
ST : First appendectomy by Hancock
DL : Serfdom abolished in Austria
RP : Bismarck founds the Neue Preussische Zeitung, Marx the Neue Rheinische Zeitung
DL : First Public Health Act in Britain
DL : First settlers arrive in New Zealand
DL : New York News Agency founded (will become Associated Press in 1856)
DL : Sebastian Kneipp introduces cold-water cures as Worrishofen, Germany
PH : 2 February - Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ends Mexican-U.S. war    GO !
M : Sir Charles Hubert Hastings Parry born 27 February
M : Gaetano Domenico Maria Donizetti dies 8 April
VA : Eugène Henri Paul Gauguin born 7 June
VA : Gustave Caillebotte born 19 August


LT : Mathew Arnold: The Strayed Reveller and other Poems
VA : Gustave Courbet : Stonebreakers
M : Robert Schumann : Incidental music to Byron's verse-drama Manfred
M : Franz Liszt : Années de Pèlerinage Book II
M : Franz Liszt : Totentanz, (Dance of Death), for piano and orchestra
M : Franz Liszt : Piano Concertos No.1 and No.2
PH : Rome proclaimed a republic under Guiseppe Mazzini
PH : Charles Albert of Sardinia abdicates in favour of his son Victor Emmanuel II
PH : Peace of Milan ends war
PH : Zachary Taylor inaugurated as President of the U.S.    GO !
PH : German National Assembly passes constitution; elects King Frederick William IV of Prussia "Emperor of the Germans"; he refuses to accept
PH : Hungarian Diet proclaims independence
PH : Revolts in Dresden and Baden
RP : French enter Rome and restore Pope Pius IX
ED : J.M. Kemble: History of the Saxons in England
ED : Who's Who begins publication
ST : Fizeau measures speed of light
ST : Amyl isolated
ED : Bedford College for Women, London, founded
DL : Amelia Bloomer begins American women's dress reform
VA : John William Waterhouse born 6 April
M : Frederic Chopin dies 17 October


LT : William Wordsworth: The Prelude
LT : Alfred, Lord Tennyson: In Memoriam
LT : William Cullen Bryant: The Letters of a Traveller
LT : Elizabeth Barret Browning: Sonnets from the Portuguese
LT : Robert Browning: Christmas Eve and Easter Day
VA : Camille Corot : Morning,
the Dance of the Nymphs
M : Robert Schumann : Symphony No.3, 'Rhenish'
M : Franz Liszt : Liebersträume (Dreams of Love), for piano
M : Franz Liszt : Consolations for piano
M : Adolphe Adam : Opera, Giralda
M : Hector Berlioz : Te Deum
VA : William Holman Hunt : Claudio and Isabella
VA : William Holman Hunt : A Converted British Family
Sheltering a Christian Missionary
from the Persecution of the Druids
PH : Outbreak of Anglo-Kaffir War
PH : Prussia and Denmark sign Peace of Berlin on Schleswig-Holstein
PH : U.S. President Zachary Taylor dies; Millard Fillmore becomes 13th president    GO !
PH : Taiping rebellion in China; Hung Hiu-tseun proclaims himself emperor
RP : Church council to manage Protestant churches in Prussia
ED : Public Libraries Act in Britain
RP : Schopenhauer: Parerga und Paralipomena
RP : Herbert Spencer: Social Statics, beginnings of sociology
M : Foundation of Bach-Gesellschaft to publish the complete works of J.S. Bach
ST : R.W. Bunsen produces gas burner
ST : Rudolf Clausius formulates second law of thermodynamics, and kinetic theory of gases
ST : The speed of nervous impulse established
ST : Pafnut Chebyshev: On Primary Numbers
DL : Old age insurance in France
ST : Royal Meteorological Society founded
ED : School of Mines, London (to becomes College of Science and Technology), founded
ED : University of Sydney, Australia, established
LT : William Wordsworth dies 23 April


