HumanitiesWeb.org - Henri Rousseau [Chronology] [Chronology]
HumanitiesWeb HumanitiesWeb
WelcomeHistoryLiteratureArtMusicPhilosophyResourcesHelp
Periods Alphabetically Nationality Topics Themes Medium Glossary
pixel

Rousseau
Index
Biography
Selected Works
Suggested Reading
Other Resources
Chronology
Related Materials

Search

Get Your Degree!

Find schools and get information on the program that’s right for you.

Powered by Campus Explorer

& etc
FEEDBACK

(C)1998-2012
All Rights Reserved.

Site last updated
28 October, 2012
Real Time Analytics

Henri Rousseau
(1844 - 1910)

1846

DL : First painted Christmas card appears

1844

LT : Elizabeth Barret Browning: publishes a two-volume edition of Poems
M : Franz von Suppé : Overture, Morning, Noon and Night in Vienna
M : Felix Mendelssohn : Violin Concerto
M : Frederic Chopin : Piano Sonata No.3
M : Hector Berlioz : Overture, Roman Carnival (from Benvenuto Cellini)
VA : Joseph Mallord William Turner : Rain, Steam and Speed
The Great Western Railway
PH : Charles XIV, King of Sweden and Norway since 1818 dies; succeeded by his son as Oscar I
RP : Emerson: Essays, second series
ED : Bishop Nikolais Grundtvig founds the first institute for adult education
ST : Hermann Günther Grassmann: Die Ausdehnungslehre (Calculus of extension)
DL : First public bath and wash houses opened in Liverpool, England
DL : Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers founded
DL : German humorous weekly paper Fliegende Blätter
DL : Wood-pulp paper invented by Friedrich Gottlob Keller
PH : Treaty of Tangier ends French war in Morocco
PH : Revolts of the weavers in Silesia
PH : China and the U.S. sign first treaty of peace, amity, and commerce
ST : A.W. Kinglake: Eothen
DL : Young Men's Christian Association founded in England
M : Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov born 18 March
VA : Henri Rousseau born in Laval, France`
VA : Mary Cassatt born 22 May

1845

LT : Robert Browning: of Dramatic Romances and Lyrics
M : Richard Wagner : Opera, Tannhäuser
M : Robert Schumann : Piano Concerto in A-minor
M : Robert Schumann : Symphony No.2
M : Felix Mendelssohn : 'Spring Song' and 'Bee's Wedding' from 'Songs Without Words'
M : Mikhail Glinka : Capriccio brillante (First Spanish Overture)
M : Frederic Chopin : Cello Sonata
PH : James K. Polk inaugurated as President of the U.S.    GO !
PH : Anglo-Sikh War begins
PH : Swiss Sonderbund for the protection of Catholic cantons formed
ED : Thomas Carlyle: Oliver Cromwell's Letters and Speeches
RP : Friedrich Engels: The Condition of the Working Class in London
ED : Sir Austen Layard begins excavations in Nineveh
RP : Max Stirner: Der Einzige und sein Eigentum (egocentric anarchistic philosophy)
VA : First artistic photo portraits by David Octavius Hill
ST : Hydraulic craned patented
ST : Power loom for manufacturing carpets is constructed
ST : Arthur Cayler: Theory of Linear Transformations
ST : First submarine cable laid across English channel
ST : Machine for combing cotton and wool patented
ST : Acetic acid synthesised
ST : Compound steam engine developed
DL : Knickerbocker Baseball Club codifies rules of baseball
M : Gabriel Urbain Fauré born 12 May
VA : Walter Crane born

1846

VA : Camille Corot : Forest of Fontainebleau
M : Franz von Suppé : Overture, Poet and Peasant
M : Felix Mendelssohn : Oratorio, Elijah
M : Franz Liszt : Hungarian Rhapsodies for piano
M : Frederic Chopin : Barcarolle
M : Hector Berlioz : Dramatic cantata, The Damnation of Faust
M : Clara Wieck Schumann : Cadenzas for Beethoven's C minor and G major concerti
VA : Joseph Mallord William Turner : Angel Standing in a Storm
PH : Treaty of Lahore ends First Sikh War
PH : Revolts break out in Poland
PH : Louis Napoleon escapes from the fortress of Ham to London
RP : Evangelical Alliance founded, London
RP : Pope Gregory XVI dies; succeeded by Cardinal Mastai-Rerretti as Pope Pius IX
RP : Friedrich Vischer: Aesthetics
RP : Theodor Waitz: Foundation of Psychology
RP : William Whewell: Elements of Morality
RP : Brigham Young leads the Mormons to the Great Salt Lake, Utah
DL : Electric arc lighting at the Opéra, Paris
ST : F.G.J. Henle: Manual of Rational Pathology
ST : Ether first used as an anaesthetic in dentistry
ST : Nitroglycerine first prepared
DL : Famine in Ireland caused by failure of potato crop
ED : Smithsonian Institution, Washington, founded
PH : 13 May - U.S. declares war against Mexico    GO !

1847

LT : Alfred, Lord Tennyson: The Princess
LT : Dante Gabriel Rossetti: The Blessed Damozel
M : Giuseppe Verdi : Opera, Macbeth (later revised)
PH : Liberia proclaimed independent republic
PH : Sonderbund War in Switzerland; Catholic cantons refuse to dissolve union
ED : W.H. Prescott: History of the Conquest of Peru
ED : Louius Blanc: History of the Revolution
RP : Karl Marx attacks Proudhon's Philosophy of Poverty in The Poverty of Philosophy
RP : The Mormons found Salt Lake City
RP : Leopold von Ranke: Neun Bücher preussicher Geschichte
ST : George Bool: Mathematical Analysis of Logic
ST : Evaporated milk made for the first time
DL : First Swiss railroad between Baden and Zurich opens
ST : Helmholtz: On the Conservation of Energy
ST : I.T. Semmelweis, Hungarian physician, discovers connection between childbed fever and puerperal infection
DL : British Factory Act restricts the working day for women and children (between 13 and 18) to 10 hours
DL : First Roman Catholic working men's club, Cologne, Germany
DL : Gold discoveries in California lead to first gold rush
M : Felix Mendelssohn dies 4 November

1848

VA : Sir John Everett Millais : Isabella
M : Richard Wagner : Opera, Lohengrin
M : Franz Liszt : Trois études de concert (including 'Un Sospiro')
M : Franz Liszt : Symphonic Poem, Les Préludes
M : Franz Liszt : Années de Pèlerinage (Years of Pilgrimage) for piano, Book I
M : Mikhail Glinka : Overture, Kamarinskaya
PH : King Christian VIII of Denmark dies; succeeded by Frederick III
PH : Revolt in Paris; Louis Philippe abdicates, Louis Napoleon elected President of French Republic in December
PH : Revolutions in Venice, Berlin, Milan and Parma
PH : Second Sikh War begins
PH : Sardinia declares war on Austria
PH : Revolutions in Vienna, the emperor abdicates in favour of his nephew who becomes Emperor Francis Joseph I
PH : Nasr-ed-Din becomes Shah of Persia
PH : Switzerland, by its new constitution, becomes a federal union
PH : Ibrahim, Viceroy of Egypt, dies; succeeded by Abbas
PH : Revolt in Rome; Pius IX flees to Gaeta
ED : Jakob Grimm: History of the German Language
ED : Macaulay: History of England
RP : Communist Manifesto issued by Marx and Engels
RP : Spiritualism becomes popular in U.S.
DL : Böttger: first safety matches
ST : First appendectomy by Hancock
DL : Serfdom abolished in Austria
RP : Bismarck founds the Neue Preussische Zeitung, Marx the Neue Rheinische Zeitung
DL : First Public Health Act in Britain
DL : First settlers arrive in New Zealand
DL : New York News Agency founded (will become Associated Press in 1856)
DL : Sebastian Kneipp introduces cold-water cures as Worrishofen, Germany
PH : 2 February - Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ends Mexican-U.S. war    GO !
M : Sir Charles Hubert Hastings Parry born 27 February
M : Gaetano Domenico Maria Donizetti dies 8 April
VA : Eugène Henri Paul Gauguin born 7 June
VA : Gustave Caillebotte born 19 August

1849

LT : Mathew Arnold: The Strayed Reveller and other Poems
VA : Gustave Courbet : Stonebreakers
M : Robert Schumann : Incidental music to Byron's verse-drama Manfred
M : Franz Liszt : Années de Pèlerinage Book II
M : Franz Liszt : Totentanz, (Dance of Death), for piano and orchestra
M : Franz Liszt : Piano Concertos No.1 and No.2
PH : Rome proclaimed a republic under Guiseppe Mazzini
PH : Charles Albert of Sardinia abdicates in favour of his son Victor Emmanuel II
PH : Peace of Milan ends war
PH : Zachary Taylor inaugurated as President of the U.S.    GO !
PH : German National Assembly passes constitution; elects King Frederick William IV of Prussia "Emperor of the Germans"; he refuses to accept
PH : Hungarian Diet proclaims independence
PH : Revolts in Dresden and Baden
RP : French enter Rome and restore Pope Pius IX
ED : J.M. Kemble: History of the Saxons in England
ED : Who's Who begins publication
ST : Fizeau measures speed of light
ST : Amyl isolated
ED : Bedford College for Women, London, founded
DL : Amelia Bloomer begins American women's dress reform
VA : John William Waterhouse born 6 April
M : Frederic Chopin dies 17 October

1850

LT : William Wordsworth: The Prelude
LT : Alfred, Lord Tennyson: In Memoriam
LT : William Cullen Bryant: The Letters of a Traveller
LT : Elizabeth Barret Browning: Sonnets from the Portuguese
LT : Robert Browning: Christmas Eve and Easter Day
VA : Camille Corot : Morning,
the Dance of the Nymphs
M : Robert Schumann : Symphony No.3, 'Rhenish'
M : Franz Liszt : Liebersträume (Dreams of Love), for piano
M : Franz Liszt : Consolations for piano
M : Adolphe Adam : Opera, Giralda
M : Hector Berlioz : Te Deum
VA : William Holman Hunt : Claudio and Isabella
VA : William Holman Hunt : A Converted British Family
Sheltering a Christian Missionary
from the Persecution of the Druids
PH : Outbreak of Anglo-Kaffir War
PH : Prussia and Denmark sign Peace of Berlin on Schleswig-Holstein
PH : U.S. President Zachary Taylor dies; Millard Fillmore becomes 13th president    GO !
PH : Taiping rebellion in China; Hung Hiu-tseun proclaims himself emperor
RP : Church council to manage Protestant churches in Prussia
ED : Public Libraries Act in Britain
RP : Schopenhauer: Parerga und Paralipomena
RP : Herbert Spencer: Social Statics, beginnings of sociology
M : Foundation of Bach-Gesellschaft to publish the complete works of J.S. Bach
ST : R.W. Bunsen produces gas burner
ST : Rudolf Clausius formulates second law of thermodynamics, and kinetic theory of gases
ST : The speed of nervous impulse established
ST : Pafnut Chebyshev: On Primary Numbers
DL : Old age insurance in France
ST : Royal Meteorological Society founded
ED : School of Mines, London (to becomes College of Science and Technology), founded
ED : University of Sydney, Australia, established
LT : William Wordsworth dies 23 April

1851

VA : Sir John Everett Millais : Ophelia
LT : Elizabeth Barret Browning: Casa Guidi Windows
VA : Charles-François Daubigny : Harvest
M : Giuseppe Verdi : Opera, Rigoletto
M : Franz Liszt : Symphonic Poem, Mazeppa
M : Franz Liszt : Transcendental Studies for piano
M : Mikhail Glinka : Souvenir d'une nuit d'été à Madrid (Second Spanish Overture)
M : Anton Grigoryevich Rubinstein : Symphony No.2, Ocean
VA : Sir John Everett Millais : Mariana
PH : Cuba declares its independence
PH : Beginning of Basuto War
PH : Coup d'état of Louis Napoleon; plebiscite in France favours new constitution
PH : Danilo II converts Montenegro into a secular principality
RP : Vincenzo Gioberti: Il Rinnovamento civile d'Italia
ST : Franz Neumann: law of electromagnetic induction
ST : Isaac Singer devises the continuous stitch sewing machine
RP : Mary Carpenter: Reformatory Schools...for Juvenile Offenders
DL : First double-decker bus introduced
DL : The New York Times appears
DL : Maine and Illinois begins to enforce prohibition against liquor
VA : Joseph Mallord William Turner dies 19 December

1852

LT : William Cullen Bryant: The Fountain, and other Poems
LT : Mathew Arnold: Empedocles on Etna, and Other Poems
M : Louis Moreau Gottschalk : El Sitio Zaragoza
M : Giuseppe Verdi : Opera, Il Trovatore ('The Troubadour')
M : Adolphe Adam : Opera, Si j'étais roi ('If I Were King')
M : Johannes Brahms : Piano Sonatas No.1 and No.2
M : Anton Grigoryevich Rubinstein : Opera, Thomas the Fool
VA : Arthur Hughes : Ophelia
VA : Sir John Everett Millais : A Huguenot on St Bartolomew's Day
VA : William Holman Hunt : On English Coasts
PH : South African Republic (Transvaal) established
PH : New French constitution gives president monarchical powers, Louis Napoleon proclaims himself Emperor Napoleon III
PH : Outbreak of Second Burmese War
RP : The Convocation of the Church of England revived
ST : Delisle begins the study of modern paleography
RP : First Plenary Council of American Roman Catholics held in Baltimore
ED : Rank: History of France
ST : C.F. Gerhardt: New Theory of Organic Compounds
ST : David Livingstone explores Zambezi
ST : Dutch army surgeon Mathysen impregnates bandages with plaster
ST : Herbert Spencer: The Development Hypothesis (first use of the word "evolution")
ST : James Sylvester: Calculus of Forms
DL : The U.S. imports sparrows from Germany as defence against caterpillars
DL : First Congress of Co-operative Societies meets in London
DL : Formation of United All-English Cricket Eleven
VA : Edwin Austin Abbey born

