AND ACCIDENTS OF
The English Colony in Virginia,
Extracted from the Authors
following, by WILLIAM SIMONS,
Doctour of Divinitie.
1606. Sir Thomas Smith Treasurer.
IT might well be thought, a Countrie so faire (as Virginia
is) and a people so tractable, would long ere this haue beene quietly
possessed, to the satisfaction of the adventurers, & the eternizing
of the memory of those that effected it. But because all the world doe
see a defailement; this following Treatise shall giue satisfaction to
all indifferent Readers, how the businesse hath bin carried: where no
doubt they will easily vnderstand and answer to their question, how it
came to passe there was no better speed and successe in those
The first mover of the action.
Orders for government.
Captaine Bartholomew Gosnoll,
one of the first movers of this plantation, having many yeares
solicited many of his friends, but found small assistants; at last
prevailed with some Gentlemen, as Captaine Iohn Smith, Mr Edward-maria Wingfield, Mr Robert Hunt,
and divers others, who depended a yeare vpon his proiects, but nothing
could be effected, till by their great charge and industrie, it came to
be apprehended by certaine of the Nobilitie, Gentry, and Marchants, so
that his Maiestie by his letters patents, gaue commission for
establishing Councels, to direct here; and to governe, and to execute
there. To effect this, was spent another yeare, and by that, three
ships were provided, one of 100 Tuns, another of 40. and a Pinnace of
20. The transportation of the company was committed to Captaine Christopher Newport, a Marriner well practised for the Westerne parts of America. But their orders for government were put in a box, not to be opened, nor the governours knowne vntill they arrived in Virginia.
On the 19 of
December, 1606. we set sayle from Blackwall, but by vnprosperous winds,
were kept six weekes in the sight of England; all which time, Mr Hunt
our Preacher, was so weake and sicke, that few expected his recovery.
Yet although he were but twentie myles from his habitation (the time we
were in the Downes) and notwithstanding the stormy weather, nor the
scandalous imputations (of some few, little better then Atheists, of
the greatest ranke amongst vs) suggested against him, all this could
never force from him so much as a seeming desire to leaue the busines,
but preferred the service of God, in so good a voyage, before any
affection to contest with his godlesse foes, whose disasterous designes
(could they haue prevailed)
had even then overthrowne the
businesse, so many discontents did then arise, had he not with the
water of patience, and his godly exhortations (but chiefly by his true
devoted examples) quenched those flames of envie, and dissention.
Monica an vnfrequented Isle full of Birds.
Their first landing.
Matters of government.
We watered at the Canaries, we traded with the Salvages at Dominica; three weekes we spent in refreshing our selues amongst these west-India Isles; in Gwardalupa we found a bath so hot, as in it we boyled Porck as well as over the fire. And at a little Isle called Monica, we tooke from the bushes with our hands, neare two hogshheads full of Birds in three or foure houres. In Mevis, Mona,
and the Virgin Isles, we spent some time, where, with a lothsome beast
like a Crocodil, called a Gwayn, Tortoises, Pellicans, Parrots, and
fishes, we daily feasted. Gone from thence in search of Virginia,
the company was not a little discomforted, seeing the Marriners had 3
dayes passed their reckoning and found no land, so that Captaine Ratliffe (Captaine of the Pinnace) rather desired to beare vp the helme to returne for England,
then make further search. But God the guider of all good actions,
forcing them by an extreame storme to hull all night, did driue them by
his providence to their desired Port, beyond all their expectations,
for never any of them had seene that coast. The first land they made
they called Cape Henry; where thirtie of
them recreating themselues on shore, were assaulted by fiue Salvages,
who hurt two of the English very dangerously. That night was the box
opened, and the orders read, in which Bartholomew Gosnoll, Iohn Smith, Edward Wingfield, Christopher Newport, Iohn Ratliffe, Iohn Martin, and George Kendall,
were named to be the Councell, and to choose a President amongst them
for a yeare, who with the Councell should governe. Matters of moment
were to be examined by a Iury, but determined by the maior part of the
Councell, in which the President had two voyces. Vntill the 13 of May
they sought a place to plant in, then the Councell was sworne, Mr Wingfield was chosen President, and an Oration made, why Captaine Smith was not admitted of the Councell as the rest.
The discovery of the Falles & Powhatan.
The Fort assaulted by the Salvages.
Now falleth every
man to worke, the Councell contriue the Fort, the rest cut downe trees
to make place to pitch their Tents; some provide clapbord to relade the
ships, some make gardens, some nets, &c. The Salvages often visited
vs kindly. The Presidents overweening iealousie would admit no exercise
at armes, or fortification, but the boughs of trees cast together in
the forme of a halfe moone by the extraordinary paines and diligence of
Captaine Kendall. Newport, Smith, and
twentie others, were sent to discover the head of the river: by divers
small habitations they passed, in six dayes they arrived at a Towne
called Powhatan, consisting of some twelue
houses, pleasantly seated on a hill; before it three fertile Isles,
about it many of their cornefields, the place is very pleasant, and
strong by nature, of this place the Prince is called Powhatan, and his people Powhatans,
to this place the river is navigable: but higher within a myle, by
reason of the Rockes and Isles, there is not passage for a small Boat,
this they call the Falles, the people in all parts kindly intreated
them, till being returned within twentie myles of Iames
towne, they gaue iust cause of iealousie, but had God not blessed the
discoverers otherwise then those at the Fort, there had then beene an
end of that plantation; for at the Fort, where they arrived the next
day, they found 17 men hurt, and a boy slaine by the Salvages, and had
it not chanced a crosse barre shot from the Ships strooke downe a bough
from a tree amongst them, that caused them to retire, our men had all
beene slaine, being securely all at worke, and their armes in dry fats.
Captain Newports returne for England.
President was contented the Fort should be pallisadoed, the Ordnance
mounted, his men armed and exercised, for many were the assaults, and
ambuscadoes of the Salvages, & our men by their disorderly
stragling were often hurt, when the Salvages by the nimblenesse of
their heeles well escaped. What toyle we had, with so small a power to
guard our workemen adayes, watch all night, resist our enemies, and
effect our businesse, to relade the ships, cut downe trees, and prepare
the ground to plant our Corne, &c, I referre to the Readers
consideration. Six weekes being spent in this manner, Captaine Newport (who was hired onely for
our transportation) was to returne with the ships. Now Captaine Smith,
who all this time from their departure from the Canaries was restrained
as a prisoner vpon the scandalous suggestions of some of the chiefe
(envying his repute) who fained he intended to vsurpe the government,
murther the Councell, and make himselfe King, that his confederats were
dispersed in all the three ships, and that divers of his confederats
that revealed it, would affirme it, for this he was committed as a
prisoner: thirteene weekes he remained thus suspected, and by that time
the ships should returne they pretended out of their commisserations,
to referre him to the Councell in England
to receiue a check, rather then by particulating his designes make him
so odious to the world, as to touch his life, or vtterly overthrow his
reputation. But he so much scorned their charitie, and publikely defied
the vtter most of their crueltie, he wisely prevented their policies,
though he could not suppresse their envies, yet so well he demeaned
himselfe in this businesse, as all the company did see his innocency,
and his adversaries malice, and those suborned to accuse him, accused
his accusers of subornation; many vntruthes were alledged against him;
but being so apparently disproved, begat a generall hatred in the
hearts of the company against such vniust Commanders, that the
President was adiudged to giue him 2001. so that all he had was seized vpon, in part of satisfaction, which Smith presently returned to the Store for the generall vse of the Colony.
