All Rights Reserved.
Site last updated
26 June, 2013
Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo's Manifesto
by Emilio Aguinaldo
5 January, 1899
General Otis is proclaimed Military Governor of the Philippines and I protest
a thousand times and with all the force in my soul against such pretension.
I solemnly declare that neither in Singapore nor in Hongkong nor in Manila
did I agree to recognize verbally nor in writing, American domination over our
beloved country. I declare that while I was transported to Cavite on board
one of their naval vessels, I immediately made known in a Manifesto addressed
to the Filipinos, my determination to wage war against Spain to win our
independence. I reiterated this on the day when for the first time, I hoisted
our flag, the emblem of our legitimate aspirations.
In the Manifesto of General Merritt addressed to the Filipinos a few days
before he called upon the Spaniards to leave Manila, he said that he did
not ignore the noble objective that we wanted to attain; he also declared
clearly and without any conditions that the land army and navy of the United
States came to the Philippines to deliver us, like in Cuba, from the
Spanish yoke. Natives and foreigners have witnessed that American soldiers
have rendered publicly on many occasions, military honors to our flag,
recognizing us as belligerents.
As it is stated in the Proclamation of
General Otis that in accordance with the instructions of the President
of the United States they will be engaged in the internal administration
of the archipelago. I protest in the name of God, based upon justice and
law, that I have been visibly designated to lead my countrymen in the task
for their regeneration against this American intrusion. I also protest in
the name of all the people in the Philippines; these people have chosen me
to lead their destiny; my duty is therefore to fight until my last breath for
For the last time, I protest again, because of my former relations with the
Americans who conducted me from Hongkong to Cavite not to wage war against
the Spaniards for their benefit but for us, against their unexpected claim
to dominate us.
And it is for this, my dear countrymen you should understand that in the
end, united by indissoluble ties, we will not retrogress from the glorious
way which is open to us.