1853

VA : Lord Frederic Leighton : The Reconciliation
VA : Edmund Blair Leighton born
VA : Sir Frank Bernard Dicksee born
LT : Mathew Arnold: Poems with the famous "preface" (Arnold's first important critical essay)
M : Giuseppe Verdi : Opera, La Traviata ('The Woman Gone Astray')
M : Robert Schumann : Scenes from Goethe's Faust, for chorus and orchestra
M : Franz Liszt : Piano Sonata in B-minor
VA : William Holman Hunt : The Awakening Conscience
PH : Peace between Britain and Burma
PH : Crimean War begins
PH : Maria II of Portugal dies; succeeded by her son Pedro V
RP : Johann Herzog: Encyclopaedia of Protestant Theology
ED : Mommsen: History of Rome
RP : Hippolyte Taine: Essai sur les fables de La Fontaine
M : Henry Steinway and his three sons begins the New York firm of piano manufacturers
ED : Melbourne University founded
ST : Alexander Wood uses hypodermic syringe for subcutaneous injections
ST : Queen Victoria allows choloroform to be administered to her during the birth of her seventh child, thus ensuring its place as an anaesthetic in Britain
DL : Telegraph system established in India
DL : Vaccination against smallpox made compulsory in Britain
VA : Howard Pyle born
VA : Vincent van Gogh born 30 March

1854

M : Richard Wagner : Opera, Das Rheingold
M : Franz Liszt : Symphonic Poem, Orpheus
M : Hector Berlioz : Oratorio, The Childhood of Christ
VA : Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres : Joan of Arc
VA : William Holman Hunt : The Scapegoat
PH : Convention of Bloemfontein
PH : Britain and France conclude alliance with Turkey and declare war on Russia
PH : "War for Bleeding Kansas" between free and slave states in U.S.    GO !
PH : Elgin Treaty between Britain and U.S. on Canadian trade
RP : George Boole: An Investigation of the Laws of Thought, on Which are Founded the Mathematical Theories of Logic and Probabilities
RP : Jewish seminary established at Breslau
DL : Juvenile Offenders Act in Great Britain
RP : Pope Pius IX declares the dogma of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary to be an article of faith
ST : Christian Ehrenberg: Microgeology
ST : Laryngoscope invented
ST : First form of lightbulb developed
ST : Georg Riemann: On the Hypotheses Forming the Foundation of Geometry
ED : University College, Dublin, founded
DL : Northcote-Trevelyan report leads to British Civil Service Commission
ED : Working Men's College, London, founded
PH : Abbas I, Viceroy of Egypt assassinated; succeeded by Mohammed Said
M : Leoš Janácek born 3 July
M : John Phillip Sousa born 6 November

1855

VA : Arthur Hughes : April Love
VA : Sir John Everett Millais : Autumn Leaves
LT : Walt Whitman: Leaves of Grass
LT : Alfred, Lord Tennyson: Maud
LT : Robert Browning: Men and Women
LT : Mathew Arnold: Poems, Second Series
VA : Gustave Courbet : The Painter's Studio
M : Jacques Offenbach : Operetta, Les Deux aveugles ('The Two Blind Men')
M : Georges Bizet : Symphony in C
PH : Czar Nicholas I of Russia dies; succeeded by Alexander II
PH : Britain and Afghanistan join against Persia in Treaty of Peshawar
PH : Taiping Rebellion ends
RP : Henry Milman: History of Latin Christianity
RP : Herbert Spencer: Principles of Psychology
DL : George Audemars patents rayon production
ED : Professorship of technology created at Edinburgh University
ST : Printing telegraph invented
ST : Tungsten steel developed
ST : Mathew Maury: Physical Geography of the Sea
DL : First iron Cunard steamer crosses Atlantic
DL : Founding of The Daily Telegraph, London
DL : London sewers modernised after outbreak of cholera
ST : Florence Nightingale introduces hygienic standards into military hospitals during Crimean War

1856

VA : Arthur Hughes : Home from the Sea
VA : Lord Frederic Leighton : The Fisherman and the Siren
M : Richard Wagner : Opera, Die Walküre ('The Valkyrie')
M : Franz Liszt : Dante Symphony
M : Mikhail Glinka : Valse-fantaisie, ('Fantasy Waltz') for orchestra
M : Adolphe Adam : Ballet, Le Corsaire
M : Georges Bizet : Operetta, Le Docteur Miracle
VA : Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres : The Source
DL : Queen Victoria institutes the Victoria Cross
PH : Reform edict in Turkish Empire; peace conference in Paris recognises integrity of Turkey
PH : Anglo-Chin. war begins
PH : Brit.-Persian war begins
ED : J.A. Foude: History of England from the Fall of Wolsey to the Deafeat of the Armada
ED : Theodor Goldstücker: Sanskrit Dictionary
RP : Rudolf Lotze: Mikrokosmos
RP : Hippolyte Taine: Les Philosophes classiques du XIXe siècle en France
ED : Alexis de Tocqueville: L'Ancien régime et la révolution
ST : Pure cocaine extracted from cocoa beans
ED : Neanderthal skull found in Feldhofer Cave near Düsseldorf
DL : "Big Ben" cast at Whitechapel Bell Foundry
VA : John Singer Sargent born
M : Heinrich Heine dies 17 February
M : Adolphe Adam dies 3 May
M : Robert Schumann dies 29 July

1857

LT : Elizabeth Barret Browning: Aurora Leigh
M : Giuseppe Verdi : Opera, Simon Boccanegra (later revised)
M : Franz Liszt : Faust Symphony
PH : Peace of Paris ends Anglo-Persian war
PH : Indian Mutiny against British rule
PH : Garibaldi forms Italian National Association for unification of the country
PH : Irish Republican Brotherhood (Fenians) founded
ED : Henry T. Buckle: History of Civilisation in England
RP : Ernest Renan: Etudes d'histoire religieuse
VA : Victoria and Albert Museum, London, opened
M : Charles Hallé founds the Hallé concerts in Manchester
ST : Pasteur proves that fermentation is caused by living organisms
DL : Alpine Club, London, founded
DL : Financial and economic crisis throughout Europe, caused by speculation in U.S. railroad shares
DL : Matrimonial Causes Act in Britain
DL : First safety elevator installed
ED : Science Museum, South Kensington, London, founded
DL : Transatlantic cable laid
DL : Czar Alexander II begins the emancipation of serfs in Russia
M : Mikhail Glinka dies 15 February
M : Edward Elgar born 2 June

1858

M : Max Christian Friedrich Bruch : Opera, Scherz, List und Rache ('Joke, Trick and Revenge')
M : Giuseppe Verdi : Opera, Un Ballo in maschera ('A Masked Ball')
M : Johann Strauss II : Polkas, Champagne and Tritsch-Tratsch
M : Jacques Offenbach : Operetta, Orphée aux enfers ('Orpheus in the Underwold'), later revised
M : Johannes Brahms : Serenade No.1 for orchestra
M : Hector Berlioz : Opera, The Trojans
PH : Treaty of Tientsin ends Anglo-Chin. war
PH : British proclaim peace in India
PH : Prince William of Prussia declared regent for the insane King Frederick William IV
PH : Alexander Karageorgevich deposed by Serbian Diet; Milos Obrenovic declared king
RP : The Blessed Virgin Mary reputed to have appeared at Lourdes, France
RP : Henry Carey: Principles of Social Science
ED : Thomas Carlyle: Frederick the Great
RP : The Paulist Fathers founded by American Catholic priest Issac Hecker
RP : Lionel de Rothschild becomes first Jewish member of British Parliament
RP : Philip Schaff: History of the Christian Church
M : New York Symphony gives its first public concert
ST : T.H. Huxley: The Theory of the Vetebrate Skulls
ST : Mirror galvanometer invented
DL : National Association of Baseball Players organised in America
DL : Ottawa becomes capital of Canada
DL : South Foreland lighthouse lit by electricity
M : Giacomo Puccini dies 29 November
M : Giacomo Puccini born 23 December

1859

VA : Arthur Hughes : Knight of the Sun
M : Louis Moreau Gottschalk : Symphony No.1, La Nuit des Tropiques
VA : Charles-François Daubigny : On the Oise
VA : Charles-François Daubigny : The Flood-Gate at Optevoz
VA : Camille Corot : La Toilette
M : Richard Wagner : Music drama, Tristan and Isolde
M : Bedrich Smetana : Symphonic Poem, Wallenstein's Camp
M : Charles-François Gounod : Opera, Faust (later revised)
M : Johannes Brahms : Piano Concerto No.1
PH : Treaty of Alliance between Sardinia and France
PH : France declares war on Austria, armistice followed by peace of Billafranca, formalised by Treaty of Zurich
PH : King Ferdinand of the Two Sicilies dies; succeeded by Francis II
PH : King Oscar I of Sweden dies; succeeded by Charles XV
PH : German National Association formed; aimed at uniting German under Prussia
ST : Charles Darwin: On the Origin of Species by Natural Selection
RP : Ferdinand Lassalle: The Italian War and the Mission of Prussia
RP : Karl Marx: Critique of Political Economy
RP : J.S. Mill: Essay on Liberty
ED : Rank: History of England in the 16th and 17th Centuries
RP : Ernest Renan: Essais de morale et de critique
ED : L.F.K.Tischendorf discovers Codex Sinaiticus
ED : Pasquale Villari: Life of Savonarola
ED : Anthropological Society, Paris, founded
ST : F.L.G. Planté: first practical storage battery
ST : Steamroller invented
DL : French tightrope walker Charles Blondin crosses Niagara Falls on tightrope
DL : Work on Suez Canal begun
LT : A E Housman born 26 March
VA : Georges Seurat born 2 December

1860

LT : Elizabeth Barret Browning: Poems Before Congress
M : Johann Strauss II : Waltz, Acceleration
M : Franz Liszt : Mephisto Waltz No.1, for piano
M : Johannes Brahms : Serenade No.2 for orchestra
VA : Sir John Everett Millais : The Black Brunswicker
VA : Pierre-Etienne-Théodore Rousseau : Springtime
PH : Treaty of Turin cedes Nice and Savoy to France
PH : Garibaldi and his 1,000 redshirts ("i Mille") take Palermo and Naples
PH : Garibaldi proclaims Victor Emmanuel II King of Italy
PH : Second Maori War begins
PH : Treaty of Peking
PH : Abraham Lincoln elected President of the U.S.    GO !
RP : English Church Union founded
RP : J.S. Mill: Considerations on Representative Covernment
RP : Charles de Montalembert: Les Moines d'Occident
ED : J.L. Motley: The History of the United Netherlands
RP : Russian Orthodox Church establishes monastery in Jerusalem
ST : The elements cesium and rubidium discovered
ST : G.T. Fechner: Elements of Psychophysics
ST : Lenoir constructs first practical internal-combustion engine
DL : Cork linoleum invented
DL : The Catholic Times published
DL : Food and Drugs Act enacted in Britain
DL : British Open Golf Championship started
DL : Primitive form of typewriter: Christopher Sholes
DL : First horse-drawn tram
M : Isaac Manuel Francisco Albéniz born 29 May
M : Gustav Mahler born 7 July

1861

LT : Dante Gabriel Rossetti: The Early Italian Poets
LT : Mathew Arnold: On Translating Homer
VA : Camille Corot : Orpheus Leading Eurydice
from the Underworld
M : Arthur Sullivan : The Tempest, incidental music
M : Johannes Brahms : Variations and fugue on a theme of Handel for piano
VA : Ernest Meissonier : The French Campaign
PH : Frederick William IV of Prussia died; succeeded by William I
PH : Outbreak of Civil War in the U.S.    GO !
PH : The King of Naples surrenders, Italy proclaimed a kingdom by Parliament, with Victor Emmanuel II as king
PH : Warsaw Massacre- troops fire at demonstrators against Russian rule
DL : Emancipation of Russian serfs
PH : Sultan Abdul Mejid of Turkey dies; succeeded by his brother Abdul Aziz
PH : Pedro V of Portugal dies; succeded by Louis I
ED : Vladimir Dahl: Dictionary of the Living Russian Tongue
RP : Ferdinand Lassalle: System of Assigned Rights
RP : Herbert Spencer: Education: Moral, Intellectual, Physical
RP : Arthur P. Stanley: Lectures on the History of the Eastern Church
M : Royal Academy of Music, London, founded
ST : Archaeopteryx: skeleton of link between reptiles and bird discovered
ST : Thallium discovered
ST : First machine-chilled cold storage unit built
DL : Daily weather forecasts are begun in Britain
DL : Queen Victoria creates the Order of the Star of India
DL : U.S. introduces passport system
LT : Elizabeth Barret Browning dies 29 June
VA : John William Godward born 9 August

1862

LT : Christina Rossetti: Goblin Market and Other Poems
LT : Elizabeth Barret Browning: Last Poems (posth.)
M : Louis Moreau Gottschalk : Union
M : Franz von Suppé : Operetta, The Queen of Spades
M : Giuseppe Verdi : Opera, La Forza del destino ('The Force of Destiny')
M : Johann Strauss II : Musical scherzo, Perpetuum Mobile
M : Anton Bruckner : String Quartet
M : Johannes Brahms : Piano Quintet
M : Hector Berlioz : Opera, Beatrice and Benedict
PH : King Otto I of Greece resigns after military revolt
ED : James Bruce: The Holy Roman Empire
ED : George Rawlinson: The Five Great Monarchies of the Ancient Eastern World
RP : Herbert Specner: First Principles
ST : Lion Foucault successfully measures the speed of light
ST : Helmholtz: The Doctrine of the Sensations of Tones
DL : Swiss humanist Jean Henri Duanant proposes in his book Souvenir de Solferinio the foundation of an international Voluntary relief organisation - the Red Cross
DL : International Exhibition, London
M : Frederick Delius born 29 January
VA : Gustav Klimt born 14 July
M : Claude Debussy born 22 August

