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Franklin's Articles of Confederation
by Benjamin Franklin
July 21, 1775
Franklin's Articles of Confederation
Articles of Confederation and perpetual Union, enterd into agre
proposed, by the Delegates of the several Colonies of New Hampshire,
&c, in general Congress met at Philadelphia, May 10, 1775.
The Name of this Confederacy shall henceforth be the United Colonies of North America.
The said United Colonies hereby severally enter into a firm League
of Friendship with each other, binding on themselves and their
Posterity, for their common Defence
and Offence, against their Enemies for the Security of their Liberties and Propertys, the Safety of their Persons and Families, and their common and mutual and general Welfare.
That each Colony shall enjoy and retain as much as it may think fit of its own present Laws, Customs, Rights,
Privileges, and peculiar Jurisdictions within its own Limits; and may
amend its own Constitution as shall seem best to its own Assembly or
That for the more convenient Management of general Interests,
Delegates shall be annually elected in each Colony to meet in General
Congress at such Time and Place as shall be agreed on in each the next
preceding Congress. Only where particular Circumstances do not make a
Deviation necessary, it is understood to be a Rule, that each
succeeding Congress be held in a different Colony till the whole Number
be gone through, and so in perpetual Rotation; and that accordingly the
next Congress after the present shall be held in the at Annapolis in
That the Power and Duty of the Congress shall extend to the
Determining on War and Peace, to sending and receiving ambassadors, and
entring into Alliances, [the Reconciliation with Great Britain;] the
Settling all Disputes and Differences between Colony and Colony about
Limits or any other cause if such should arise; and the Planting of new
Colonies when proper.
The Congress shall also make
and propose such general Regulations Ordinances as tho' necessary to the General Welfare, particular Assemblies from their local Circum cannot be competent to; viz. such as may relate
to those that may relate to our general Commerce; or general Currency;
to the Establishment of Posts; and the Regulation of our common Forces.
The Congress shall also have the Appointment of all General Officers,
civil and military, appertaining to the general Confederacy, such as
General Treasurer, Secretary, &c.
All Charges of Wars, and all other general Expences to be incurr'd
for the common Welfare, shall be defray'd out of a common Treasury,
which is to be supply'd by each Colony in proportion to its Number of
Male Polls between 16 and 60 Years of Age; the Taxes for paying that
proportion are to be laid and levied by the Laws of each Colony.
And all Advantages gained at a common Expence.
The Number of Delegates to be elected and sent to the Congress by
each Colony, shall be regulated from time to time by the Number of such
Polls return'd; so as that one Delegate be allowed for every 
Polls. And the Delegates are to bring with them to every Congress, an
authenticated Return of the number of Polls in the respective Provinces
which is to be annually triennially taken for the Purposes above
At every Meeting of the Congress One half of the Members return'd
exclusive of Proxies be necessary to make a Quorum, and Each Delegate
at the Congress, shall have a Vote in all Cases; and if necessarily
absent, shall be allowed to appoint any other Delegate from the same
Colony to be his Proxy, who may vote for him.
An executive Council shall be appointed by the Congress out of their
own Body, consisting of  Persons; of whom in the first Appointment
one Third, viz. , shall be for one year,  for two Years, and 
for three Years; and as the said Terms expire, the Vacancy shall be
filled by Appointments for three Years, whereby One Third of the
Members will be changed annually. And each Person who has served the
said Term of three Years as Counsellor, shall have a Respite of three
Years, before he can be elected again.
The Appointments to be determined by Ballot.
This Council (of whom two thirds shall be a Quorum,) in the Recess of
the Congress is to execute what shall have been enjoin'd thereby; to
manage the general continental Business and Interests to receive
Applications from foreign Countries; to prepare Matters for the
Consideration of the Congress; to fill up [Pro tempore] general
continental Offices that fall vacant; and to draw on the General
Treasurer for such Monies as may be necessary for general Services,
& appropriated by the Congress to such Services.
No Colony shall engage in an offensive War with any Nation of
Indians without the Consent of the Congress, or great Council above
mentioned, who are first to consider the Justice and Necessity of such
A perpetual Alliance offensive and defensive, is to be enter'd into
as soon as may he with the Six Nations; their Limits to be ascertain'd
and secur'd to them; their Land not to be encroach'd on, nor any
private or Colony Purchases made of them hereafter to be held good; nor
any Contract for Lands to be made but between the Great Council of the
Indians at Onondaga and the General Congress. The Boundaries and Lands
of all the other Indians shall also be ascertain'd and secur'd to them
in the same manner; and Persons appointed to reside among them in
proper Districts, who shall take care to prevent Injustice in the Trade
with them, and be enabled at our general Expence by occasional small
Supplies, to relieve their personal Wants and Distresses. And all
Purchases from them shall be by the
General Congress for the General Advantage and Benefit of the United Colonies.
As all new institutions
are Subject may have
Imperfections which only Time and Experience can discover, it is
agreed, That the General Congress from time to time shall propose such
Amendments of this Constitution as they may be found
necessary; which being approv'd by a Majority of the Colony Assemblies,
shall be equally binding with the rest of the Articles of this
other and every Colony from Great Britain upon
the Continent of North America and not at present engag'd in our
Association shall may upon Application and joining the said Association
be receiv'd into this Confederation, viz. [Ireland] the West India
Islands, Quebec, St. Johns, Nova Scotia, Bermudas, and the East and
West Floridas; and shall thereupon be entitled to all the Advantages of
our Union, mutual Assistance and Commerce.
These Articles shall be propos'd to the several Provincial
Conventions or Assemblies, to be by them consider'd, and if approv'd
they are advis'd to impower their Delegates to agree to and ratify the
same in the ensuing Congress. After which the Union thereby establish'd
is to continue firm till the Terms of Reconciliation proposed in the
Petition of the last Congress to the King are agreed to; till the Acts
since made restraining the American Commerce and Fisheries are
repeal'd; till Reparation is made for the Injury done to Boston by
shutting up its Port; for the Burning of Charlestown; and for the
Expence of this unjust War; and till all the British Troops are
withdrawn from America. On the Arrival of these Events the Colonies
[shall] return to their former Connection and Friendship with Britain:
But on Failure thereof this (confederation is to be perpetual.