Many were the mischiefes that daily sprung from their ignorant (yet
ambitious) spirits; but the good Doctrine and exhortation of our
Preacher Mr Hunt reconciled them, and caused Captaine Smith
to be admitted of the Councell; the next day all receiued the
Communion, the day following the Salvages voluntarily desired peace,
and Captaine Newport returned for England with newes; leaving in Virginia 100. the 15 of Iune 1607.
By this obserue;
Good men did ne'r their Countries ruine bring.
But when evill men shall iniuries beginne;
Not caring to corrupt and violate
The iudgements-seats for their owne Lucr's sake:
Then looke that Country cannot long haue peace,
Though for the present it haue rest and ease.
Sir Thomas Smith Treasurer.
The names of them that were the first Planters, were these following.
- Mr Edward Maria Wingfield.
- Captaine Bartholomew Gosnell.
- Captaine Iohn Smith.
- Captaine Iohn Ratliffe.
- Captaine Iohn Martin.
- Captaine George Kendall.
- Mr Robert Hunt Preacher.
- Mr George Percie.
- Anthony Gosnoll.
- George Flower.
- Cap. Gabriell Archer.
- Robert Fenton.
- Robert Ford.
- William Bruster.
- Edward Harrington.
- Dru Pickhouse.
- Thomas Iacob.
- Iohn Brookes.
- Ellis Kingston.
- Thomas Sands.
- Beniamin Beast.
- Iehu Robinson.
- Thomas Mouton.
- Eustace Clovill.
- Stephen Halthrop.
- Kellam Throgmorton.
- Edward Morish.
- Nathaniell Powell.
- Edward Browne.
- Robert Behethland.
- Iohn Penington.
- Ieremy Alicock.
- George Walker.
- Thomas Studley.
- Richard Crofts.
- Nicholas Houlgraue.
- Thomas Webbe.
- Iohn Waller.
- Iohn Short.
- William Tankard.
- William Smethes.
- Francis Snarsbrough.
- Richard Simons.
- Edward Brookes.
- Richard Dixon.
- Iohn Martin.
- Roger Cooke.
- Anthony Gosnold.
- Tho: Wotton, Chirurg.
- Iohn Stevenson.
- Thomas Gore.
- Henry Adling.
- Francis Midwinter.
- Richard Frith.
- William Laxon.
- Edward Pising.
- Thomas Emry.
- Robert Small.
- Iohn Laydon.
- William Cassen.
- George Cassen.
- Thomas Cassen.
- William Rodes.
- William White.
- Old Edward
- Henry Tavin.
- George Goulding.
- Iohn Dods.
- William Iohnson.
- William Vnger.
With divers others to the number of 100.
- Iam: Read, Blacksmith.
- Ionas Profit, Sailer.
- Tho: Cowper, Barber.
- Will: Garret, Bricklayer.
- Edward Brinto, Mason.
- William Loue, Taylor.
- Nic: Scot, Drum.
- Wil: Wilkinson, Chirurg.
- Samuell Collier, boy.
- Nat. Pecock, boy.
- Iames Brumfield, boy.
- Richard Mutton, boy.
What happened till the first supply.
The occasion of sicknesse.
The Sailers abuses.
A bad President.
BEing thus left to
our fortunes, it fortuned that within ten dayes scarce ten amongst vs
could either goe, or well stand, such extreame weaknes and sicknes
oppressed vs. And thereat none need marvaile, if they consider the
cause and reason, which was this; whilest the ships stayed, our
allowance was somewhat bettered, by a daily proportion of Bisket, which
the sailers would pilfer to sell, giue, or exchange with vs, for money,
Saxefras, furres, or loue. But when they departed, there remained
neither taverne, beere-house, nor place of reliefe, but the common
Kettell. Had we beene as free from all sinnes as gluttony, and
drunkennesse, we might haue beene canonized for Saints; But our
President would never haue beene admitted, for ingrossing to his
private, Oatmeale, Sacke, Oyle, Aquavitć,
Beefe, Egges, or what not, but the Kettell; that indeed he allowed
equally to be distributed, and that was halfe a pint of wheat, and as
much barley boyled with water for a man a day, and this having fryed
some 26. weekes in the ships hold, contained as many wormes as graines;
so that we might truely call it rather so much bran then corne, our
drinke was water, our lodgings Castles in the ayre: with this lodging
and dyet, our extreame toile in bearing and planting Pallisadoes, so
strained and bruised vs, and our continuall labour in the extremitie of
the heat had so weakned vs, as were cause sufficient to haue made vs as
miserable in our natiue Countrey, or any other place in the world. From
May, to September, those that escaped, liued vpon Sturgeon, and
Sea-crabs, fiftie in this time we buried, the rest seeing the
Presidents proiects to escape these miseries in our Pinnace by flight
(who all this time had neither felt want nor sicknes) so moved our dead
spirits, as we deposed him; and established Ratcliffe in his place, (Gosnoll being dead) Kendall deposed, Smith newly recovered, Martin and Ratcliffe was by his care preserved and relieued, and the most of the souldiers recovered, with the skilfull diligence of Mr Thomas Wotton
our Chirurgian generall. But now was all our provision spent, the
Sturgeon gone, all helps abandoned, each houre expecting the fury of
the Salvages; when God the patron of all good indevours, in that
desperate extremitie so changed the hearts of the Salvages, that they
brought such plenty of their fruits, and provision, as no man wanted.
And now where some
affirmed it was ill done of the Councell to send forth men so badly
provided, this incontradictable reason will shew them plainely they are
too ill advised to nourish such ill conceits; first, the fault of our
going was our owne,
what could be thought fitting or
necessary we had, but what we should find, or want, or where we should
be, we were all ignorant, and supposing to make our passage in two
moneths, with victuall to liue, and the advantage of the spring to
worke; we were at Sea fiue moneths, where we both spent our victuall
and lost the opportunitie of the time, and season to plant, by the
vnskilfull presumption of our ignorant transporters, that vnderstood
not at all, what they vndertooke.
Such actions haue
ever since the worlds beginning beene subiect to such accidents, and
every thing of worth is found full of difficulties, but nothing so
difficult as to establish a Common wealth so farre remote from men and
meanes, and where mens mindes are so vntoward as neither doe well
themselues, nor suffer others. But to proceed.
The building of Iames Towne.
The beginning of Trade abroad.
The new President and Martin,
being little beloved, of weake iudgement in dangers, and lesse
industrie in peace, committed the managing of all things abroad to
Captaine Smith: who by his owne example,
good words, and faire promises, set some to mow, others to binde
thatch, some to build houses, others to thatch them, himselfe alwayes
bearing the greatest taske for his owne share, so that in short time,
he provided most of them lodgings, neglecting any for himselfe. This
done, seeing the Salvages superfluitie beginne to decrease (with some
of his workemen) shipped himselfe in the Shallop to search the Country
for trade. The want of the language, knowledge to mannage his boat
without sailes, the want of a sufficient power, (knowing the multitude
of the Salvages) apparell for his men, and other necessaries, were
infinite impediments, yet no discouragement. Being but six or seauen in
company he went downe the river to Kecoughtan,
where at first they scorned him, as a famished man, and would in
derision offer him a handfull of Corne, a peece of bread, for their
swords and muskets, and such like proportions also for their apparell.