1863

VA : Arthur Hughes : Ophelia
VA : Jessie Willcox Smith born
VA : Alexandre Cabanel : The Birth of Venus
M : Max Christian Friedrich Bruch : Opera, Die Loreley
M : Bedrich Smetana : Opera, The Brandenburgers in Bohemia
M : Giaocchino Antonio Rossini : Petite messe solennelle ('Little Solemn Mass')
M : Camille Saint-Saëns : Introduction and Rondo Capriccioso for violin and orchestra
M : Johannes Brahms : String Quartet No.2
M : Georges Bizet : Opera, Les Pêcheurs de perles ('The Pearl Fishers')
VA : Jean Léon Gérôme : The Dance of the Almeh
VA : Edouard Manet : Olympia
PH : Lincoln issues Emancipation Proclamation    GO !
PH : Mohammed Said, Khedive of Egypt, dies; succeeded by Ismail
PH : William, Prince of Denmark, becomes George I, King of Greece
PH : Civil War breaks out in Afghanistan after the death of Dost Mohammed
PH : Frederick VII, King of Denmark dies, succeeded by Christian IX
PH : French capture Mexico City and proclaim Archduke Maximilian of Austria emperor
ED : S.R. Gardiner: History of England...1603-1642
RP : T.H. Huxley: Evidence as to Man's Place in Nature
ED : A.W. Kinglake: The Invasion of Crimea
RP : Charles Lyell: The Antiquity of Man
RP : J.S. Mill: Utilitarianism
ED : University of Mass, Amherst, founded as Mass. Agricultural College
DL : Ebenezer Butterick develops first paper dress patterns
ST : Sir Francis Galton: Meteorographica or Methods of Mapping the Weather
ED : National Academy of Sciences founded Washington, D.C.
ST : Microstructure of steel discovered leading to development of science of metallurgy
DL : Grand Prix de Paris first run at Longchamp
DL : A.F. Nadar makes ascent in his balloon "Le Géant"
DL : U.S. Congress establishes free city mail delivery
DL : Roller skating introduced to America
VA : Eugène Delacroix dies 13 August
VA : Paul Signac born
M : Pietro Mascagni born 7 December
VA : Edvard Munch born 12 December

1864

LT : Robert Browning: Dramatis Personae
M : Franz von Suppé : Biographical operetta, Franz Schubert
M : Max Christian Friedrich Bruch : Cantata, Frithjof for baritone, female voices and orchestra
M : Johann Strauss II : Waltz, Morning Papers
M : Jacques Offenbach : Operetta, La Belle Hélène
M : Edvard Grieg : Symphony (subsequently withdrawn by the composer)
M : Charles-François Gounod : Opera, Mireille
M : Anton Bruckner : Symphony in D-minor, known as 'Number 0'
VA : Jean-Frédéric Bazille : The Pink Dress
VA : Lord Frederic Leighton : The Painter's Honeymoon
VA : Lord Frederic Leighton : Golden Hours
VA : Pierre-Auguste Renoir : La Loge
VA : Pierre-Auguste Renoir : Portrait of Alfred Sisley
PH : Peace of Vienna; Denmark cedes Schleswig, Holstein, and Lauenburg to Austria and Prussia
PH : Abraham Lincoln re-elected President of the U.S.    GO !
PH : King Maximilian II of Bavaria dies; succeeded by Louis II
DL : First International Workingmen's Association founded by Karl Marx, London and New York
LT : Deutsche Shakespeare-Gesellscahft founded at Weimar
RP : Cesare Lombroso: Genius and Madness
RP : Cardinal Newman: Apologia pro Vita Sua
RP : Syllabus Errorum issued by Pope Pius Ix: condemns Liberalism, Socialsm, and Rationalism
ST : Joseph Bertrand: Treatise on Differential and Integral Calculus
ST : Louis Pasteur invents pasteurisation (for wine)
DL : Geneva Convention establishes the neutrality of battlefield medical facilities
DL : Octavia Hill begins London tenement-dwelling reforms
DL : Knights of Pythias founded, Washington, D.C.
DL : Neue Freie Presse founded in Vienna
DL : "In God We Trust" first appears on U.S. coins
LT : John Clare dies 20 May
M : Richard Strauss born 11 June
VA : Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec born 24 November

1865

VA : Gustave Courbet : Woman with a Parrot
VA : Arthur Hughes : Goodnight
VA : Arthur Hughes : Sir Galahad
LT : Walt Whitman: Drum Taps
LT : Mathew Arnold: Essays in Criticism
VA : Hilaire Germain Edgar Degas : Madame Valpincon
with Chrysanthemums
M : Franz von Suppé : Operetta, The Beautiful Galathea
M : Gabriel Urbain Fauré : Song, Après un rêve ('After a Dream')
M : Antonin Dvorák : Symphony No.1, 'Bells of Zlonice'
M : Franz Strauss : Horn concerto in c minor
PH : Confederate States of America surrender at Appomattox on 9 April    GO !
PH : Abraham Lincoln assassinated; succeeded by Andrew Johnson    GO !
PH : King Leopold I of Belgium dies; succeeded by his son Leopold II
DL : Thirteenth Amendment to U.S. Constitution abolishes slavery
PH : Outbreak of war between Boers of Orange Free State and Basutos
RP : Henri Baudrillart: La Liberté du travail
RP : W.E.H. Lecky: A History of the Rise and Influence of Rationalism in Europe
RP : J.S. Mill: Auguste Comte and Positivism
ST : Line geometry invented (Julius Plücker)
RP : J.R. Seeley: Ecce Homo
DL : Atlantic cable finally completed
ST : Benzene ring theory explains the structure of aromatic compounds
ED : Mass Institute of Technology, founded
ST : Gregor Mendel enunciates his Law of Heredity
DL : Pasteur succeeds in curing silkworm disease, saving the French silk industry
ST : Ivan M. Sechenov: Reflexes of the Brain, on physiological basis of psychic processes
RP : Christian Revival Association organised (later the Salvation Army)
DL : First carpet sweeper comes into use
DL : Ku Klux Klan founded, Pulaski, Tenn.
DL : London Metropolitan Fire Service established
DL : First railroad sleeping cars appear
DL : San Francisco Examiner and San Francisco Chronicle founded
DL : First train holdup at North Bend, Ohio
DL : Edward Whymper climbs the Matterhorn
ED : First woman (Maria Mitchell) appointed as professor of astronomy, Vassar College
LT : William Butler Yeats born 13 June
M : Jean Sibelius born 8 December

1866

VA : Claude Monet : The Women in the Garden
LT : Christina Rossetti: Prince's Progress and Other Poems
VA : Gustave Courbet : A Thicket of Deer at the
Stream of Plaisir-Fontaine
VA : Sir Edward Coley Burne-Jones : The Lament
M : Franz von Suppé : Operetta, Light Cavalry
M : Giuseppe Verdi : Opera, Don Carlos (later revised)
M : Pyotr Tchaikovsky : Symphony No.1, 'Winter Daydreams'
M : Arthur Sullivan : Irish Symphony
M : Bedrich Smetana : Comic Opera, The Bartered Bride
M : Jacques Offenbach : Operetta, La Vie parisienne
M : Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky : Songs 'The Seminarist', 'Darling Savishna'
M : Franz Liszt : Années de Pèlerinage Book III
M : Anton Bruckner : Symphony No.1
M : Léo Delibes : Ballet, La Source also known as Naila
M : Georges Bizet : Opera, La joie fille de Perth
VA : Claude Monet : Jeanne-Marguerite Lecadre
PH : Alexander Xuza, Prince of Rumania, dethroned; succeeded by Karl, Prince of Hohenzollern, as King Carol I
PH : Treaty of Vienna ends Austro-Ital. war
PH : Revolts in Crete against Turkish rule
ED : Pierre Larousse: Grand dictionnaire universel du XIX siècle
RP : Friedrich Lange: History of Materialism
RP : American Evangelical Alliance founded
ST : Aeronautical Society of Great Britain founded
ST : Ernst Haeckel: General Morphology (fundamental law of biogenetics)
ST : Dynamite invented
ST : Underwater torpedo invented
DL : "Black Friday" on London Stock Exchange
DL : Dr. T.J. Barnardo opens his first home for destitute children at Stepney, London
M : Erik Satie born 17 May
VA : Wassily Kandinsky born in Moscow

1867

LT : Walt Whitman: Democratic Vistas I
LT : Mathew Arnold: On the Study of Celtic Literature
M : Jules Massenet : Opera, La Grand'tante ('The Great Aunt')
M : Franz von Suppé : Operetta, The Jolly Robbers
M : Richard Wagner : Opera, Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg ('The Mastersingers of Nuremberg')
VA : Sir Adolph William Bouguereau : Art and Literature
M : Johann Strauss II : Waltzes, The Blue Danube and An Artist's Life
M : Bedrich Smetana : Opera, Dalibor
M : Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov : 'Symphonic Picture', Sadko (later revised as an opera)
M : Jacques Offenbach : Operetta, La Grande-Duchesse de Gérolstein
M : Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky : Song 'Gathering Mushrooms'
M : Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky : St John's Night on the Bare Mountain for orchestra (later revised by Rimsky and Mussorgsky)
M : Franz Liszt : Oratorio, Christus
M : Edvard Grieg : Lyric Pieces for Piano, Book I
M : Alexander Porfiryevich Borodin : Symphony No.1
VA : Jean-Frédéric Bazille : The Artist's Family
on a Terrace near Montpellier
VA : Edouard Manet : The Execution
VA : Ernest Meissonier : Information:
VA : Alfred Sisley : Avenue of Chestnut Trees
Near Le Celle St. Cloud
VA : Gavin Hamilton : The Oath of Brutus
VA : William Holman Hunt : Self Portrait
DL : The Queensberry Rules, by John Graham Chambers of the London Amateur Athletic Club
PH : Austro-Hungarian dual monarchy created by "Ausgleich"; Francis Joseph I crowned King of Hungary at Budapest
PH : Brit. Parliamentary Reform Act
ST : Discovery of S. African diamond field
ED : E.A. Freeman: History of the Norman Conquest
PH : Fenian outrages in Ireland and in Manchester
ST : Gold discovered in Wyoming
ST : Livingstone explores Congo
RP : Marx: Das Kapital, vol. I
PH : N. German Confederation founded
PH : Napoleon III withdraws his support from Maximilian in Mexico; Maximilian executed
VA : Paris World's Fair introduces Japanese art to the West
DL : Pierre Michaux begins to manufacture bicycles
RP : Pope Pius IX, on the 18th centenary of the St. Peter and St. Paul, announces his intention to hold an ecumenical council
LT : Reclams Universal Bibliothek, first of all paperback series, founded at Leipzig
RP : Walter Bagehot: The English Constitution
VA : Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres dies 14 January
VA : Arthur Rackham born
VA : Pierre-Etienne-Théodore Rousseau dies 22 December

1868

VA : Hilaire Germain Edgar Degas : The Rape
VA : Edouard Manet : The Balcony
VA : Jean-François Millet : Spring
VA : Dante Gabriel Rossetti : La Pia de'Tolomei
LT : Walt Whitman: Democratic Vistas II
LT : Robert Browning: The Ring and the Book
VA : Gustave Courbet : The Source
VA : Alexandre Cabanel : The Fallen Angel
M : Max Christian Friedrich Bruch : Violin Concerto No.1 in G-minor
M : Johann Strauss II : Polka, Thunder and Lightning
M : Johann Strauss II : Waltz, Tales from the Vienna Woods
M : Camille Saint-Saëns : Piano Concerto No.2
M : Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov : Symphony No.2, 'Antar' (later revised as an 'Oriental Suite')
M : Jacques Offenbach : Operetta, La Périchole
M : Edvard Grieg : Piano Concerto in A-minor
M : Anton Bruckner : Mass No.3, for solo voices, chorus and orchestra
M : Johannes Brahms : A German Requiem
VA : Jean-Frédéric Bazille : View of the Village
VA : Lord Frederic Leighton : Acme and Septimius
VA : Lord Frederic Leighton : Jonathon's Token to David
RP : A.H. Stephens: A Constitutional View of the War between the States
ED : Aust. schools freed from Church control
RP : Bakunin founds Alliance internationale de la démocratie sociale
ST : Charles Darwin: The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication
VA : Development of French impressionist style
DL : Earliest recorded bicycle race at the Parc de St. Cloud, Paris
RP : Ernst Haeckel: Natural History of Creation
PH : King Michael III of Serbia assassinated; succeeded by Milan IV
PH : Revolution in Spain; Queen Isabella II is deposed and flees to France
PH : Shogun Kekei of Japan abdicates; shogunate abolished; Meiji dynasty restored
ST : Skeleton of Cro-Magnon man from Upper Paleolithic age found in France
DL : The game of badminton devised at the Kuke of Beaufort's residence, Badminton Hall, Gloucestershire
PH : U.S. President Johnson impeached for violating Tenure-of-Office Act but acquitted by Senate    GO !
DL : Whitaker's Almanack appears in England
DL : 14th Amendment to U.S. Constitution prohibits voting discrimination, denies government office to certain Civil War rebels, and repudiates Confederate war debts
M : Giaocchino Antonio Rossini dies 13 November

1869

VA : Berthe Morisot : The Mother and
Sister of the Artist
LT : Alfred, Lord Tennyson: The Holy Grail and Other Poems
LT : Mathew Arnold: Culture and Anarchy
M : Anton Grigoryevich Rubinstein : Oratorio, Der Turm zu Babel ('The Tower of Babel')
M : Pyotr Tchaikovsky : Song, None But the Lonely Heart
M : Pyotr Tchaikovsky : Overture fantasy, Romeo and Juliet
M : Arthur Sullivan : Oratorio, The Prodigal Son
M : Johannes Brahms : Hungarian Dances for piano duet
VA : Pierre-Auguste Renoir : Le Grenouillere
DL : British debtors' prisons are abolished
ST : Celluloid invented
RP : Eduard Hartmann: The Philosophy of the Unconscious
DL : First Nihilist Congress meets at Basel, Switzerland
DL : First postcards introduced in Austria
ST : Francis Galton: Hereditary Genius, pioneering treatise on eugenics
PH : General Grant inaugurated as President of the U.S.    GO !
ED : Girton College, Cambridge, founded
RP : J.S. Mill: On the Subjection of Women
RP : Mathew Arnold: Culture and Anarchy
ST : Mendeleyev formulates his periodic law for the classification of the elements
DL : Opening of Suez Canal by Empress Eugénie
PH : Parliamentary system reintroduced in France
PH : U.S. National Prohibition Party formed in Chicago
RP : W.E.H. Lecky: A History of European Morals from Augustus to Charlesmagne
RP : Walter Bagehot: Physics and Politics, etx.
M : Hector Berlioz dies 8 March
M : Louis Moreau Gottschalk dies 18 December
LT : Edwin A Robinson born 22 December
VA : Henri Matisse born