VA : Sir John Everett Millais : Ophelia
LT : Elizabeth Barret Browning: Casa Guidi Windows
VA : Charles-François Daubigny : Harvest
M : Giuseppe Verdi : Opera, Rigoletto
M : Franz Liszt : Symphonic Poem, Mazeppa
M : Franz Liszt : Transcendental Studies for piano
M : Mikhail Glinka : Souvenir d'une nuit d'été à Madrid (Second Spanish Overture)
M : Anton Grigoryevich Rubinstein : Symphony No.2, Ocean
VA : Sir John Everett Millais : Mariana
PH : Cuba declares its independence
PH : Beginning of Basuto War
PH : Coup d'état of Louis Napoleon; plebiscite in France favours new constitution
PH : Danilo II converts Montenegro into a secular principality
RP : Vincenzo Gioberti: Il Rinnovamento civile d'Italia
ST : Franz Neumann: law of electromagnetic induction
ST : Isaac Singer devises the continuous stitch sewing machine
RP : Mary Carpenter: Reformatory Schools...for Juvenile Offenders
DL : First double-decker bus introduced
DL : The New York Times appears
DL : Maine and Illinois begins to enforce prohibition against liquor
VA : Joseph Mallord William Turner dies 19 December


LT : William Cullen Bryant: The Fountain, and other Poems
LT : Mathew Arnold: Empedocles on Etna, and Other Poems
M : Louis Moreau Gottschalk : El Sitio Zaragoza
M : Giuseppe Verdi : Opera, Il Trovatore ('The Troubadour')
M : Adolphe Adam : Opera, Si j'étais roi ('If I Were King')
M : Johannes Brahms : Piano Sonatas No.1 and No.2
M : Anton Grigoryevich Rubinstein : Opera, Thomas the Fool
VA : Arthur Hughes : Ophelia
VA : Sir John Everett Millais : A Huguenot on St Bartolomew's Day
VA : William Holman Hunt : On English Coasts
PH : South African Republic (Transvaal) established
PH : New French constitution gives president monarchical powers, Louis Napoleon proclaims himself Emperor Napoleon III
PH : Outbreak of Second Burmese War
RP : The Convocation of the Church of England revived
ST : Delisle begins the study of modern paleography
RP : First Plenary Council of American Roman Catholics held in Baltimore
ED : Rank: History of France
ST : C.F. Gerhardt: New Theory of Organic Compounds
ST : David Livingstone explores Zambezi
ST : Dutch army surgeon Mathysen impregnates bandages with plaster
ST : Herbert Spencer: The Development Hypothesis (first use of the word "evolution")
ST : James Sylvester: Calculus of Forms
DL : The U.S. imports sparrows from Germany as defence against caterpillars
DL : First Congress of Co-operative Societies meets in London
DL : Formation of United All-English Cricket Eleven
VA : Edwin Austin Abbey born


VA : Lord Frederic Leighton : The Reconciliation
VA : Edmund Blair Leighton born
VA : Sir Frank Bernard Dicksee born
LT : Mathew Arnold: Poems with the famous "preface" (Arnold's first important critical essay)
M : Giuseppe Verdi : Opera, La Traviata ('The Woman Gone Astray')
M : Robert Schumann : Scenes from Goethe's Faust, for chorus and orchestra
M : Franz Liszt : Piano Sonata in B-minor
VA : William Holman Hunt : The Awakening Conscience
PH : Peace between Britain and Burma
PH : Crimean War begins
PH : Maria II of Portugal dies; succeeded by her son Pedro V
RP : Johann Herzog: Encyclopaedia of Protestant Theology
ED : Mommsen: History of Rome
RP : Hippolyte Taine: Essai sur les fables de La Fontaine
M : Henry Steinway and his three sons begins the New York firm of piano manufacturers
ED : Melbourne University founded
ST : Alexander Wood uses hypodermic syringe for subcutaneous injections
ST : Queen Victoria allows choloroform to be administered to her during the birth of her seventh child, thus ensuring its place as an anaesthetic in Britain
DL : Telegraph system established in India
DL : Vaccination against smallpox made compulsory in Britain
VA : Howard Pyle born
VA : Vincent van Gogh born 30 March