But seeing by trade and courtesie there was nothing to be had, he made
bold to try such conclusions as necessitie inforced, though contrary to
his Commission: Let fly his muskets, ran his boat on shore, where at
they all fled into the woods. So marching towards their houses, they
might see great heapes of corne: much adoe he had to restraine his
hungry souldiers from present taking of it, expecting as it hapned that
the Salvages would assault them, as not long after they did with a most
hydeous noyse. Sixtie or seaventie of them, some blacke, some red, some
white, some party-coloured, came in a square order, singing and
dauncing out of the woods, with their Okee
(which was an Idoll made of skinnes, stuffed with mosse, all painted
and hung with chaines and copper) borne before them: and in this manner
being well armed, with Clubs, Targets, Bowes and Arrowes, they charged
the English, that so kindly receiued them with their muskets loaden
with Pistoll shot, that downe fell their God, and divers lay sprauling
on the ground; the rest fled againe to the woods, and ere long sent one
of their Quiyoughkasoucks to offer peace, and redeeme their Okee. Smith
told them, if onely six of them would come vnarmed and loade his boat,
he would not only be their friend, but restore them their Okee,
and giue them Beads, Copper, and Hatchets besides: which on both sides
was to their contents performed: and then they brought him Venison,
Turkies, wild foule, bread, and what they had, singing and dauncing in
signe of friendship till they departed. In his returne he discovered
the Towne and Country of Warraskoyack.
Thus God vnboundlesse by his power,
Made them thus kind, would vs deuour.
Amovis, a Salvage his best friend slaine for loving vs.
The Discovery of Chickahamine.
Another proiect to abandon the country.
perceiving (notwithstanding their late miserie) not any regarded but
from hand to mouth (the company being well recovered) caused the
Pinnace to be provided with things fitting to get provision for the
yeare following; but in the interim he made 3. or 4. iournies and
discovered the people of Chickahamania: yet what he carefully provided the rest carelesly spent. Wingfield and Kendall liuing in disgrace, seeing all things at randome in the absence of Smith, the companies dislike of their
Presidents weaknes, and their small loue to Martins
never mending sicknes, strengthened themselues with the sailers, and
other confederates to regaine their former credit and authority, or at
least such meanes abord the Pinnace, (being fitted to saile as Smith had appointed for trade) to alter her course and to goe for England. Smith
vnexpectedly returning had the plot discovered to him, much trouble he
had to prevent it, till with store of sakre and musket shot he forced
them stay or sinke in the riuer, which action cost the life of captaine
Kendall. These brawles are so disgustfull,
as some will say they were better forgotten, yet all men of good
iudgement will conclude, it were better their basenes should be
manifest to the world, then the busines beare the scorne and shame of
their excused disorders. The President and captaine Archer not long after intended also to haue abandoned the country, which proiect also was curbed, and suppressed by Smith. The Spaniard
never more greedily desired gold then he victuall, nor his souldiers
more to abandon the Country, then he to keepe it. But finding plentie
of Corne in the riuer of Chickahamania
where hundreds of Salvages in diuers places stood with baskets
expecting his comming. And now the winter approaching, the rivers
became so covered with swans, geese, duckes, and cranes, that we daily
feasted with good bread, Virginia pease, pumpions, and putchamins,
fish, fowle, and diverse sorts of wild beasts as fat as we could eate
them: so that none of our Tuftaffaty humorists desired to goe for England. But our Comœdies never endured long without a Tragedie; some idle exceptions being muttered against Captaine Smith, for not discovering the head of Chickahamania
river, and taxed by the Councell, to be too slow in so worthy an
attempt. The next voyage hee proceeded so farre that with much labour
by cutting of trees in sunder he made his passage, but when his Barge
could passe no farther, he left her in a broad bay out of danger of
shot, commanding none should goe a shore till his returne: himselfe
with two English and two Salvages went vp higher in a Canowe, but hee
was not long absent, but his men went a shore, whose want of
government, gaue both occasion and opportunity to the Salvages to
surprise one George Cassen, whom they slew, and much failed not to haue cut of the boat and all the rest. Smith little dreaming of that accident, being got to the marshes at the rivers head, twentie myles in the desert, had his*
two men slaine (as is supposed) sleeping by the Canowe, whilst himselfe
by fowling sought them victuall, who finding he was beset with 200.
Salvages, two of them hee slew, still defending himselfe with the ayd
of a Salvage his guid, whom he bound to his arme with his garters, and
vsed him as a buckler, yet he was shot in his thigh a little, and had
many arrowes that stucke in his cloathes but no great hurt, till at
last they tooke him prisoner.
* Ichu Robinson and Thomas Emry slaine.
When this newes came to Iames
towne, much was their sorrow for his losse, fewe expecting what ensued.
Sixe or seuen weekes those Barbarians kept him prisoner, many strange
triumphes and coniurations they made of him, yet hee so demeaned
himselfe amongst them, as he not onely diverted them from surprising
the Fort, but procured his owne libertie, and got himselfe and his
company such estimation amongst them, that those Salvages admired him
more then their owne Quiyouckosucks. The manner how they vsed and deliuered him, is as followeth.
Captaine Smith taken prisoner.
The Salvages hauing drawne from George Cassen whether Captaine Smith was gone, prosecuting that oportunity they followed him with. 300. bowmen, conducted by the King of Pamavnkee, who in diuisions searching the turnings of the riuer, found Robinson and Emry
by the fire side, those they shot full of arrowes and slew. Then
finding the Captaine, as is said, that vsed the Salvage that was his
guide as his sheld (three of them being slaine and diuers other so
gauld) all the rest would not come neere him. Thinking thus to haue
returned to his boat, regarding them, as he marched, more then his way,
slipped vp to the middle in an oasie creeke & his Salvage with him,
yet durst they not come to him till being neere dead with cold, he
threw away his armes. Then according to their composition they drew him
forth and led him to the fire, where his men were slaine. Diligently
they chafed his benummed
limbs. He demanding for their Captaine, they shewed him Opechankanough, King of Pamavnkee,
to whom he gaue a round Ivory double compass Dyall. Much they marvailed
at the playing of the Fly and Needle, which they could see so plainely,
and yet not touch it, because of the glasse that covered them. But when
he demonstrated by that Globe-like Iewell, the roundnesse of the earth,
and skies, the spheare of the Sunne, Moone, and Starres, and how the
Sunne did chase the night round about the world continually; the
greatnesse of the Land and Sea, the diversitie of Nations, varietie of
complexions, and how we were to them Antipodes,
and many other such like matters, they all stood as amazed with
admiration. Notwithstanding, within an houre after they tyed him to a
tree, and as many as could stand about him prepared to shoot him, but
the King holding vp the Compass in his hand, they all laid downe their
Bowes and Arrowes, and in a triumphant manner led him to Orapaks, where he was after their manner kindly feasted, and well vsed.
The order they observed in their trivmph.
Their order in
conducting him was thus; Drawing themselues all in fyle, the King in
the middest had all their Peeces and Swords borne before him. Captaine Smith
was led after him by three great Salvages, holding him fast by each
arme: and on each side six went in fyle with their Arrowes nocked. But
arriving at the Towne (which was but onely thirtie or fortie hunting
houses made of Mats, which they remoue as they please, as we our tents)
all the women and children staring to behold him, the souldiers first
all in fyle performed the forme of a Bissom
so well as could be; and on each flanke, officers as Serieants to see
them keepe their order. A good time they continued this exercise, and
then cast themselues in a ring, dauncing in such severall Postures, and
singing and yelling out such hellish notes and screeches; being
strangely painted, every one his quiver of Arrowes, and at his backe a
club; on his arme a Fox or an Otters skinne, or some such matter for
his vambrace; their heads and shoulders painted red, with Oyle and Pocones
mingled together, which Scarlet-like colour made an exceeding handsome
shew; his Bow in his hand, and the skinne of a Bird with her wings
abroad dryed, tyed on his head, a peece of copper, a white shell, a
long feather, with a small rattle growing at the tayles of their snaks
tyed to it, or some such like toy. All this while Smith and the King stood in the middest guarded, as before is said, and after three dances they all departed. Smith
they conducted to a long house, where thirtie or fortie tall fellowes
did guard him, and ere long more bread and venison was brought him then
would haue served twentie men, I thinke his stomacke at that time was
not very good; what he left they put in baskets and tyed over his head.