1870

LT : Walt Whitman: Passage to India
LT : Christina Rossetti: Commonplace and Other Short Stories
LT : Dante Gabriel Rossetti: Poems
LT : William Blake: Hesiod
M : Giuseppe Verdi : Opera, Aida
M : Arthur Sullivan : Overture di ballo
M : Johann Strauss II : Waltz, Vienna Blood
M : Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky : Song-cycle, The Nursery
M : Léo Delibes : Ballet, Coppélia
VA : Jean-Frédéric Bazille : The Artist's Studio
VA : Sir John Everett Millais : The Knight Errant
ED : Dictionary of American Biography issued for the first time
PH : Bismarck's "Ems Telegram"
PH : End of Red River Rebellion; Manitoba becomes Canadian province
RP : First Vatican Council promulgates the dogma of papal infallibility
M : Founding of Société Nationale de Musique, France
ST : Heinrich Schliemann begins to excavate Troy
PH : Isabella of Spain abdicates in favour of Alfonso XII
ED : Keble College, Oxford, founded
PH : Prince Leopold of Hohenzollern accepts Span. throne but is forced to withdraw by the head of the House of Hohenzollern, King William I, following Fr. protest
PH : Revolt in Paris and proclamation of the Third Republic
ST : T.H. Huxley: Theory of Biogenesis
DL : W. G. Grace and his brothers found the Gloucester Cricket Club
M : Franz Lehár born 30 April
VA : Frederick Maxfield Parrish born 25 July

1871

LT : Thomas Hardy: Desperate Remedies
LT : Mathew Arnold: Friendship's Garland
M : Richard Wagner : Opera, Siegfried
M : Arthur Sullivan : Hymn, 'Onward Christian Soldiers'
M : Arthur Sullivan : The Merchant of Venice, incidental music
M : Camille Saint-Saëns : Symphonic Poem, Omphale's Spinning Wheel
M : Georges Bizet : Opera, Djamileh
M : Georges Bizet : Jeux d'enfants for piano duet
M : Anton Grigoryevich Rubinstein : Opera, Der Demon
RP : "Kulturkampf" against Catholic Church in Prussia
RP : Adolph Wagner: The Social Question
M : Albert Hall, London, opened
DL : Bank Holidays introduced in England and Wales
DL : Brit. Act of Parliament legalises labour unions
ST : Charles Darwin: The Descent of Man
RP : First congress of Old Catholics meets in Munich
RP : Italian Law of Guarantees allows the Pope possession of Vatican
RP : Jehovah's Witnesses founded
RP : John Ruskin: Fors Clavigera
ST : Leprosy bacillus discovered
ED : Mommsen: Roman Constitutional Law
DL : P.T. Barnum opens his circus, "The Greatest Show on Earth", in Brooklyn, N.Y.
ST : Pneumatic rock drill invented
PH : The Commune in Paris rules for two months
DL : The Great Fire in Chicago
PH : William I, King of Prussia, proclaimed Ger. Emperor at Versailles, Peace of Frankfurt
VA : Jean-Frédéric Bazille dies 28 November

1872

LT : Alfred, Lord Tennyson: Gareth and Lynette
LT : Christina Rossetti: Sing-Song: a Nursery Rhyme Book
LT : Dante Gabriel Rossetti: The Stealthy School of Criticism, Rossetti's reply to The Fleshy School of Poetry is printed in The Athenaeum
LT : Thomas Hardy: Under the Greenwood Tree
VA : Hilaire Germain Edgar Degas : Children on a Doorstep
VA : Hilaire Germain Edgar Degas : At the Races in the Country
VA : Charles-François Daubigny : Landscape with Cattle
M : Max Christian Friedrich Bruch : Cantata, Odysseus for solo voices, chorus and orchestra
M : Pyotr Tchaikovsky : Symphony No.2, 'Little Russian'
M : Charles-François Gounod : Funeral March of a Marionette
M : Anton Bruckner : Symphony No.2
M : Georges Bizet : Incidental music to Alphonse Daudet's play L'Arlésienne
VA : Berthe Morisot : The Cradle
VA : Dante Gabriel Rossetti : Veronica Veronese
VA : Alfred Sisley : The Rest by the Stream
ST : Automatic railroad air brake perfected
DL : Bakunin expelled from the First International at the Hague conference
DL : Ballot Act in Britain, voting by secret ballot
ST : Billroth makes first resection of esophagus
PH : Civil war in Spain - Carlists are defeated and Don Carlos escapes to France
DL : Compulsory military service introduced in Japan
RP : D.F. Strauss: The Old Faith and the New
ST : Edison perfects the "duplex" telegraph
DL : First U.S. ski club founded at Berlin, N.H.
DL : First international soccer game, England vs. Scotland
PH : Grant re-elected President of the U.S.    GO !
RP : Jesuits expelled from Germany
PH : T. F. Burgers elected President of Transvaal Republic
PH : Three-Emperors League established in Berlin; alliance between Germany, Russia, and Austria-Hungary
PH : U.S. General Amnesty Act pardons most ex-Confederates
VA : Aubrey Beardsley born
M : Ralph Vaughan Williams born 12 October

1873

LT : Thomas Hardy: A Pair of Blue Eyes
LT : Mathew Arnold: Literature and Dogma
VA : Sir Edward Coley Burne-Jones : The Wheel of Fortune
M : Giuseppe Verdi : String Quartet in E-minor
M : Camille Saint-Saëns : Symphonic Poem, Phaeton
M : Camille Saint-Saëns : Cello Concerto No.1
M : Anton Bruckner : Symphony No.3
M : Léo Delibes : Opera, Le Roi l'a dit ('The King has Spoken')
M : Johannes Brahms : Variations on a Theme by Haydn ('St.Anthony Variations') for orchestra
VA : Edouard Manet : La Gare
DL : Abolition of slaves markets and exports in Zanzibar
M : Carl Rosa Opera Company founded
VA : Colour photographs first developed
DL : Famine in Bengal
DL : Financial panic in Vienna (May) and New York (Sept)
DL : First typewriters produced
DL : Germany adopts the mark as its unit of currency
RP : Herbert Spencer: The Study of Sociology
RP : Hippolyte Taine: Les Origines de la France contemporaine
DL : Initiation of modern cricket county championship
ST : James Clerk Maxwell: Electricity and Magnetism
ST : Jean Charcot: Leçons sur les maladies du systèm nerveux
DL : Lawn tennis first introduced under the name Sphairistike
ST : Payer and Weyprecht discover Franz Josef Land (islands in the Arctic Ocean)
PH : Republic proclaimed in Spain
DL : The cities of Buda and Pest are united to form the capital of Hungary
PH : Thiers falls and MacMahon is elected French President
DL : Vienna World Exhibition
ED : Walter Pater: Studies in the History of the Renaissance
RP : Wilhelm Wundt: Physiological Psychology
M : Sergei Rachmaninov born 1 April
LT : Walter de la Mare born 25 April

1874

LT : Walt Whitman: A Prayer of Columbus and Song of the Redwood Tree
LT : Thomas Hardy: Far From the Madding Crowd
M : Richard Wagner : Der Ring des Nibelungen ('The Ring of the Nibelungs'), completed
M : Richard Wagner : Opera, Götterdämmerung ('Twilight of the Gods')
M : Giuseppe Verdi : Requiem Mass
M : Johann Strauss II : Operetta, Die Fledermaus ('The Bat')
M : Camille Saint-Saëns : Variations on a theme of Beethoven for two pianos
M : Camille Saint-Saëns : Symphonic Poem, Danse macabre
M : Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky : Song-cycle, Sunless
M : Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky : Pictures at an Exhibition for piano (orchestrated later by Ravel and others)
M : Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky : Opera, Boris Godunov (later revised by Rimsky)
M : Anton Bruckner : Symphony No.4 'Romantic'
M : Georges Bizet : Opera, Carmen
VA : Berthe Morisot : The Butterfly Chase
ST : A.T. Still founds osteopathy
PH : Alfonso XII, son of Queen Isabella, proclaimed King of Spain
DL : Civil marriage is made compulsory in Germany
PH : End of Ashanti war
RP : Ernst Haeckel: Anthropogenie
DL : First American zoo established in Philadelphia
VA : First impressionist exhibition
RP : Henry Sidgwick: Methods of Ethics
M : Paris Opéra completed
DL : Pressure-cooking methods for canning foods introduced
DL : Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children founded in New York
ST : Streptococci and staphylococci discovered
PH : Swiss Constitution revised
DL : Tennis introduced to the U.S.
DL : Union Générale des Postes established in Berne, Switzerland
LT : Robert Frost born 26 March
M : Arnold Schoenberg born 13 September
M : Gustav Holst born 21 September
M : Charles Ives born 20 October

1875

LT : Alfred, Lord Tennyson: Queen Mary
VA : Gustave Caillebotte : The Floor Strippers
M : Pyotr Tchaikovsky : Symphony No.3, 'Polish'
M : Pyotr Tchaikovsky : Piano Concerto No.1
M : Arthur Sullivan : Operetta, Trial by Jury
M : Camille Saint-Saëns : Piano Concerto No.4
M : Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky : Song-cycle, Songs and Dances of Death (plus additional song, 'The Field Marshal', in 1877)
M : Edvard Grieg : Incidental music to the play Peer Gynt
M : Antonin Dvorák : Serenade for Strings
M : Antonin Dvorák : Symphony No.5
M : Anton Grigoryevich Rubinstein : Opera, Der Makkabäer ('The Maccabees')
VA : Claude Monet : Woman with a Parasol
VA : Berthe Morisot : A Woman at her Toilette
VA : Pierre-Auguste Renoir : Young Woman with a Veil
ST : Element gallium discovered
RP : Emile Laveleye: Le Protestantisme et le Catholicisme
DL : First roller-skating rink opens in London
DL : First swim across English Channel - Captain Matthew Webb
ED : Heinrich Schliemann: Troy and Its Remains
PH : Japanese courts of law are reformed
PH : Kwang Hsu becomes Emperor of China
ED : London Medical School for Women founded
RP : Mary Baker Eddy: Science and Health
DL : Public Health Act is passed in Britain
PH : Rebellion in Cuba
RP : Religious orders abolished in Prussia
PH : Risings in Bosnia and Herzegovina against Turk. rule
VA : The "Hermes" of Praxiteles found at Olympia, Greece
RP : Theosophical Society founded by Helena Blavatsky
VA : Jean-François Millet dies 20 January
VA : Camille Corot dies 22 February
M : Maurice Ravel born 7 March
M : Georges Bizet dies 3 June

1876

VA : Hilaire Germain Edgar Degas : The Star
LT : Thomas Hardy: The Hand of Ethelberta
M : Franz von Suppé : Operetta, Fatinitza
VA : Sir Edward Coley Burne-Jones : Mirror of Venus
M : Pyotr Tchaikovsky : Marche Slave
M : Pyotr Tchaikovsky : Variations on a Rococo Theme for cello and orchestra
M : Pyotr Tchaikovsky : Symphonic fantasy, Francesca da Rimini
M : Pyotr Tchaikovsky : Ballet, Swan Lake
M : Bedrich Smetana : String Quartet No.1 ('From My Life')
M : Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov : Quintet for piano and wind instruments
M : Edvard Grieg : Ballade in G-minor
M : Anton Bruckner : Symphony No.5
M : Léo Delibes : Ballet, Sylvia
M : Alexander Porfiryevich Borodin : Symphony No.2
M : Johannes Brahms : Symphony No.1
VA : Pierre-Auguste Renoir : Ball at the
Moulin de la Galette
VA : John William Waterhouse : After The Dance
ST : Alexander Graham Bell invents the telephone
ST : Anthrax bacillus discovered
M : Bayreuth Festspielhaus opens with first complete performance of Wagner's Ring des Nibelungen
DL : Deutsche Richsbank opens
RP : F.H. Bradley: Ethical Studies
DL : First Chin. railroad is completed
DL : First tennis tournament in U.S.
ED : Heinrich Schliemann excavates Mycenae
ED : Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, opens
PH : Korea becomes an independent nation
RP : Lombroso: The Criminal
PH : Montenegro declares war on Turkey
PH : Serbia declares war on Turkey
PH : Sultan Abdul Aziz deposed in May; his successor, Murad V, deposed in August and succeeded by Abdul Hamid II
DL : World Exhibition at Philadelphia
VA : Second Impressionist Exhibition
M : Manuel de Falla born 23 November

1877

VA : Frank Cadogan Cowper born
VA : Gustave Caillebotte : Street in Paris:
A Rainy Day
M : Arthur Sullivan : Operetta, The Sorcerer
M : Arthur Sullivan : Ballad, 'The Lost Chord'
M : Camille Saint-Saëns : Opera, Samson and Delilah
M : Antonin Dvorák : Stabat Mater
M : Antonin Dvorák : Symphonic Variations
M : Johannes Brahms : Symphony No.2
VA : Dante Gabriel Rossetti : A Sea Spell
DL : "Blue Cross" Founded to fight alcoholism by Swiss theologian Louis Lucien Rochet
ST : Canals on Mars observed by Giovanni Schiaparelli
ST : Edison invents phonograph
DL : Famine in Bengal
PH : First Kaffir War
DL : First public telephones (U.S.)
RP : J.C.F. Zöllner: Treatise of Spiritualism
ST : Lord Rayleigh: Treatise on Sound
ST : Oxygen liquefied
DL : Patent Protection Law enacted in Germany
PH : Porfirio Diaz- President of Mexico
PH : Queen Victoria proclaimed Empress of India
PH : Russia declares war on Turkey and invades Rumania; Serbia declares war on Turkey
PH : Satsuma revolt in Japan suppressed
VA : Third impressionist exhibition, Paris
VA : Third Impressionist Exhibition
VA : Raoul Dufy born
VA : Frank E. Schoonover born
VA : Gustave Courbet dies 31 December