M : Richard Wagner : Opera, Das Rheingold
M : Franz Liszt : Symphonic Poem, Orpheus
M : Hector Berlioz : Oratorio, The Childhood of Christ
VA : Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres : Joan of Arc
VA : William Holman Hunt : The Scapegoat
PH : Convention of Bloemfontein
PH : Britain and France conclude alliance with Turkey and declare war on Russia
PH : "War for Bleeding Kansas" between free and slave states in U.S.    GO !
PH : Elgin Treaty between Britain and U.S. on Canadian trade
RP : George Boole: An Investigation of the Laws of Thought, on Which are Founded the Mathematical Theories of Logic and Probabilities
RP : Jewish seminary established at Breslau
DL : Juvenile Offenders Act in Great Britain
RP : Pope Pius IX declares the dogma of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary to be an article of faith
ST : Christian Ehrenberg: Microgeology
ST : Laryngoscope invented
ST : First form of lightbulb developed
ST : Georg Riemann: On the Hypotheses Forming the Foundation of Geometry
ED : University College, Dublin, founded
DL : Northcote-Trevelyan report leads to British Civil Service Commission
ED : Working Men's College, London, founded
PH : Abbas I, Viceroy of Egypt assassinated; succeeded by Mohammed Said
M : Leoš Janácek born 3 July
M : John Phillip Sousa born 6 November


VA : Arthur Hughes : April Love
VA : Sir John Everett Millais : Autumn Leaves
LT : Walt Whitman: Leaves of Grass
LT : Alfred, Lord Tennyson: Maud
LT : Robert Browning: Men and Women
LT : Mathew Arnold: Poems, Second Series
VA : Gustave Courbet : The Painter's Studio
M : Jacques Offenbach : Operetta, Les Deux aveugles ('The Two Blind Men')
M : Georges Bizet : Symphony in C
PH : Czar Nicholas I of Russia dies; succeeded by Alexander II
PH : Britain and Afghanistan join against Persia in Treaty of Peshawar
PH : Taiping Rebellion ends
RP : Henry Milman: History of Latin Christianity
RP : Herbert Spencer: Principles of Psychology
DL : George Audemars patents rayon production
ED : Professorship of technology created at Edinburgh University
ST : Printing telegraph invented
ST : Tungsten steel developed
ST : Mathew Maury: Physical Geography of the Sea
DL : First iron Cunard steamer crosses Atlantic
DL : Founding of The Daily Telegraph, London
DL : London sewers modernised after outbreak of cholera
ST : Florence Nightingale introduces hygienic standards into military hospitals during Crimean War


VA : Arthur Hughes : Home from the Sea
VA : Lord Frederic Leighton : The Fisherman and the Siren
M : Richard Wagner : Opera, Die Walküre ('The Valkyrie')
M : Franz Liszt : Dante Symphony
M : Mikhail Glinka : Valse-fantaisie, ('Fantasy Waltz') for orchestra
M : Adolphe Adam : Ballet, Le Corsaire
M : Georges Bizet : Operetta, Le Docteur Miracle
VA : Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres : The Source
DL : Queen Victoria institutes the Victoria Cross
PH : Reform edict in Turkish Empire; peace conference in Paris recognises integrity of Turkey
PH : Anglo-Chin. war begins
PH : Brit.-Persian war begins
ED : J.A. Foude: History of England from the Fall of Wolsey to the Deafeat of the Armada
ED : Theodor Goldstücker: Sanskrit Dictionary
RP : Rudolf Lotze: Mikrokosmos
RP : Hippolyte Taine: Les Philosophes classiques du XIXe siècle en France
ED : Alexis de Tocqueville: L'Ancien régime et la révolution
ST : Pure cocaine extracted from cocoa beans
ED : Neanderthal skull found in Feldhofer Cave near Düsseldorf
DL : "Big Ben" cast at Whitechapel Bell Foundry
VA : John Singer Sargent born
M : Heinrich Heine dies 17 February
M : Adolphe Adam dies 3 May
M : Robert Schumann dies 29 July

Terms Defined

Referenced Works