About midnight they set the meate againe before him, all this time not
one of them would eate a bit with him, till the next morning they
brought him as much more, and then did they eate all the old, &
reserved the new as they had done the other, which made him thinke they
would fat him to eat him. Yet in this desperate estate to defend him
from the cold, one Maocassater brought him his gowne, in requitall of some beads and toyes Smith had given him at his first arrivall in Virginia.
How he should haue beene slaine at Orapacks.
Two dayes after a
man would haue slaine him (but that the guard prevented it) for the
death of his sonne, to whom they conducted him to recover the poore man
then breathing his last. Smith told them that at Iames
towne he had a water would doe it, if they would let him fetch it, but
they would not permit that; but made all the preparations they could to
assault Iames towne, crauing his advice,
and for recompence he should haue life, libertie, land, and women. In
part of a Table booke he writ his minde to them at the Fort, what was
intended, how they should follow that direction to affright the
messengers, and without fayle send him such things as he writ for. And
an Inventory with them. The difficultie and danger, he told the
Salvages, of the Mines, great gunnes, and other Engins exceedingly
affrighted them, yet according to his request they went to Iames towne, in as bitter weather as could be of frost and snow, and within three dayes returned with an answer.
How he saued Iames towne from being surprised.
How they did Coniure him at Pamavnkee.But when they came to Iame
towne, seeing men sally out as he had told them they would, they fled;
yet in the night they came againe to the same place where he had
told them they should receiue an
answer, and such things as he had promised them, which they found
accordingly, and with which they returned with no small expedition, to
the wonder of them all that heard it, that he could either divine, or
the paper could speake: then they led him to the Youthtanunds, the Mattapanients, the Payankatanks, the Nantaughtacunds, and Onawmanicnts vpon the rivers ef Rapahanock, and Patawomek, over all those rivers, and backe againe by divers other severall Nations, to the Kings habitation at Pamavnkee, where they entertained him with most strange and fearefull Coniurations;
As if neare led to hell,
Amongst the Devils to dwell.
Not long after,
early in a morning a great fire was made in a long house, and a mat
spread on the one side, as on the other, on the one they caused him to
sit, and all the guard went out of the house, and presently came
skipping in a great grim fellow, all painted over with coale, mingled
with oyle; and many Snakes and Wesels skins stuffed with mosse, and all
their tayles tyed together, so as they met on the crowne of his head in
a tassell; and round about the tassell was as a Coronet of feathers,
the skins hanging round about his head, backe, and shoulders, and in a
manner covered his face; with a hellish voyce and a rattle in his hand.
With most strange gestures and passions he began his invocation, and
environed the fire with a circle of meale; which done, three more such
like devils came rushing in with the like antique tricks, painted halfe
blacke, halfe red: but all their eyes were painted white, and some red
stroakes like Mutchato's, along their cheekes: round about him those
fiends daunced a pretty while, and then came in three more as vgly as
the rest; with red eyes, and white stroakes over their blacke faces, at
last they all sat downe right against him; three of them on the one
hand of the chiefe Priest, and three on the other. Then all with their
rattles began a song, which ended, the chiefe Priest layd downe fiue
wheat cornes: then strayning his armes and hands with such violence
that he sweat, and his veynes swelled, he began a short Oration: at the
conclusion they all gaue a short groane; and then layd down three
graines more. After that, began their song againe, and then another
Oration, ever laying downe so many cornes as before, till they had
twice incirculed the fire; that done, they tooke a bunch of little
stickes prepared for that purpose, continuing still their devotion, and
at the end of every song and Oration, they layd downe a sticke betwixt
the divisions of Corne. Till night, neither he nor they did either eate
or drinke, and then they feasted merrily, with the best provisions they
could make. Three dayes they vsed this Ceremony; the meaning whereof
they told him, was to know if he intended them well or no. The circle
of meale signified their Country, the circles of corne the bounds of
the Sea, and the stickes his Country. They imagined the world to be
flat and round, like a trencher, and they in the middest. After this
they brought him a bagge of gunpowder, which they carefully preferved
till the next spring, to plant as they did their corne; because they
would be acquainted with the nature of that seede. Opitchapam
the Kings brother invited him to his house, where, with as many
platters of bread, soule, and wild beasts, as did environ him, he bid
him wellcome; but not any of them would eate a bit with him, but put vp
all the remainder in Baskets. At his returne to Opechancanoughs,
all the Kings women, and their children, flocked about him for their
parts, as a due by Custome, to be merry with such fragments.
But his waking mind in hydeous dreames did oft see wondrous shapes,
Of bodies strange, and huge in growth, and of stupendious makes.
How Powhatan entertained him.
How Pocahontas saved his life.
At last they brought him to Meronocomoco, where was Powhatan their Emperor. Here more then two hundred of those grim Courtiers stood wondering at him, as he had beene a monster; till Powhatan
and his trayne had put themselues in their greatest braveries. Before a
fire vpon a seat like a bedsted, he sat covered with a great robe, made
of Rarowcun skinnes, and all the tayles
hanging by. On either hand did sit a young wench of 16 to 18 yeares,
and along on each side the house, two rowes
of men, and behind them as many
women, with all their heads and shoulders painted red; many of their
heads bedecked with the white downe of Birds; but every one with
something: and a great chayne of white beads about their necks. At his
entrance before the King, all the people gaue a great shout. The Queene
was appointed to bring him water to wash his hands, and another brought
him a bunch of feathers, in stead of a Towell to dry them: having
feasted him after their best barbarous manner they could, a long
consultation was held, but the conclusion was, two great stones were
brought before Powhatan: then as many as
could layd hands on him, dragged him to them, and thereon laid his
head, and being ready with their clubs, to beate out his braines, Pocahontas
the Kings dearest daughter, when no intreaty could prevaile, got his
head in her armes, and laid her owne vpon his to saue him from death:
whereat the Emperour was contented he should liue to make him hatchets,
and her bells, beads, and copper; for they thought him as well of all
occupations as themselues. For the King himselfe will make his owne
robes, shooes, bowes, arrowes, pots; plant, hunt, or doe any thing so
well as the rest.
They say he bore a pleasant shew,
But sure his heart was sad.
For who can pleasant be, and rest,
That liues in feare and dread:
And having life suspected, doth
It still suspected lead.
How Powhatan sent him to Iames Towne.
The third proiect to abandon the Countrey.