1878

LT : Thomas Hardy: The Return of the Native
VA : Gustave Caillebotte : The Orange Trees
M : Max Christian Friedrich Bruch : Violin Concerto No.2
M : Pyotr Tchaikovsky : Violin Concerto
M : Pyotr Tchaikovsky : Symphony No.4
M : Pyotr Tchaikovsky : Opera, Eugene Onegin
M : Arthur Sullivan : Operetta, H.M.S. Pinafore
M : Antonin Dvorák : Serenade for Wind Instruments
M : Antonin Dvorák : Slavonic Dances, first series
M : Johannes Brahms : Violin Concerto in D
M : Sir Charles Hubert Hastings Parry : Piano Concerto in F-minor
VA : Sir Frank Bernard Dicksee : Miranda
M : A. W. Ambros: Geschichte der Musik
PH : Anti-Socialist Law enacted in Germany
DL : Bicycle Touring Club founded in England
DL : C.I.D., New Scotland Yard, established in London
RP : Charles Pierce: How to Make Our Ideas Clear (Philosophy of Pragmatism)
VA : Cleopatra's Needle is moved to London
DL : Deutscher Fussballverein, Hanover, founded
DL : Electric street lighting is introduced in London
DL : First European crematorium established at Gotha, Germany
DL : First bicycles manufactured in America
M : George Grove begins Dictionary of Music and Musicians
RP : George Romanes: A Candid Examination of Theism
RP : German historian Heinrich Treitschke begins racial anti-Semite movement, and Berlin court preacher Adolf Stoecker founds Christlich-Soziale Arbeiterpartei
PH : Greece declares war on Turkey
ST : Iodoform first used as an antiseptic
DL : Karl Benz builds motorised tricycle with top speed of seven miles per hour
ST : Microphone invented
DL : Paris World Exhibition
RP : Pope Pius IX dies; Cardinal Count Pecci succeeds as Leo XIII
DL : Repeater rifle produced
PH : Turk-Russ. armistice signed
PH : Victor Emmanuel II, King of Italy dies; succeeded by his son Humbert I
ED : W.E. Lecky: History of England in the Eighteenth Century
VA : Charles-François Daubigny dies 19 February
VA : Malevich born
M : Franz Schreker born 23 March
LT : John Masefield born 1 June
LT : William Cullen Bryant dies 12 June

1879

VA : Mary Cassatt : The Cup of Tea
VA : Mary Cassatt : At the Opera
M : Franz von Suppé : Operetta, Boccaccio
M : Arthur Sullivan : Operetta, The Pirates of Penzance
M : Bedrich Smetana : Cycle of symphonic poems, collectively entitled Má Vlast ('My Fatherland')
M : Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov : Opera, May Night
M : Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky : 'The Song of the Flea'
M : Alexander Porfiryevich Borodin : String Quartet No.1
VA : Edouard Manet : In the Conservatory
VA : Pierre-Auguste Renoir : Irene Cahen d'Anvers
RP : A.J. Balfour: Defence of Philosophic Doubt
PH : Alexander of Battenberg elected Prince Alexander I of Bulgaria
RP : Anti-Jesuit Laws introduced in France
DL : Brit. churchman W. L. Blackly proposes a scheme for old-age pensions
ST : First electric tram exhibited at Berlin Trade Exhibition
RP : Henry George: Progress and Poverty
RP : Herbert Spencer: Principles of Ethics
PH : Ismail, Khedive of Egypt, deposed; succeeded by Tewfik
DL : London's first telephone exchange established
RP : Mary Baker Eddy becomes pastor of Church of Christ, Scientist, Boston
PH : Peace signed with Zulu chiefs
RP : Robert Giffen: Essay on Finance
ST : Saccharin discovered
ST : Scandium discovered
DL : The public granted unrestricted admission to the British Museum
PH : Treaty of Gandamak
ED : Treitschke: History of Germany in the XIXth Century
VA : Fourth Impressionist Exhibition
M : Ottorino Respighi born 9 July
LT : Wallace Stevens born 2 October
VA : Paul Klee born

1880

VA : Hilaire Germain Edgar Degas : Dancers in Pink
LT : Alfred, Lord Tennyson: Ballads and Other Poems
LT : Thomas Hardy: The Trumpet-Major
VA : Mary Cassatt : Lydia in a Loge
Wearing a Pearl Necklace
VA : Gustave Caillebotte : View Across a Balcony
VA : Alexandre Cabanel : Phèdre
VA : Sir Edward Coley Burne-Jones : Golden Stairs
M : Jules Massenet : Oratorio, La Vierge ('The Virgin')
M : Max Christian Friedrich Bruch : Scottish Fantasia for violin and orchestra
VA : Sir Adolph William Bouguereau : Temptation
M : Pyotr Tchaikovsky : Serenade for Strings
M : Pyotr Tchaikovsky : Capriccio Italien
M : Pyotr Tchaikovsky : Overture, 1812
M : Johann Strauss II : Waltz, Roses from the South
M : Camille Saint-Saëns : Violin concerto No.3
M : Jacques Offenbach : Opera, Les Contes d'Hoffmann ('The Tales of Hoffmann'); orchestration completed posthumously by Ernest Guiraud
M : Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky : Opera, Sorochintsky Fair (completed by Anatol Lyadov and others)
M : Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky : Opera, Khovanshchina (completed by Rimsky)
M : Gustav Mahler : Starts on song settings Des Knaben Wunderhorn ('Youth's Magic Horn')
M : Antonin Dvorák : Violin Concerto
M : Antonin Dvorák : Symphony No.6
M : Léo Delibes : Opera, Jean de Nivelle
M : Alexander Porfiryevich Borodin : In the Steppes of Central Asia
M : Johannes Brahms : Academic Festival and Tragic overtures
M : Anton Grigoryevich Rubinstein : Opera, Kupets Kalashnikov ('The Merchant Kalashnikov')
VA : Alfred Sisley : The Chemin de By
through Woods at Roches-Coutaut:
DL : Canned fruits and meats first appear in stores
ST : Chicken cholera vaccine developed by Pasteur
ST : First practical electric lights devised
RP : John Claird: Philosophy of Religion
M : London Guildhall School of Music founded
ST : Malarial parasite discovered
DL : New York streets are first lit by electricity
PH : Pacific War: Chile against Bolivia and Peru
DL : Parcel post introduced in England
PH : Transvaal declares itself independent of Britain
DL : World Exhibition takes place in Melbourne
VA : Fifth Impressionist Exhibition
M : Jacques Offenbach dies 5 October

1881

LT : Alfred, Lord Tennyson: The Cup
LT : Christina Rossetti: A Pageant and Other Poems
LT : Dante Gabriel Rossetti: The King’s Tragedy and Ballads and Sonnets with The House of Life
LT : Thomas Hardy: A Laodicean
VA : Hilaire Germain Edgar Degas : The Dance Class
M : Jules Massenet : Opera, Hérodiade
M : Max Christian Friedrich Bruch : Kol Nidrei Adagio on Hebrew melodies, for cello and orchestra
M : Arthur Sullivan : Operetta, Patience
M : Camille Saint-Saëns : Violin Sonata No.1
M : Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov : Opera, The Snow Maiden
M : Edvard Grieg : Norwegian Dances for piano duet
M : Anton Bruckner : Symphony No.6
M : Gabriel Urbain Fauré : Ballade for piano and orchestra
M : Emmanuel Chabrier : Pièces pittoresques ('Picturesque Pieces') for piano
M : Alexander Porfiryevich Borodin : String Quartet No.2
M : Johannes Brahms : Piano Concerto No.2
VA : Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema : At the Tepidarium
VA : Pierre-Auguste Renoir : Luncheon of
the Boating Party
PH : Austro-Serbian treaty of alliance
LT : D'Oyly Carte builds the Savoy Theatre, London
RP : Edward Tylor: Anthropology
DL : Flogging abolished in Brit. Army and Navy
DL : Freedom of press established in France
PH : President Garfield is shot and killed in Sept. and succeeded by Chester Arthur    GO !
ED : Natural History Museum, South Kensington, London, opened
RP : Persecution of Jews in Russia
PH : Political parties founded in Japan
DL : The first of all cabarets, "Chat Noir", Paris, founded
PH : Treaty of Pretoria: Britain recognises independent Transvaal Republic
ED : University College, Liverpool, founded
ED : Vatican archives opened to scholars
VA : Sixth Impressionist Exhibition
M : Béla Bartók born 25 March
M : Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky dies 28 March
VA : Pablo Ruiz y Picasso born

1882

LT : Walt Whitman: Specimen Days and Collect
LT : Thomas Hardy: Two on a Tower
VA : Mary Cassatt : Girl Sewing
VA : Sir Adolph William Bouguereau : Evening Mood
M : Richard Wagner : Music drama, Parsifal
M : Arthur Sullivan : Operetta, Iolanthe
M : Charles-François Gounod : Oratorio, La Rédemption
M : Léo Delibes : Incidental music to Victor Hugo's play Le Roi s'amuse, ('The King's Pleasure')
M : Sir Charles Hubert Hastings Parry : Prelude and Fugue in G major
VA : Edouard Manet : Bar at the Folies-Bergere
DL : Bank of Japan founded
M : Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra founded
RP : Besant: All Sorts and Conditions of Men
ED : Charles University, Prague, divided into Ger. and Czech institutions
ST : Edison designs first hydroelectric plant in Wisconsin
RP : Leslie Stephen: Science of Ethics
DL : London Chamber of Commerce established
RP : Nietzche: Die fröliche Wissenschaft
PH : Prince Milan Obrenovich of Serbia proclaims himself king
DL : Queen Victoria gives Epping Forest to the nation
DL : Recoil-operated machine gun patented
PH : Triple Alliance between Italy, Austria, and Germany
DL : U.S. bans Chinese immigrants for 10 years
RP : Viennese physician Joseph Breuer uses hypnosis to treat hysteria (beginnings of psychoanalysis)
DL : World Exhibition in Moscow
VA : Seventh Impressionist Exhibition
LT : Dante Gabriel Rossetti dies 10 April
VA : Dante Gabriel Rossetti dies 10 April
VA : Georges Braque born
M : Igor Stravinsky born 17 June
VA : Edward Hopper born in New York
VA : Newell Convers Wyeth born
M : Zoltán Kodály born 16 December

1883

M : Johann Strauss II : Operetta, Eine Nacht in Venedig ('A Night in Venice')
M : Richard Strauss : Horn Concerto No.1
M : Bedrich Smetana : String Quartet No.2
M : Anton Bruckner : Symphony No.7
M : Antonin Dvorák : Scherzo Capriccioso
M : Léo Delibes : Opera, Lakmé (including the famous 'Flower Duet' and the 'Bell Song')
M : Emmanuel Chabrier : Rhapsody España for orchestra
M : Johannes Brahms : Symphony No.3
DL : Bismarck introduces sickness insurance in Germany
DL : Brooklyn Bridge, New York, opened to traffic
RP : F. H. Bradley: The Principles of Logic
RP : Fabian Society founded in London
ST : First skyscraper built in Chicago, 10 stories
RP : Jr. R. Seeley: The Expansion of England
RP : Lester War: Dynamic Sociology
M : Metropolitan Opera House, New York, founded
RP : Nietzche: Thus Spake Zarathustra
DL : Orient Express Paris- Istanbul makes its first run
PH : Paul Kruger - President of South African Republic
ST : Robert Kock describes a method of preventive inoculation against anthrax
M : Royal College of Music, London, founded
ST : Synthetic fibre produced
DL : U.S. Civil Service reforms begin
DL : U.S. frontiersman W. F Cody ("Buffalo Bill") organises his "Wild West Show"
DL : World Exhibition opens in Amsterdam
M : Richard Wagner dies 13 February
VA : Edouard Manet dies 30 April
M : Sir George Dyson born 28 May
M : Edgard Varèse born 22 December

1884

M : Jules Massenet : Opera, Manon
M : Arthur Sullivan : Operetta, Princess Ida
M : Giacomo Puccini : Opera, Le villi
M : Gustav Mahler : Song-cycle, Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen ('Songs of a Wayfarer')
M : Edvard Grieg : 'Butterfly' and 'To the Spring' from Lyric Pieces, Book 3
M : Edvard Grieg : Holberg Suite
M : Anton Bruckner : Te Deum for chorus and orchestra
VA : Georges Seurat : Bathing at Asnieres
DL : Le Matin, Paris, issued
PH : Berlin Conference of 14 nations on African affairs
DL : Divorce re-established in France
ST : Electrical precipitation discovered
DL : First deep tube (underground railroad), London
ST : First practical steam turbine engine invented
PH : Fr. Law excludes members of former dynasties from presidency
DL : Gold discovered in the Transvaal, rise of Johannesburg
RP : Herbert Spencer: The Man versus the State
ST : Ilya Mechinikov: Theory of Phagocytes
RP : Kropotkin: Paroles du'un revolte
PH : London Convention on Transvaal
ED : Oxford English Dictionary begins publication
ST : Tetanus bacillus discovered
M : Bedrich Smetana dies 12 May
LT : Gerard Manley Hopkins born 28 July
LT : Sara Teasdale born 8 August

