The First Crusade was made up mostly of men from France and Normandy. There was no single leader. This fact hampered the Crusaders, but was offset by a worse lack of unity among the Turks. Robert of Normandy, Godfrey of Boulogne, Godfrey's brothers Eustace and Baldwin, Raymond of Toulouse, and Boemund of Otranto were some of the outstanding personalities. Alexius Comnenus, the Byzantine Emperor, played a prominent part of the events. Nicaea was captured in 1097 and secured by Alexius. Baldwin seized Edessa in 1098 and made himself ruler of it. Antioch fell in 1098 as was awarded to Boemund, Jerusalem was captured on 15 July 1099. After the city had been sacked and the Mohammedan population massacred, Godfrey of Boulogne was made Protector of the Holy Sepulchre.