Two dayes after, Powhatan having disguised himselfe in the most fearefullest manner he could, caused Capt: Smith
to be brought forth to a great house in the woods, and there vpon a mat
by the fire to be left alone. Not long after from behinde a mat that
divided the house, was made the most dolefullest noyse he ever heard;
then Powhatan more like a devill then a
man with some two hundred more as blacke as himselfe, came vnto him and
told him now they were friends, and presently he should goe to Iames towne, to send him two great gunnes, and a gryndstone, for which he would giue him the Country of Capahowosick, and for ever esteeme him as his sonne Nantaquoud. So to Iames towne with 12 guides Powhatan
sent him. That night they quarterd in the woods, he still expecting (as
he had done all this long time of his imprisonment) every houre to be
put to one death or other: for all their feasting. But almightie God
(by his divine providence) had mollified the hearts of those sterne Barbarians with compassion. The next morning betimes they came to the Fort, where Smith having vsed the Salvages with what kindnesse he could, he shewed Rawhunt, Powhatans trusty servant two demi-Culverings & a millstone to carry Powhatan:
they found them somewhat too heavie; but when they did see him
discharge them, being loaded with stones, among the boughs of a great
tree loaded with Isickles, the yce and branches came so tumbling downe,
that the poore Salvages ran away halfe dead with feare. But at last we
regained some conference with them, and gaue them such toyes; and sent
to Powhatan, his women, and children such presents, as gaue them in generall full content. Now in Iames
Towne they were all in combustion, the strongest preparing once more to
run away with the Pinnace; which with the hazzard of his life, with
Sakrefalcon and musket shot, Smith forced
now the third time to stay or sinke. Some no better then they should
be, had plotted with the President, the next day to haue put him to
death by the Leviticall law, for the liues of Robinson and Emry,
pretending the fault was his that had led them to their ends: but he
quickly tooke such order with such Lawyers, that he layd them by the
heeles till he sent some of them prisoners for England. Now ever once in foure or fiue dayes, Pocahontas
with her attendants, brought him so much provision, that saved many of
their liues, that els for all this had starved with hunger.
Thus from numbe death our good God sent reliefe,
The sweete asswager of all other griefe.
A true proofe of Gods loue to the action.
His relation of the plenty he had seene, especially at Werawocomoco, and of the state and bountie of Powhatan, (which till that time was vnknowne) so revived their dead spirits (especially the loue of Pocahontas)
as all mens feare was abandoned. Thus you may see what difficulties
still crossed any good indevour: and the good successe of the businesse
being thus oft brought to the very period of destruction; yet you see
by what strange means God hath still delivered it. As for the
insufficiency of them admitted in Commission, that error could not be
prevented by the Electors; there being no other choise, and all
strangers to each others education, qualities, or disposition. And if
any deeme it a shame to our Nation to haue any mention made of those
inormities, let them pervse the Histories of the Spanyards Discoveries
and Plantations, where they may see how many mutinies, disorders, and
dissentions haue accompanied them, and crossed their attempts: which
being knowne to be particular mens offences; doth take away the
generall scorne and contempt, which malice, presumption, covetousnesse,
or ignorance might produce; to the scandall and reproach of those,
whose actions and valiant resolutions deserue a more worthy respect.
Of two evils the lesse was chosen.
Now whether it had beene better for Captaine Smith,
to haue concluded with any of those severall proiects, to haue
abandoned the Countrey, with some ten or twelue of them, who were
called the better sort, and haue left Mr Hunt our Preacher, Master Anthony Gosnoll, a most honest, worthy, and industrious Gentleman, Master Thomas Wotton,
and some 27 others of his Countrymen to the fury of the Salvages,
famine, and all manner of mischiefes, and inconveniences, (for they
were but fortie in all to keepe possession of this large Country;) or
starue himselfe with them for company, for want of lodging: or but
adventuring abroad to make them provision, or by his opposition to
preserue the action, and saue all their liues; I leaue to the censure
of all honest men to consider. But
We men imagine in our Iolitie,
That 'tis all one, or good or bad to be.
But then anone wee alter this againe,
If happily wee feele the sence of paine;
For then we're turn'd into a mourning vaine.
Written by Thomas Studley,
the first Cape Merchant in
Virginia, Robert Fenton,
Edward Harrington, and I. S.
The Arrivall of the first supply, with their Proceedings,
and the Ships returne.
The Phœnix from Cape Henry forced to the West Indies.
ALL this time our
care was not so much to abandon the Countrey; but the Treasurer and
Councell in England, were as diligent
& carefull to supply vs. Two good ships they sent vs, with neare a
hundred men, well furnished with all things could be imagined
necessary, both for them and vs; The one commanded by Captaine Newport: the other by Captaine Francis Nelson, an honest man, and an expert Marriner. But such was the lewardnesse of his Ship (that though he was within the sight of Cape Heury) by stormy contrary winds was he forced so farre to Sea, that the West Indies was the next land, for the repaire of his Masts, and reliefe of wood and water. But Newport got in and arrived at Iames Towne, not long after the redemption of Captaine Smith.
To whom the Salvages, as is sayd, every other day repaired, with such
provisions that sufficiently did serue them from hand to mouth: part
alwayes they brought him as Presents from their Kings, or Pocahontas; the rest he as their Market Clarke set the price himselfe, how they should sell: so he
had inchanted these poore soules being their prisoner; and now Newport,
whom he called his Father arriving, neare as directly as he foretold,
they esteemed him as an Oracle, and had them at that submission he
might command them what he listed. That God that created all things
they knew he adored for his God: they would also in their discourses
tearme the God of Captaine Smith.
Their opinion of our God.
Thus the Almightie was the bringer on,
The guide, path, terme, all which was God alone.
Smiths revisiting Powhatan.
But the President
and Councell so much envied his estimation among the Salvages, (though
we all in generall equally participated with him of the good thereof,)
that they wrought it into the Salvages vnderstandings (by their great
bounty in giving foure times more for their commodities then Smith
appointed) that their greatnesse and authoritie as much exceeded his,
as their bountie and liberalitie. Now the arrivall of this first supply
so overioyed vs, that wee could not devise too much to please the
Marriners. We gaue them libertie to trucke or trade at their pleasures.
But in a short time it followed, that could not be had for a pound of
Copper, which before was sould vs for an ounce: thus ambition and
sufferance cut the throat of our trade, but confirmed their opinion of
the greatnesse of Capt. Newport, (where with Smith had possessed Powhatan) especially by the great presents Newport
often sent him, before he could prepare the Pinnace to goe and visit
him: so that this great Savage desired also to see him. A great coyle
there was to set him forward. When he went he was accompanied with
Captaine Smith, & Mr Scrivener,
a very wise vnderstanding Gentleman, newly arrived and admitted of the
Councell, with thirtie or fortie chosen men for their guard. Arriving
at Werowocomoco, Newports conceit of this great Savage bred many doubts and suspitions of trecheries, which Smith to make appeare was needlesse, with twentie men well appointed, vndertooke to encounter the worst that could happen: Knowing
All is but one, and selfe-same hand, that thus
Both one while scourgeth, and that helpeth vs.
- Nathaniell Powell.
- Robert Behethland.
- Michell Phittiplace.
- William Phittiplace.
- Anthony Gosnoll.
- Richard Wyffin.
- Iohn Taverner.
- William Dyer.
- Thomas Coe.
- Thomas Hope.
- Anas Todkill.
Powhatan his entertainement.
The exchage of a Christian for a Salvage.