1885

LT : Alfred, Lord Tennyson: Tiresias and Other Poems
LT : Christina Rossetti: Time Flies
VA : Mary Cassatt : The Sisters
M : Jules Massenet : Opera, Le Cid
M : Max Christian Friedrich Bruch : Cantata, Achilleus for solo voices, chorus and orchestra
M : Pyotr Tchaikovsky : Manfred Symphony
M : Arthur Sullivan : Operetta, The Mikado
M : Johann Strauss II : Operetta, Der Zigeunerbaron ('The Gypsy Baron')
M : Charles-François Gounod : Petite Symphonie for wind instruments
M : Charles-François Gounod : Oratorio, Mors et Vita
M : Antonin Dvorák : Symphony No.7
M : Emmanuel Chabrier : Opera, Gwendoline
M : Johannes Brahms : Symphony No.4
VA : Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema : A Tale from Homer
ED : Albert Sorel: Europe and the French Revolution
DL : First Leipzig Fair
PH : Grover Cleveland inaugurated as President of the U.S.    GO !
RP : Henry Maine: Popular Government
DL : John M. Fox introduces golf to America
RP : Karl Marx: Das Kapital, vol 2 (posth.)
PH : King Alfonso XII of Spain dies; Queen Maria Christina becomes regent
ST : Pasteur devises a rabies vaccine to cure hydrophobia
ST : Sir Francis Galton prove the individuality of fingerprints
RP : The Mormons split into polygamous and monogamous sections
RP : Tolstoi: My Religion
M : Alban Berg born 9 February
M : Domenico Scarlatti born 26 October

1886

LT : Alfred, Lord Tennyson: Locksley Hall Sixty Years After
LT : Thomas Hardy: The Mayor of Casterbridge
VA : Hilaire Germain Edgar Degas : The Tub
VA : Sir Adolph William Bouguereau : Child at Bath
M : Giuseppe Verdi : Opera, Otello
M : Arthur Sullivan : Cantata, The Golden Legend
M : Camille Saint-Saëns : Wedding Cake Caprice caprice for piano and strings
M : Camille Saint-Saëns : Carnival of the Animals
M : Camille Saint-Saëns : Symphony No.3, 'Organ Symphony'
M : Gabriel Urbain Fauré : Piano Quartet No.2
M : Antonin Dvorák : Slavonic Dances, second series
M : Emmanuel Chabrier : Souvenirs de Munich for piano duet
M : Alexander Porfiryevich Borodin : Symphony No.3 (completed by Glazunov)
M : Isaac Manuel Francisco Albéniz : Suite española for piano
M : John Phillip Sousa : March, The Gladiator
VA : Sir John Everett Millais : Bubbles
VA : Georges Seurat : Sunday Afternoon in the
Park of the Island Grand Jatte
RP : Adolf von Harnack: History of Dogma
PH : Alexander of Bulgaria abdicates after coup d'état; Stefan Stambulov becomes regent
ST : Aluminum produced by electrolysis
DL : American Federation of Labor founded
ST : Aminopyrine and acitanelide discovered
RP : Andrew Carnagie: Triumphant Democracy
ED : Auguste Fournier: Napoleon I (3 vols)
ED : British School of Archaeology opens at Athens
M : Charles Mustel of Paris invents the celesta
DL : English Lawn Tennis Association founded
PH : First Indian National Congress meets
RP : Fluorine produced
ST : Germanium discovered
PH : Gladstone introduces bill for Home Rule in Ireland
ST : Hydroelectric installations are begun at Niagara Falls
PH : King Louis II of Bavaria dies; succeeded by Otto I; his uncle Luitpold becomes regent
ED : Pasteur Institute, Paris, founded
RP : Richard von Krafft-Ebing: Psychopathia Sexualis
ST : Steam first used to sterilise surgical instruments
VA : Last Impressionist Exhibition
LT : Emily Dickinson dies 15 May
M : Franz Liszt dies 31 July
LT : Joyce Kilmer born 6 December

1887

LT : Thomas Hardy: The Woodlanders
VA : Alexandre Cabanel : Cleopatra Testing Poisons
on Condemned Prisoners
VA : Sir Edward Coley Burne-Jones : The Depths
M : Arthur Sullivan : Operetta, Ruddigore
M : Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov : Spanish Capriccio
M : Anton Bruckner : Symphony No.8
M : Gabriel Urbain Fauré : Song, Claire de lune ('Moonlight')
M : Gabriel Urbain Fauré : Pavane for orchestra (and optional chorus)
M : Antonin Dvorák : Piano Quintet
M : Frederick Delius : Florida Suite
M : Emmanuel Chabrier : Opera, Le Roi malgré lui ('The Reluctant King')
M : Alexander Porfiryevich Borodin : Opera, Prince Igor (completed by Korsakov and Glazunov)
M : Isaac Manuel Francisco Albéniz : Rapsodia española for piano and orchestra (later arranged for piano)
M : Johannes Brahms : Double Concerto for violin and cello
VA : Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema : The Women of Amphissa
M : Sir Charles Hubert Hastings Parry : Cantata, Blest Pair of Sirens
VA : John William Waterhouse : Merriamne Leaving the
Judgement Seat of Herod
LT : Antoine founds the Théâtre Libre in Paris
DL : Edison and Swan combine to produce Ediswan electrical lamps
PH : First Colonial Conference opens in London
VA : H.W. Goodwin invents celluloid film
LT : I. Donnelly: The Great Cryptogram, Francis Bacon's Cypher in the So-called Shakespeare Play
ST : Joseph Lockyer: The Chemistry of the Sun
ST : Phenacetin, an analgesic drug, discovered
PH : Prince Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg elected King of Bulgaria
DL : Queen Victoria celebrates her Golden Jubilee
PH : Union Indo-Chinoise organised by France
M : Alexander Porfiryevich Borodin dies 27 February
VA : Juan Gris born
VA : Marc Chagall born 7 July
VA : Marcel Duchamp born
LT : Rupert Brooke born 3 August
M : Christoph Willibald Gluck dies 15 November
LT : Marianne Moore born 15 November
VA : Georgia O'Keeffe born
M : Ernst Toch born 7 December

1888

LT : Walt Whitman: November Boughs
LT : Thomas Hardy: Wessex Tales
M : Pyotr Tchaikovsky : Overture fantasy, Hamlet
M : Pyotr Tchaikovsky : Symphony No.5
M : Arthur Sullivan : Operetta, The Yeoman of the Guard
M : Richard Strauss : Symphonic Poem, Don Juan
M : Erik Satie : Trois gymnopédies, for piano
M : Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov : Russian Easter Festival Overture
M : Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov : Symphonic Suite, Scheherazade
M : Pietro Mascagni : Opera, Cavalleria rusticana ('Rustic Chivalry')
M : Gustav Mahler : Symphony No.1
M : Edward Elgar : Salut d'amour
M : Emmanuel Chabrier : Marche Joyeuse for orchestra
M : John Phillip Sousa : March, Semper fidelis
VA : Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema : The Roses of Heliogabalus
VA : Eugène Henri Paul Gauguin : The Vision after the Sermon
VA : Edmund Blair Leighton : The Call to Arms
VA : Vincent van Gogh : Night Cafe
VA : Vincent van Gogh : Sunflowers
VA : John William Waterhouse : The Lady of Shalott
DL : "Jack the Ripper" murders six women in London
DL : The Financial Times, London, first published
RP : Bernard Bosanquet: Logic, or the Morphology of Knowledge
DL : Cecil Rhodes amalgamates Kimberley diamond companies
DL : Dunlop invents pneumatic tire
VA : Eastman perfects "Kodak" box camera
DL : First of all beauty contests held in Spa, Belgium
RP : G.J. Romanes: Mental Evolution in Man
PH : Ger. Emperor William I dies in May; succeeded by his son Frederick III, who dies in June and is succeeded by his son William II, the "Kaiser"
ED : James Bryce: The American Commonwealth
RP : James Martineau: The Study of Religion
ST : Nikola Tesla constructs electric motor
ST : Radio waves are identified as belonging to same family as light waves
LT : Mathew Arnold dies 15 April
LT : T S Eliot born 26 September

1889

VA : Alexandre Cabanel dies

1899

LT : W.B. Yeats: The Wanderings of Oisin and Other Poems

1889

LT : Robert Browning: Asolando
M : Jules Massenet : Opera, Esclarmonde
M : Pyotr Tchaikovsky : Ballet, The Sleeping Beauty
M : Arthur Sullivan : Operetta, The Gondoliers
M : Johann Strauss II : Waltz, Emperor
M : Richard Strauss : Symphonic Poem, Death and Transfiguration
M : Charles-François Gounod : Méditation sur le prélude de Bach for soprano and instrumental accompaniment (popularly known as the 'Ave Maria')
M : Gabriel Urbain Fauré : Orchestral suite, Shylock
M : Antonin Dvorák : Symphony No.8
M : Claude Debussy : Petite suite (including 'En bateau')
M : John Phillip Sousa : March, The Washington Post March
M : John Phillip Sousa : March, The Thunderer
VA : Eugène Henri Paul Gauguin : The Yellow Christ
VA : Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec : Toilette
VA : Vincent van Gogh : Self-Portrait
with Bandaged Head
VA : Vincent van Gogh : The Starry Night
VA : Alexander Gustave Eiffel designs the Eiffel Tower for the Paris World Exhibition
DL : Barnum and Bailey's Circus at Olympia, London
PH : Benjamin Harrison inaugurated as 23rd President of the U.S.    GO !
ED : Catholic University, Washington D.C., opens
ST : Cordite invented
RP : Henri Bergson: Essai sur les données immédiates de la conscience
PH : Johannes IV, Emperor of Abyssinia dies; succeeded by Menelik II
PH : London County Council formed
DL : London Dock Strike
PH : Milan Obrenovich abdicates from Serbian throne in favour of his son
PH : Pedro II abdicates; Brazil proclaimed a republic
DL : Punch card system created
ST : Schiaparelli discovers synchronous rotations of planets Mercury and Venus
RP : T.H. Huxley: Agnosticism
PH : The Aust. Crown Prince, Archduke Rudolf, commits suicide at his hunting lodge at Mayerling
DL : The first May Day celebration, Paris
ST : Von Mehring and Minkowski prove that the pancreas secretes insulin, preventing diabetes
LT : Gerard Manley Hopkins dies 8 June
LT : Robert Browning dies 12 December

1890

VA : Paul Cézanne : The Card Players
VA : Paul Cézanne : Still Life with Basket of Apples
M : Pyotr Tchaikovsky : Opera, The Queen of Spades
M : Erik Satie : Trois gnossiennes, for piano
M : Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov : Opera, Mlada
M : Edward Elgar : Concert overture 'Froissart'
M : Claude Debussy : Rêverie, for piano
M : Claude Debussy : Suite bergamasque for piano (including 'Clair de lune')
M : Isaac Manuel Francisco Albéniz : Piano Suite, España
VA : Jean Léon Gérôme : Pygmalian and Galatea
VA : Lord Frederic Leighton : The Bath of Psyche
VA : Vincent van Gogh : Crows in the Wheatfields
PH : Accession of Queen Wilhelmina; Luxembourg separated from the Netherlands
RP : Alfred Marshall: Principles of Economics
ST : Azoimide produced from organic sources
PH : Cecil Rhodes- Premier of Cape Colony
DL : Daughters of the American Revolution founded
ST : Emil von Behring announces the discovery of antitoxins
ST : First Eng. electrical power station, Deptford
PH : First general election in Japan
PH : Ger. Social Democrats adopt Marxist program at Erfurt Congress
DL : Global influenza epidemics ("Russian Flu")
RP : J.G. Frazer: The Golden Bough
ST : Rubber gloves used for the first time in surgery
DL : Swiss government introduces social insurance
ST : The first entirely steel -framed building erected in Chicago
RP : William Booth: In the Darkest England and the Way Out
RP : William James: The Principles of Psychology
VA : Vincent van Gogh dies 29 July

1891

LT : Walt Whitman: Goodbye My Fancy
LT : Thomas Hardy: A Group of Noble Dames and Tess of the d'Urbervilles
M : Charles Ives : Variations on America (organ)
VA : Sir Edward Coley Burne-Jones : Star of Bethlehem
M : Max Christian Friedrich Bruch : Violin Concerto No.3
VA : Sir Adolph William Bouguereau : Work Interrupted
M : Pyotr Tchaikovsky : Opera, Yolanta
M : Arthur Sullivan : 'Romantic Opera', Ivanhoe
M : Camille Saint-Saëns : Africa fantasy for piano and orchestra
M : Pietro Mascagni : Opera, L'amico Fritz ('Friend Fritz')
M : Antonin Dvorák : Overture, Carnival
M : Antonin Dvorák : Dumky Piano Trio
M : Johannes Brahms : Clarinet Quintet
M : Clara Wieck Schumann : Cadenzas for Mozart: Piano Concerto in D Minor
VA : Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema : The Kiss
VA : Eugène Henri Paul Gauguin : We hail the Mary
VA : Lord Frederic Leighton : The Return of Persephone
RP : Rerum novarum, papal encyclical on the condition of the working classes
DL : All-Deutschland Verband founded
ST : Beginnings of wireless telegraphy
DL : Earthquake in Japan kills as many as 10,000 people
PH : Franco-Russ. entente
RP : Goldwin Smith: The Canadian Question
ED : In Java Dutch anthropologist Eugène Dubois discovers Pithecanthropus erectus (Java Man)
LT : J.T. Grein founds Independent Theatre Society, London
RP : R.W. Church: History of the Oxford Movement (posth.)
ST : Samuel P. Langley: Experiments in Aerodynamics
ST : Trans-Siberian railroad construction begins
PH : Triple Alliance - Germany, Austria, Italy - renewed for 12 years
DL : W.L. Judson invents clothing zipper
DL : Widespread famine in Russia
PH : Young Turk Movement, hoping to secure liberal reforms, is formed in Geneva
M : Léo Delibes dies 16 January
VA : Ernest Meissonier dies 31 January
VA : Georges Seurat dies 29 March
M : Sergei Prokofiev born 23 April

1892

LT : Thomas Hardy: The Pursuit of the Well-Beloved
M : Giuseppe Verdi : Opera, Falstaff
M : Pyotr Tchaikovsky : Ballet, The Nutcracker
M : Jean Sibelius : Symphonic Poem, En Saga
M : Sergei Rachmaninov : Piano Concerto No.1
M : Sergei Rachmaninov : Morceaux de Fantasie for piano (including Prelude in C-sharp Minor)
M : Edward Elgar : Serenade for Strings
VA : Eugène Henri Paul Gauguin : Spirit of the Dead Watching
VA : John William Godward : The Betrothed
VA : Edvard Munch : Melancholy
ST : Diesel patents his internal-combustion engine
RP : Emile Fagguet: Politiques et moralistes du six-neuvième siècle
ST : First automatic telephone switchboard introduced
DL : First cans of pineapples
PH : Giolitti becomes Premier of Italy
PH : Grover Cleveland elected U.S. President    GO !
DL : Iron and steel workers strike in U.S.
PH : Prince Ito becomes premier of Japan
PH : Tewfik, Khedive of Egypt, dies; succeeded by Abbas II
ST : Viscose discovered (manufacture of rayon)
M : Arthur Honegger born 10 March
LT : Archibald MacLeish born 7 May
M : Darius Milhaud born 4 September
LT : Alfred, Lord Tennyson dies 6 October

1893

LT : W.B. Yeats: The Celtic Twilight
VA : Mary Cassatt : The Bath
M : Pyotr Tchaikovsky : Symphony No.6, 'Pathétique'
M : Jean Sibelius : Karelia Suite
M : Erik Satie : Danses gothiques, for piano
M : Giacomo Puccini : Opera, Manon Lescaut
M : Gabriel Urbain Fauré : Song-cycle, La Bonne Chanson ('The Good Song')
M : Antonin Dvorák : String Quartet 'American'
M : Antonin Dvorák : Symphony No.9 'From the New World'
M : Claude Debussy : String Quartet in G-Minor
M : John Phillip Sousa : March, Manhattan Beach
VA : Edvard Munch : Death in the Sick-Room
VA : Edvard Munch : The Scream
VA : "Art Nouveau" appears in Europe
RP : F.H. Bradley: Appearance and Reality
PH : Franco-Russ. alliance signed
DL : Henry Ford builds his first car
ED : Imperial Institute, South Kensington, London, founded
DL : Karl Benz constructs his four-wheel car
PH : Second Irish Home Rule bill passed by Commons but rejected by Lords
RP : W.T. Stead: If Christ Came to Chicago
DL : World Exhibition in Chicago
M : Charles-François Gounod dies 18 October
M : Pyotr Tchaikovsky dies 6 November

1894

LT : Thomas Hardy: Life's Little Ironies
M : Charles Ives : 67th Psalm
M : Jules Massenet : Opera, Thaïs
M : Gustav Mahler : Symphony No.2 'Resurrection'
M : Anton Bruckner : Symphony No.9 (Finale unfinished at his death)
M : Claude Debussy : Prélude à l'après-midi d'un faune for orchestra
VA : Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema : Spring
VA : Sir Frank Bernard Dicksee : The Magic Crystal
VA : Edvard Munch : Ashes
VA : Edvard Munch : Despair
ST : Argon discovered
DL : Baron de Boubertin founds committee to organise modern Olympic Games
RP : Benjamin Kidd: Social Revolution
ST : Berliner uses a horizontal gramophone disc instead of a cylinder as a record for sound reproduction
ST : Cinematograph invented
PH : Czar Alexander III dies; succeeded by his son Nicholas II
DL : Death duties introduced in Britain
DL : Edison opens his Kinetoscope Parlor, New York
ST : Flagstaff Observatory erected, Arizona, U.S.
PH : Korea and Japan declare war on China
DL : New York Jockey Club founded
ED : Pollock and Maitland: History of English Law Before the Time of Edward I
ED : Sidney and Beatrice Webb: History of Trade Unionism
ST : Swed. explorer Sven Hedin travels in Tibet
ST : The Plague bacillus discovered
VA : Norman Rockwell born
M : Hans von Bülow dies 12 February
VA : Gustave Caillebotte dies 21 February
M : Emmanuel Chabrier dies 13 September
LT : ee cummings born 14 October
M : Anton Grigoryevich Rubinstein dies 20 November
LT : Christina Rossetti dies 29 December

1895

VA : Paul Cézanne : Still Life with Apples
PH : American pressure leads to arbitration of the British boundary dispute with Venezuela
PH : A revolt against Spanish rule breaks out in Cuba
LT : W.B. Yeats: Poems
VA : Sir Adolph William Bouguereau : The Abduction of Psyche
M : Richard Strauss : Symphonic Poem, Til Eulenspiegel's Merry Pranks
M : Jean Sibelius : Four Lemminkäinen Legends including The Swan of Tuonela
M : Erik Satie : Messe des pauvres, a Latin Mass with psalms, for voices and organ or piano
M : Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov : Opera, Christmas Eve
M : Antonin Dvorák : Cello Concerto
VA : Lord Frederic Leighton : Flaming June
VA : Edvard Munch : Madonna
VA : Edvard Munch : Puberty
VA : Edvard Munch : Self-Portrait with a Burning Cigarette
VA : Gustav Klimt : Love
ST : Auguste and Louis Lumière invent a motion-picture camera
RP : Cardinal Vaughan lays foundation stone of Westminster Cathedral
PH : End of Chin.-Jap war
DL : First public film show in Paris, at the Hôtel Scribe
RP : Karl Marx: Das Kapital, vol. 3 (posth.)
DL : King C. Gillette invents the safety razor
ST : Konstantin Isiolkovski formulates the principle of rocket reaction propulsion
ED : London School of Economics and Political Science founded
ST : Machine constructed for the liquefaction of air
ST : Marconi invents radio telegraphy
LT : Oscar Wilde's unsuccessful libel action against the Marquis of Queensberry
M : Robert Newman arranges the first Promenade Concerts at Queen's Hall, London
RP : Sigmund Freud: Studien über Hysterie
RP : Thomas Masaryk: The Czech Question
ST : Wilhelm Röntgen discovers x-rays
VA : Berthe Morisot dies 2 March
M : Franz von Suppé dies 21 May
M : Carl Orff born 10 July
LT : Robert Graves born 24 July
M : Paul Hindemith born 16 November

1896

LT : Edwin A Robinson: The Torrent and the Night Before
LT : A E Housman: A Shropshire Lad
M : Charles Ives : String Quartet, No.1 "Revival Service"
VA : Sir Edward Coley Burne-Jones : Hope
M : Richard Strauss : Symphonic Poem, Also sprach Zarathustra ('Thus Spake Zoroaster')
M : Giacomo Puccini : Opera, La Bohème ('Bohemian Life')
M : Gustav Mahler : Symphony No.3
M : Frederick Delius : Opera, Koanga (including 'La Calinda')
M : Isaac Manuel Francisco Albéniz : Opera, Pepita Jiménez
M : John Phillip Sousa : Comic Opera, El capitan
VA : John William Waterhouse : Hylas and the Nymphs
DL : Daily Mail issued
VA : Die Jugend and Simplicissimus, two important Ger. art magazines, appear in Munich
DL : Beginning of Klondike gold rush
ST : Ernest Rutherford: magnetic detection of electrical waves
DL : First modern Olympics held in Athens
RP : Five annual Nobel Prizes established
PH : Further massacres of Armenians in Constantinople
ST : Helium discovered
RP : Henri Bergson: Matière et mémoire
PH : Nasr-ed-Din, Shah of Persia, assassinated
VA : National Portrait Gallery, London, moved from Bethnal Green to Westminster
ST : Niagara Falls hydroelectric plant opens
ST : Radioactivity discovered
DL : Royal Victorian Order founded
PH : Russia and China sign Manchuria Convention
RP : Theodor Herzl: Der Judenstaat, foundation of Zionism
VA : Lord Frederic Leighton dies 25 January
M : Clara Wieck Schumann dies 20 May
VA : Sir John Everett Millais dies 13 August
VA : William Morris dies 3 October
M : Anton Bruckner dies 11 October
M : Virgil Garnett Thomson born 25 November
VA : David Alfaro Siqueiros born

1897

LT : Edwin A Robinson: The Children of the Night
LT : Thomas Hardy: The Well-Beloved
M : Richard Strauss : Symphonic Poem, Don Quixote
M : Sergei Rachmaninov : Symphony No.1
M : Edvard Grieg : Lyric Pieces Book 9
M : Edvard Grieg : Symphonic Dances for orchestra
M : Gabriel Urbain Fauré : Dolly Suite for piano duet (later orchestrated)
M : John Phillip Sousa : March, The Stars and Stripes Forever
VA : Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema : Her eyes are with her thoughts...
VA : Eugène Henri Paul Gauguin : Where do we come from?
DL : Katzenjammer Kids, first Amer. comic strip, begun
PH : Crete proclaims union with Greece; Turkey declares war on Greece; Peace of Constantinople
DL : Founding of Royal Automobile Club, London
RP : Havelock Ellis: Studies in the Psychology of Sex
ST : J.J. Thomson discovers electron
ST : Julius Hann: Handbook of Climatology
PH : King of Korea proclaims himself emperor
DL : Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee
ST : Ronal Ross discovers malaria bacillus
DL : Severe famine in India
RP : Sidney and Beatrice Webb: Industrial Democracy
VA : Sir Henry Tate donates Tate Gallery, London, to the Brit. people
DL : The Sultan of Zanzibar abolishes slavery
PH : William McKinley inaugurated as President of the U.S.    GO !
DL : World Exhibition at Brussels
RP : Zionist Congress in Basel, Switzerland
M : Johannes Brahms dies 3 April

1898

LT : Thomas Hardy: Wessex Poems
M : Charles Ives : Symphony No.1
M : Richard Strauss : Symphonic Poem, Ein Heldenleben ('A Hero's Life')
M : Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov : Opera, The Tsar's Bride
M : Pietro Mascagni : Opera, Iris
M : John Phillip Sousa : Comic Opera, The Bride Elect
VA : John William Waterhouse : Ariadne
VA : Gustav Klimt : Pallas Athene
PH : "The Boxers", an anti-foreign, anti-Western organisation formed in China
RP : Bismarck: Reflections and Memoirs
ST : Dysentery bacillus discovered
PH : Empress Elizabeth of Austria murdered by Ital. anarchist in Geneva
ST : Ger. Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin builds his airship
DL : Paris Métro opened
PH : Paul Kruger re-elected President of Transvaal
ST : Photographs first taken utilising artificial light
ST : Radium and polonium discovered
ST : Ramsay discovered the inert atmospheric gases zenon, crypton, and neon
VA : The Mackintosh School of Art in Glasgow
PH : U.S. declares war on Spain over Cuba; Treaty of Paris    GO !
LT : Lewis Carroll dies 14 January
VA : Aubrey Beardsley dies
LT : Walt Whitman dies 26 March
M : Ernst Bacon born 26 May
VA : Sir Edward Coley Burne-Jones dies 17 June
VA : Maurits Cornelis Escher born
M : George Gershwin born 26 September
VA : René Magritte born

1899

LT : W.B. Yeats: The Wind Among the Reeds
M : Jules Massenet : Opera, Cendrillon ('Cinderella')
M : Jean Sibelius : Finlandia
M : Jean Sibelius : Symphony No.1
M : Arnold Schoenberg : Verklärte Nacht ('Transfigured Night'), for string sextet (arranged later for string orchestra)
M : Erik Satie : Ballet, Jack-in-the-box
M : Maurice Ravel : Pavane pour une infante défunte for piano (later orchestrated)
M : Edward Elgar : Enigma Variations, Sea Pictures
M : Frederick Delius : Paris: the Song of a Great City nocturne for orchestra
M : Claude Debussy : Nocturnes for orchestra
M : Isaac Manuel Francisco Albéniz : Catalonia, suite populaire for orchestra
M : John Phillip Sousa : March, Hands across the Sea
VA : Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema : The Baths of Caraculla
VA : Edvard Munch : The Dance of Life
VA : Edvard Munch : The Dead Mother
RP : Alexander Bain: The Realisation of the Possible
ST : Alpha and beta rays discovered in radioactive atoms
PH : Boer War between Britain and the Boers
RP : Ernst Haeckel: Die Welträtsel
PH : First Peace Conference at The Hague
ST : First magnetic recording of sound
RP : H.S. Chamberlain: The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century
RP : James Ward: Naturalism and Agnosticism
RP : John Dewey: School and Society
PH : London borough councils established
RP : Pope Leo XIII's bull Testem Benevolentiae condemns the "Americanism" of Isaac Thomas Hecker
M : Francis Poulenc born 7 January
VA : Alfred Sisley dies 29 January
M : Johann Strauss II dies 3 June

1900

VA : Paul Cézanne : Chateau Noir
PH : The Foraker Act establishes a government for Puerto Rico
PH : Boxer risings in China against Europeans
PH : Commonwealth of Australia created
DL : First Nobel Prizes awarded
ED : Sigmund Freud: The Interpretation of Dreams
DL : World Exhibition in Paris
VA : Wallace Collection, London, opens
VA : Gaugin : Noa Noa, report on his travels through Tahiti
ST : F.E. Dorn discovers radon
ST : Arthur Evan's excavations in Crete
RP : Shintoism reinstated in Japan against Buddhist influence
RP : Bertrand Russell : A Critical Exposition of the Philosophy of Leibniz
VA : Paul Cézanne : Mont Sainte-Victoire
above the Tholonet Road
M : Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov : Opera, The Legend of Tsar Saltan (including 'The Flight of the Bumblebee' and 'The Tsar's Departure and Farewell')
M : Giacomo Puccini : Opera, Tosca
M : Gustav Mahler : Symphony No.4
M : Gabriel Urbain Fauré : Requiem Mass (final version)
M : Edward Elgar : Oratorio 'The Dream of Gerontius'
M : Antonin Dvorák : Opera, Rusalka
VA : Edmund Blair Leighton : Godspeed
PH : King Umberto I, king of Italy, assassinated; succeeded by his son, Victor Emmanuel III
VA : Fauvist movement in painting begins, led by Henri Matisse
ST : Max Planck Formulates Quantum Theory
M : Aaron Copland born 14 November
M : Arthur Sullivan dies 22 November