These, with nine
others (whose names I haue forgotten) comming a-shore, landed amongst a
many of creekes, over which they were to passe such poore bridges,
onely made of a few cratches, thrust in the ose, and three or foure
poles laid on them, and at the end of them the like, tyed together
onely with barkes of trees, that it made them much suspect those
bridges were but traps. Which caused Smith
to make diverse Salvages goe over first, keeping some of the chiefe as
hostage till halfe his men were passed, to make a guard for himselfe
and the rest. But finding all things well, by two or three hundred
Salvages they were kindly conducted to their towne. Where Powhatan
strained himselfe to the vtmost of his greatnesse to entertaine them,
with great shouts of ioy, Orations of protestations; and with the most
plenty of victualls he could provide to feast them. Sitting vpon his
bed of mats, his pillow of leather imbrodered (after their rude manner
with pearle and white Beads) his attyre a faire robe of skinnes as
large as an Irish mantell: at his head and feete a handsome young
woman: on each side his house sat twentie of his Concubines, their
heads and shoulders painted red, with a great chaine of white beads
about each of their neckes. Before those sat his chiefest men in like
order in his arbour-like house, and more then fortie platters of fine
bread stood as a guard in two fyles on each side the doore. Foure or
fiue hundred people made a guard behinde them for our passage; and
Proclamation was made, none vpon paine of death to presume to doe vs
any wrong or discourtesie. With many pretty Discourses to renew
their old acquaintance, this
great King and our Captaine spent the time, till the ebbe left our
Barge aground. Then renewing their feasts with feates, dauncing and
singing, and such like mirth, we quartered that night with Powhatan. The next day Newport came a shore and receiued as much content as those people could giue him: a boy named Thomas Salvage was then giuen vnto Powhatan, whom Newport called his sonne; for whom Powhatan gaue him Namontack
his trustie servant, and one of a shrewd, subtill capacitie. Three or
foure dayes more we spent in feasting, dauncing, and trading, wherein Powhatan
carried himselfe so proudly, yet discreetly (in his salvage manner) as
made vs all admire his naturall gifts, considering his education. As
scorning to trade as his subiects did; he bespake Newport in this manner.
Differences of opinions.
Iames towne burnt.
A ship Idely loytering 14. weekes.
The effect of meere Verbalists.
A needlesse charge.
A returne to England.
Captaine Newport it
is not agreeable to my greatnesse, in this pedling manner to trade for
trifles; and I esteeme you also a great Werowance. Therefore lay me
downe all your commodities together; what I like I will take, and in
recompence giue you what I thinke fitting their value. Captaine Smith being our interpreter, regarding Newport as his father, knowing best the disposition of Powhatan, tould vs his intent was but onely to cheate vs; yet Captaine Newport
thinking to out braue this Salvage in ostentation of greatnesse, and so
to bewitch him with his bountie, as to haue what he listed, it so
hapned, that Powhatan hauing his desire, valued his corne at such a rate, that I thinke it better cheape in Spaine:
for we had not foure bushells for that we expected to haue twentie
hogsheads. This bred some vnkindnesse betweene our two Captaines; Newport seeking to please the vnsatiable desire of the Salvage, Smith to cause the Salvage to please him; but smothering his distast to avoyd the Saluages suspition, glanced in the eyes of Powhatan many trifles, who fixed his humor vpon a few blew beades. A long time he importunately desired them, but Smith
seemed so much the more to affect them, as being composed of a most
rare substance of the coulour of the skyes, and not to be worne but by
the greatest kings in the world. This made him halfe madde to be the
owner of such strange Iewells: so that ere we departed, for a pound or
two of blew beades, be brought ouer my king for 2. or 300. Bushells of
corne; yet parted good friends. The like entertainment we found of Opechankanough king of Pamavnkee,
whom also he in like manner fitted (at the like rates) with blew beads,
which grew by this meanes, of that estimation, that none durst weare
any of them but their great kings, their wiues and children. And so we
returned all well to Iames towne, where
this new supply being lodged with the rest, accidentally fired their
quarters and so the towne, which being but thatched with reeds, the
fire was so fierce as it burnt their Pallisado's, (though eight or ten
yards distant) with their Armes, bedding, apparell, and much priuate
prouision. Good Master Hunt our Preacher
lost all his Library and all he had but the cloathes on his backe: yet
none neuer heard him repine at his losse. This happned in the winter in
that extreame frost. 1607. Now though we had victuall sufficient I
meane onely of Oatmeale, meale and corne, yet the Ship staying 14.
weekes when shee might as wel haue beene gone in 14. dayes, spent a
great part of that, and neare all the rest that was sent to be landed.
When they departed what there discretion could spare vs, to make a
little poore meale or two, we called feastes, to relish our mouthes: of
each somwhat they left vs, yet I must confesse, those that had either
money, spare clothes credit to giue billes of paiment, gold rings,
furrs, or any such commodities, were euer welcome to their remouing
tauerne, such was our patience to obay such vile Commanders, and buy
our owne provisions at 15. times the value, suffering them feast (we
bearing the charge) yet must not repine, but fast, least we should
incurre the censure of factious and seditious persons: and then
leakage, ship rats, and other casuallties occasioned them losse, but
the vessels and remnants (for totals) we were glad to receaue with all
our hearts to make vp the account, highly commending their prouidence
for preseruing that, least they should discourage any more to come to
vs. Now for all this plenty our ordynary was but meale and water, so
that this great charge little releeued our wants, whereby with the
extremitie of the
bitter cold frost and those defects, more then halfe of vs dyed; I cannot deny but both Smith and Skriuener
did their best to amend what was amisse, but with the President went
the maior part, that there hornes were to short. But the worst was our
guilded refiners with their golden promises made all men their slaues
in hope of recompences; there was no talke, no hope, no worke, but dig
gold, wash gold, refine gold, loade gold, such a bruit of gold, that
one mad fellow desired to be buried in the sands least they should by
there art make gold of his bones: little neede there was and lesse
reason, the ship should stay, there wages run on, our victualls consume
14. weekes, that the Mariners might say, they did helpe to build such a
golden Church that we can say the raine washed neere to nothing in 14.
dayes. Were it that captaine Smith would
not applaude all those golden inventions, because they admitted him not
to the sight of their trialls nor golden consultations, I know not; but
I haue heard him oft question with Captaine Martin
& tell him, except he could shew him a more substantiall triall, he
was not inamoured with their durty skill, breathing out these and many
other passions, neuer any thing did more torment him, then to see all
necessary busines neglected, to fraught such a drunken ship with so
much guilded durt. Till then we neuer accounted, Captaine Newport a refiner, who being ready to set saile for England,
& we not hauing any vse of Parliaments, Plaies, Petitions,
Admiralls, Recorders, Interpreters, Chronologers, Courts of Plea, nor
Iustices of peace, sent Master Wingfield and Captaine Archer home with him, that had ingrossed all those titles, to seeke some better place of imployment.
Oh cursed gold those, hunger-starved movers,
To what misfortunes lead'st thou all these lovers!
For all the China wealth, nor Indies can
Suffice the minde of an av'ritious man.
The Arrivall of the Phœnix; her returne; and other Accidents.
The rebuilding Iames Towne.
Sixtie appointed to discover the Monacans.
THe authoritie now consisting in Captaine Martin,
and the still sickly President, the sale of the Stores commodities
maintained his estate, as an inheritable revenew. The spring
approaching, and the Ship departing, Mr Scrivener and Captaine Smith devided betwixt them the rebuilding Iames
towne; the repairing our Pallizadoes; the cutting downe trees;
preparing our fields; planting our corne, and to rebuild our Church,
and recover our Store house. All men thus busie at their severall
labours, Master Nelson arrived with his lost Phœnix; lost (I say) for that we all deemed him lost. Landing safely all his men, (so well he had mannaged his ill hap,) causing the Indian Isles
to feede his company, that his victuall to that we had gotten, as is
said before, was neare after our allowance sufficient for halfe a
yeare. He had not any thing but he freely imparted it, which honest
dealing (being a Marriner) caused vs admire him: we would not haue
wished more then he did for vs. Now to relade this ship with some good
tydings, the President (not holding it stood with the dignitie of his
place to leaue the Fort) gaue order to Captaine Smith to discover and search the commodities of the Monacans Countrey beyond the Falls. Sixtie able men was allotted them, the which within six dayes, Smith
had so well trained to their armes and orders, that they little feared
with whom they should incounter: yet so vnseasonable was the time, and
so opposit was Captaine Martin to any thing, but onely to fraught this ship also with his phantasticall gold, as Captaine Smith
rather desired to relade her with Cedar, (which was a present dispatch)
then either with durt, or the hopes and reports of an vncertaine
discovery, which he would performe when they had lesse charge and more
The God of Heav'n, He eas'ly can
Immortalize a mortall man,
With glory and with fame.