1901

ST : First Trans-Atlantic radio signal
PH : Queen Victoria dies, succeeded by her son, Edward VII
PH : U.S. President McKinley assassinated, Theodore Roosevelt sworn in as successor    GO !
PH : Queen Victoria dies, succeeded by Edward (VII)
PH : Peace of Peking ends Boxer uprising
RP : Rudolf Steiner founds anthroposophy
VA : Picasso's blue period
VA : The Siegesallee in Berlin : 32 marble statues of members of the House of Hohenzollern
M : Ragtime jazz develops in the U.S.
ST : Marconi transmits telegraphic radio messages from Cornwall to Newfoundland
M : Charles Ives : Three Harvest Home Chorales
M : Jules Massenet : Opera, Le Jongleur de Notre Dame ('The Juggler of Notre Dame')
M : Maurice Ravel : Jeux d'eau ('Fountains'), for piano
M : Sergei Rachmaninov : Piano Concerto No.2
M : Edward Elgar : Pomp and Circumstance March No.1 ('Land of Hope and Glory')
M : Edward Elgar : Concert overture 'Cockaigne'
M : Frederick Delius : Opera, A Village Romeo and Juliet ('Walk to the Paradise Garden' added later)
VA : John William Godward : The Tease
VA : Edmund Blair Leighton : Accolade
VA : Gustav Klimt : Judith I
M : Giuseppe Verdi dies 27 January
VA : Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec dies 9 September
M : Joaquín Rodrigo born 22 November

1902

VA : Paul Cézanne : Still Life with Apples,
a Bottle, and a Milk Pot
PH : Boer War ends
DL : The Teddy Bear is introduced
PH : Anglo-Japanese treaty recognises the independence of China and Korea
PH : Triple Alliance between Germany, Austria, and Italy renewed for another six years
RP : William James The Varieties of Religious Experience
RP : Benedetto Croce : Philosophy of the Spirit
M : Enrico Caruso makes his first phonograph recording
DL : King Edward VII establishes Order of Merit
DL : Martinique volcanic fire destroys the town of St. Pierre
LT : Edwin A Robinson: Captain Craig
LT : John Masefield: Salt-Water Ballads
LT : Walter de la Mare: Songs of Childhood
LT : Thomas Hardy: Poems of the Past and Present
M : Charles Ives : Symphony No.2
M : Jean Sibelius : Symphony No.2
M : Gustav Mahler : Des Knaben Wunderhorn completed
M : Gustav Mahler : Symphony No.5
M : Franz Lehár : Concert waltz, Gold und Silber ('Gold and Silver')
M : Frederick Delius : Appalachia for voices and orchestra
M : Claude Debussy : Opera, Pelléas et Mélisande
VA : Edmund Blair Leighton : Triston and Isolde
VA : Gustav Klimt : Portrait of Emilie Floge
M : William Turner Walton born 29 March

1903

ST : First flight at Kitty Hawk
VA : First silent movie, The Great Train Robbery
PH : Entente Cordiale established
PH : King Alexander I of Serbia and Queen Draga murdered ; Peter Karageorgevich accedes to the throne as Peter I
PH : Coronation durbar for Edward Vi, King-emperor, at Delhi
RP : G.E. Moore : Principia Ethica
RP : Cardinal Guiseppe Sarto installed - Pope Pius X
M : Oscar Hammerstein builds the Manhattan Opera House, New York
M : First recording of an opera : Verdi's Ernani
ED : Universities of Liverpool and Manchester founded
ST : Electrocardiograph invented
VA : Deutsches Museum, Munich, opens
DL : First Tour de France
DL : Ford Motor Company founded
LT : Thomas Traherne: Poems published
M : Manuel de Falla : Piano Pieces, Allegro de concierto
M : Richard Strauss : Symphonia Domestica
M : Jean Sibelius : Incidental music to the play Kuolema ('Death')
M : Jean Sibelius : Violin Concerto
M : Arnold Schoenberg : Symphonic Poem, Pelleas und Melisande
M : Erik Satie : (Trois) morceaux en forme de poire
M : Maurice Ravel : Shéhérazade for mezzo-soprano and orchestra
M : Sergei Rachmaninov : Ten Piano Preludes
M : Leoš Janácek : Opera, Jenûfa (later revised)
M : Claude Debussy : Estampes ('Engravings'), for piano (including 'Jardins sous la pluie')
VA : John William Waterhouse : Windflowers
VA : Eugène Henri Paul Gauguin dies 9 May
VA : Camille Pissarro dies 13 November

1904

PH : Russo-Japanese War begins
PH : Theodore Roosevelt elected president    GO !
PH : Hereros and Hottentots revolt in German South-west Africa
LT : Abbey Theatre, Dublin, founded
RP : Church and state separated in France
ED : Freud : The Psychopathology of Everyday Life
RP : Max Weber : The Protestant Ethic and the Birth of Capitalism
M : First radio transmission of music at Graz, Austria
M : London Symphony Orchestra gives its first concert
ST : First telegraphic transmission of photographs - Munich to Nuremburg
DL : Ten-hour work day established in France
DL : Carl Lindstrom Company founded in Berlin for the production of phonographs and phonograph records
VA : Anthony Frederick Sandys dies
LT : Walter de la Mare: Henry Brocken
M : Charles Ives : Thanksgiving
M : Giacomo Puccini : Opera, Madame Butterfly
M : Gustav Mahler : Kindertotenlieder ('Songs of the Death of Children')
M : Edvard Grieg : Lyric Suite for orchestra
M : Edward Elgar : Overture 'In the South'
M : Frederick Delius : Sea Drift for baritone and orchestra
VA : John William Godward : Dolce Far Niente
VA : John William Waterhouse : Psyche Entering Cupid's Garden
PH : Entente Cordiale: Britain and France settle their international differences
ST : General theory of radioactivity by Rutherford and Soddy
DL : New York City subway opens
VA : Jean Léon Gérôme dies 10 January
M : Antonin Dvorák dies 1 May
VA : Salvador Dali born

1905

PH : "Bloody Sunday" - Russian Revolution of 1905
ST : Einstein proposes his theory of relativity
PH : Norwegian parliament decides on separation from Sweden; Prince Charles of Denmark elected King Haakon VII of Norway
PH : Sinn Fein Party founded in Dublin
DL : William Haywood and others found the International Workers of the World (Wobblies)
LT : Police censure closes Shaw's Mrs. Warren's Profession after one performance
RP : George Santayana : The Life of Reason
VA : Picasso begins his "Pink Period"
DL : First motor buses in London
DL : First neon lights appear
M : Manuel de Falla : Opera, La Vida Breve ('The Short Life')
M : Richard Strauss : Opera, Salome
M : Jean Sibelius : Incidental music to the play Pelléas et Mélisande
M : Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov : Opera, Tale of the Invisible City of Kitezh
M : Maurice Ravel : Introduction and Allegro for flute, clarinet, harp, and string quartet
M : Gustav Mahler : Symphonies No.6 and No.7
M : Franz Lehár : Operetta, Die lustige Witwe ('The Merry Widow')
M : Edward Elgar : Introduction and Allegro for Strings
M : Frederick Delius : A Mass of Life for soloists, chorus and orchestra
M : Claude Debussy : Images, Book I for piano
M : Claude Debussy : La mer ('The sea'), for orchestra
M : Franz Strauss dies 31 May
VA : Sir Adolph William Bouguereau dies 19 August

1906

DL : Finland is the first European country to give women the right to vote
M : The English Hymnal, edited by Percy Dearmer and Ralph Vaughan Williams
RP : Franz X. Wernz, the Jesuit general, reforms the order's plan for studies
RP : Albert Schweitzer : The Quest of the Historical Jesus
M : Mozart Festival in Salzburg
ST : The term "allergy" introduced to medicine
DL : Simplon Tunnel between Italy and Switzerland opens
M : Anton von Webern : Rondo
M : Jean Sibelius : Symphonic fantasy, Pohjola's Daughter
M : Zoltán Kodály : Symphonic Poem, Summer Evening (later revised)
M : John Phillip Sousa : Comic Opera, The Free Lance
DL : San Francisco earthquake and three-day fire; more than 500 dead
ST : Roald Amundsen, Norwegian explorer, fixes magnetic North Pole
M : Dmitry Shostakovich born 25 September
VA : Paul Cézanne dies 22 October

1907

PH : Ten Rules of War established at the second Hague Peace Conference
VA : Picasso introduces Cubism
DL : Typhoid Mary captured for the first time
DL : First completely synthetic man-made substance (plastic)
PH : English and French agree on Siamese independence
RP : Henri Bergson : L'Evolution créatrice
RP : William James : Pragmatism
RP : Alfred Adler : Study of Organ Inferiority and Its Psychical Compensation
RP : United methodist Church established in Britain
RP : Papal encyclical Pascendi gregis condemns modernism
VA : First Cubist exhibition in Paris
DL : Boy Scouts founded
LT : Sara Teasdale: Sonnets to Duse, and Other Poems
VA : Frank Cadogan Cowper : Vanity
M : Anton von Webern : Quintet for strings and piano
M : Charles Ives : Central Park in the Dark
M : Jean Sibelius : Symphony No.3
M : Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov : Opera, The Golden Cockerel
M : Sergei Rachmaninov : Symphony No.2
M : Gustav Mahler : Symphony No.8 'Symphony of a Thousand'
M : Frederick Delius : Brigg Fair: An English Rhapsody
M : Claude Debussy : Images, Book II for piano
VA : Gustav Klimt : Danae
VA : Gustav Klimt : The Kiss
LT : Wystan Hugh Auden born 21 February
M : Edvard Grieg dies 4 September

1908

DL : Ford introduces the Model-T
PH : Three year-old Pu Yi becomes Emperor of China
PH : Turks revolt in the Ottoman Empire
PH : King Carlos I of Portugal and the crown prince both assassinated; Manuel II becomes king
PH : Leopold II transfers the Congo to Belgium
PH : Ferdinand I of Bulgaria assumes the title czar and declares his country's independence
PH : Crete proclaims union with Greece
PH : Union of South Africa established
VA : "Ashcan School" established by Robert Henri, John Sloan, George Luks, George Bellows, Everett Shinn
VA : Matisse coins the term "Cubism"
DL : London hosts the Olympic Games
ED : Cairo University opened
DL : First Model T produced
LT : Thomas Traherne: Centuries of Meditations
LT : John Masefield: Captain Margaret
LT : Thomas Hardy: the last of three parts of The Dynasts published
M : Anton von Webern : Passacaglia for Orchestra
M : Charles Ives : The Unanswered Question
M : Franz Schreker : Ballet, Der Geburtstag der Infantin ('The Infant's Birthday')
M : Maurice Ravel : Rapsodie espagnole for orchestra
M : Maurice Ravel : Gaspard de la nuit ('Phantoms of the Night'), for piano
M : Leoš Janácek : Along an Overgrown Path 15 pieces for piano
M : Gustav Holst : Opera, Savitri
M : Edward Elgar : Symphony No.1 (Adagio)
M : Frederick Delius : Rhapsody, In a Summer Garden
M : Claude Debussy : Children's Corner for piano (including 'Jimbo's Lullaby' and 'Golliwogg's Cake-walk')
M : Béla Bartók : String Quartet No.1
M : Igor Stravinsky : Opera, The Nightingale
DL : Earthquake kills 150,000 in southern Italy and Sicily
LT : Theodore Roethke born 25 May
M : Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov dies 21 June
M : Olivier Messiaen born 10 December
M : Elliott Cook Carter born 11 December

1909

PH : Japan's Prince Ito is assassinated
LT : Edwin A Robinson: The Town down the River
LT : John Masefield: Multitude and Solitude and The Tragedy of Nan
LT : Thomas Hardy: Time's Laughingstocks
M : Anton von Webern : Five movements for String Quartet
M : Anton von Webern : Six Pieces for Large Orchestra
M : Charles Ives : Piano Sonata No.1
M : Charles Ives : Washington's Birthday
M : Jules Massenet : Opera, Don Quichotte ('Don Quixote')
M : Ralph Vaughan Williams : Symphony No.1, 'A Sea Symphony'
M : Ralph Vaughan Williams : Song-cycle, On Wenlock Edge
M : Richard Strauss : Opera, Elektra
M : Arnold Schoenberg : Erwartung ('Expectation'), for soprano and orchestra
M : Arnold Schoenberg : Five Orchestral Pieces
M : Sergei Rachmaninov : Symphonic Poem, Isle of the Dead
M : Sergei Rachmaninov : Piano Concerto No.3
M : Gustav Mahler : Symphony No.9
M : Gustav Mahler : Song-symphony Das Lied von der Erde
M : Franz Lehár : Operetta, Der Graf von Luxemburg ('The Count of Luxemburg')
M : Gustav Holst : Suite No.1, for military band
M : Isaac Manuel Francisco Albéniz : Suite Iberia for piano
ST : North Pole reportedly reached by American explorers Robert E. Peary and Matthew Henson
M : Isaac Manuel Francisco Albéniz dies 18 May
VA : Francis Bacon born

1910

ST : Halley's comet makes an appearance
LT : John Masefield: The Tragedy of Pompey the Great
LT : Walter de la Mare: The Return and The Three Mulla Mulgars
M : Anton von Webern : Four Pieces for violin and piano
M : Ralph Vaughan Williams : Fantasia on a Theme by Thomas Tallis for strings
M : Maurice Ravel : Ma mère l'oye ('Mother Goose'), for two pianos (later orchestrated)
M : Sergei Rachmaninov : Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom for choir
M : Sergei Rachmaninov : Thirteen Piano Preludes
M : Giacomo Puccini : Opera, La fanciulla del West ('The Girl of the Golden West')
M : Gustav Mahler : Symphony No.10, unfinished
M : Franz Lehár : Operetta, Zigeunerliebe ('Gypsy Love')
M : Gustav Holst : Hymns from the Rig Veda for chorus and orchestra (one of several sets)
M : Edward Elgar : Violin Concerto
M : Frederick Delius : Opera, Fennimore and Gerda
M : Claude Debussy : Préludes, Book I for piano (including 'Viole')
M : Igor Stravinsky : Ballet, The Firebird
M : Samuel Barber born 9 March
M : Frank Loesser born 29 June
VA : Henri Rousseau dies in Paris
VA : William Holman Hunt dies 7 September
VA : Winslow Homer dies
Personae

Terms Defined

Referenced Works