The same God, ev'n as eas'ly may
Afflict a mortall man, I say,
With sorrow and with shame.
Whilst the conclusion was a resolving, this hapned.
An ill example to sell swords to Salvages.
The Presidents weaknesse.
Smiths attempt to suppresse the Salvages insolencies.
Powhatan (to expresse his loue to Newport)
when he departed, presented him with twentie Turkies, conditionally to
returne him twentie swords, which immediately was sent him; now after
his departure he presented Captaine Smith
with the like luggage, but not finding his humor obeyed in not sending
such weapons as he desired, he caused his people with twentie devices
to obtaine them. At last by ambuscadoes at our very Ports they would
take them perforce, surprise vs at worke, or any way; which was so long
permitted, they became so insolent there was no rule; the command from England
was so strait not to offend them, as our authoritie-bearers (keeping
their houses) would rather be any thing then peace-breakers. This
charitable humor prevailed, till well it chanced they medled with
Captaine Smith, who without farther
deliberation gaue them such an incounter, as some he so hunted vp and
downe the Isle, some he so terrified with whipping, beating, and
imprisonment, as for revenge they surprised two of our forraging
disorderly souldiers, and having assembled their forces, boldly
threatned at our Ports to force Smith to
redeliver seven Salvages, which for their villanies he detained
prisoners, or we were all but dead men. But to try their furies he
sallied out amongst them, and in lesse then an houre, he so hampred
their insolencies, they brought them his two men, desiring peace
without any further composition for their prisoners. Those he examined,
and caused them all beleeue, by severall vollies of shot one of their
companions was shot to death, because they would not confesse their
intents and plotters of those villanies. And thus they all agreed in
one point, they were directed onely by Powhatan
to obtaine him our weapons, to cut our owne throats, with the manner
where, how, and when, which we plainly found most true and apparant:
yet he sent his messengers, and his dearest daughter Pocahontas
with presents to excuse him of the iniuries done by some rash vntoward
Captaines his subiects, desiring their liberties for this time, with
the assurance of his loue for ever. After Smith had given the prisoners what correction he thought fit, vsed them well a day or two after, & then delivered them Pocahontas,
for whose sake onely he fayned to haue saued their liues, and gaue them
libertie. The patient Councell that nothing would moue to warre with
the Salvages, would gladly haue wrangled with Captaine Smith
for his crueltie, yet none was slaine to any mans knowledge, but it
brought them in such feare and obedience, as his very name would
sufficiently affright them; where before, wee had sometime peace and
warre twice in a day, and very seldome a weeke, but we had some
trecherous villany or other.
A ship fraught with Cedar.
The fraught of this
Ship being concluded to be Cedar, by the diligence of the Master, and
Captaine Smith, she was quickly reladed: Master Scrivener was neither idle nor slow to follow all things at the Fort; the Ship being ready to set sayle, Captaine Martin
being alwayes very sickly, and vnserviceable, and desirous to inioy the
credit of his supposed Art of finding the golden Mine, was most
willingly admitted to returne for England. For
He hath not fill'd his lapp,
That still doth hold it oap.
From the writings of Thomas
Studley, and Anas Todkill.
Their Names that were landed in this Supply.
Sir Thomas Smith Treasurer.
- Mathew Scrivener appointed to be one of the Councell.
- Michaell Phittiplace.
- William Phittiplace.
- Ralph Morton.
- Richard Wyffing.
- Iohn Taverner.
- William Cantrell.
- Robert Barnes.
- Richard Fetherstone.
- George Hill.
- George Pretty.
- Nathaniell Causy.
- Peter Pory.
- Robert Cutler.
- Michaell Sicklemore.
- William Bentley.
- Thomas Coe.
- Doctor Russell.
- Ieffrey Abbot.
- Edward Gurgana.
- Richard Worley.
- Timothy Leeds.
- Richard Killingbeck.
- William Spence.
- Richard Prodger.
- Richard Pots.
- Richard Mullinax.
- William Bayley.
- Francis Perkins.
- Iohn Harper.
- George Forest.
- Iohn Nichols.
- William Griuell.
- Raymőd Goodison.
- William Simons.
- Iohn Spearman.
- Richard Bristow.
- William Perce.
- Iames Watkins.
- Iohn Bouth.
- Christopher Rods.
- Richard Burket.
- Iames Burre.
- Nicholas Ven.
- Francis Perkins.
- Richard Gradon.
- Rawland Nelstrop.
- Richard Savage.
- Thomas Savage.
- Richard Milmer.
- William May.
- Bishop Wiles.
- Thomas Hope.
- William Ward.
- Iohn Powell.
- William Yong.
- William Beckwith.
- Larence Towtales.
- Thomas Field.
- Iohn Harford.
And divers others to the number of 120.
- Dani: Stallings, Ieweller.
- Will: Dawson, a refiner.
- Abram Ransack, a refiner.
- Wil: Iohnson, a Goldsmith.
- Peter Keffer, a gunsmith.
- Rob: Alberton, a perfumer.
- Richard Belfield, a Goldsmith.
- Post Ginnat, a Chirurg.
- Iohn Lewes, a Cooper.
- Robert Cotton, a Tobacco-pipe-maker.
- Richard Dole, a Blacksmith.
The Accidents that hapned in the Discovery of the Bay of Chisapeack.
THe prodigalitie of
the Presidents state went so deepe into our small store, that Smith and Scrivener tyed him and his Parasites to the rules of proportion. But now Smith being to depart, the Presidents authoritie so overswayed the discretion of Mr Scrivener, that our store, our time, our strength and labours were idely consumed to fulfill his phantasies. The second of Iune 1608. Smith left the Fort to performe his Discovery with this Company.
- Walter Russell, Doctor of Physicke.
- Ralfe Murton.
- Thomas Momford.
- William Cantrill.
- Richard Fetherston.
- Iames Burne.
- Michell Sicklemore.
A strange mortalitie of Salvages.
- Ionas Profit.
- Anas Todkill.
- Robert Small.
- Iames Watkins.
- Iohn Powell.
- Iames Read.
- Richard Keale.
An extreame want of fresh water.
These being in an open Barge neare three tuns burthen, leaving the Phœnix; at Cape Henry, they crossed the Bay to the Easterne shore, and fell with the Isles called Smiths Isles, after our Captaines name. The first people we saw were two grim and stout Salvages vpon Cape Charles, with long poles like lauelings, headed with bone,
they boldly demanded what we were, and what we would, but after many circumstances they seemed very kinde, and directed vs to Accomack, the habitation of their Werowance,
where we were kindly intreated. This King was the comliest, proper,
civil Salvage we incountred. His Country is a pleasant fertile clay
soyle, some small creekes; good Harbours for small Barks, but not for
Ships. He told vs of a strange accident lately happened him, and it
was, two children being dead; some extreame passions, or dreaming
visions, phantasies, or affection moued their parents againe to revisit
their dead carkases, whose benummed bodies reflected to the eyes of the
beholders such delightfull countenances, as though they had regained
their vitall spirits. This as a miracle drew many to behold them, all
which being a great part of his people, not long after dyed, and but
few escaped. They spake the language of Powhatan,
wherein they made such descriptions of the Bay, Isles, and rivers, that
often did vs exceeding pleasure. Passing along the coast, searching
every inlet, and Bay, fit for harbours and habitations. Seeing many
Isles in the midst of the Bay we bore vp for them, but ere we could
obtaine them, such an extreame gust of wind, rayne, thunder, and
lightening happened, that with great danger we escaped the vnmercifull
raging of that Ocean-like water. The highest land on the mayne, yet it
was but low, we called Keales hill, and these vninhabited Isles, Russels
Isles. The next day searching them for fresh water, we could find none,
the defect whereof forced vs to follow the next Easterne Channell,
which brought vs to the river of Wighcocomoco.
The people at first with great fury seemed to assault vs, yet at last
with songs and daunces and much mirth became very tractable, but
searching their habitations for water, we could fill but three
barricoes, & that such puddle, that never till then we ever knew
the want of good water. We digged and searched in many places, but
before two daies were expired, we would haue refused two barricoes of
gold for one of that puddle water of Wighcocomoco.
Being past these Isles which are many in number, but all naught for
habitation, falling with a high land vpon the mayne, we found a great
Pond of fresh water, but so exceeding hot wee supposed it some bath;
that place we called poynt Ployer, in honor of that most honourable House of Mousay in Britaine, that in an extreame extremitie once relieued our Captaine. From Wighcocomoco
to this place, all the coast is low broken Isles of Morap, growne a
myle or two in breadth, and ten or twelue in length, good to cut for
hay in Summer, and to catch fish and foule in Winter: but the Land
beyond them is all covered over with wood, as is the rest of the
Their Barge neare sunke in a gust.
The first notice of the Massawomeks.
Being thus refreshed
in crossing ouer from the maine to other Isles, we discouered the winde
and waters so much increased with thunder, lightning, and raine, that
our mast and sayle blew ouerbord and such mighty waues ouerracked vs in
that small barge that with great labour we kept her frő sinking by
freeing out the water. Two dayes we were inforced to inhabite these
vninhabited Isles which for the extremitie of gusts, thunder, raine,
stormes, and ill wether we called Limbo. Repairing our saile with our shirts, we set sayle for the maine and fell with a pretty convenient riuer on the East called Cuskarawaok,
the people ran as amazed in troups from place to place, and diuers got
into the tops of trees, they were not sparing of their arrowes, nor the
greatest passion they could expresse of their anger. Long they shot, we
still ryding at an Anchor without there reatch making all the signes of
friendship we could. The next day they came vnarmed, with euery one a
basket, dancing in a ring, to draw vs on shore: but seeing there was
nothing in them but villany, we discharged a volly of muskets charged
with pistoll shot, whereat they all lay tumbling on the grownd,
creeping some one way, some another into a great cluster of reedes hard
by; where there companies lay in Ambuscado. Towards the euening we
wayed, & approaching the shoare, discharging fiue or six shot among
the reedes, we landed where there lay a many of baskets and much bloud,
but saw not a Salvage. A smoake appearing on the other side the riuer,
we rowed thither, where we found two or three little houses, in each a
fire, there we left some peeces of copper, beads, bells, and looking
glasses, and then went into the bay, but when it was darke we came
backe againe. Early in
the morning foure Salvages came
to vs in their Canow, whom we vsed with such courtesie, not knowing
what we were, nor had done, hauing beene in the bay a fishing, bade vs
stay and ere long they would returne, which they did and some twentie
more with them; with whom after a little conference, two or three
thousand men women & childrẽ came clustring about vs, euery one
presẽting vs with something, which a little bead would so well require,
that we became such friends they would contend who should fetch vs
water, stay with vs for hostage, conduct our men any whither, and giue
vs the best content. Here doth inhabite the people of Sarapinagh, Nause, Arseek, and Nantaquak the best Marchants of all other Salvages. They much extolled a great nation called Massawomekes, in search of whom we returned by Limbo: this riuer but onely at the entrance is very narrow, and the people of small stature as them of Wightcocomoco,
the Land but low, yet it may proue very commodious, because it is but a
ridge of land betwixt the Bay and the maine Ocean. Finding this
Easterne shore, shallow broken Isles, and for most part without fresh
water, we passed by the straites of Limbo
for the Westerne shore: so broad is the bay here, we could scarce
perceiue the great high clifts on the other side: by them we Anchored
that night and called them Riccards Cliftes.
30. leagues we sayled more Northwards not finding any inhabitants,
leauing all the Easterne shore, lowe islandes, but ouergrowne with
wood, as all the Coast beyond them so farre as wee could see: the
Westerne shore by which we sayled we found all along well watered, but
very mountanous and barren, the vallies very fertill, but extreame
thicke of small wood so well as trees, and much frequented with Wolues,
Beares, Deere and other wild beasts. We passed many shallow creekes,
but the first we found Nauigable for a ship, we called Bolus,
for that the clay in many places vnder the clifts by the high water
marke, did grow vp in red and white knots as gum out of trees; and in
some places so participated together as though they were all of one
nature, excepting the coulour, the rest of the earth on both sides
being hard sandy grauell, which made vs thinke it Bole-Armoniack and Terra sigillata.
When we first set sayle some of our Gallants doubted nothing but that
our Captaine would make too much hast home, but hauing lien in this
small barge not aboue 12. or 14. dayes, oft tyred at the Oares, our
bread spoyled with wet so much that it was rotten (yet so good were
their stomacks that they could disgest it) they did with continuall
complaints so importune him now to returne, as caused him bespeake them
in this manner.
Smiths speech to his souldiers.
The discouery of Patawomek.
Gentlemen if you would remember the memorable history of Sir Ralph Layne, how his company importuned him to proceed in the discovery of Moratico, alleadging
they had yet a dog, that being boyled with Saxafras leaues, would
richly feede them in their returnes; then what a shame would it be for
you (that haue bin so suspitious of my tendernesse) to
fores me returne, with so much provision as we haue, and scarce able to
say where we haue beene, nor yet heard of that we were sent to seeke?
You cannot say but I haue shared with you in the worst which is past;
and for what is to come, of lodging, dyet, or whatsoeuer, I am
contented you allot the worst part to my selfe. As for your feares that
I will lose my selfe in these vnknowne large waters, or be swallowed vp
in some stormie gust; abandon these childish feares, for worse then is
past is not likely to happen: and there is as much danger to returne as
to proceede. Regaine therefore your old spirits for returne I will not (if God please) till I haue seene the Massawomeks, found Patawomek, or the head of this water you conceit to be endless.
Two or 3. dayes we expected winde & wether, whose aduerse
extremities added such discouragement, that three or foure fell sicke,
whose pittifull complaints caused vs to to returne, leauing the bay
some nine miles broad, at nine and ten fadome water.
Ambuscadoes of Salvages.
The 16. of Iune we fell with the riuer Patowomek:
feare being gone, and our men recovered, we were all content to take
some paines, to know the name of that seuen mile broad riuer: for
thirtie myles sayle, we could see no inhabitants: then we were
conducted by two Savages vp a little bayed creeke, towards Onawmanient,
where all the woods were layd with ambuscado's to the number of three
or foure thousand Salvages, so strangely paynted, grimed and disguised,
shouting, yelling and crying
as so many spirits from hell
could not haue shewed more terrible. Many brauado's they made, but to
appease their fury, our Captaine prepared with as seeming a
willingnesse (as they) to incounter them. But the grazing of our
bullets vpon the water (many being shot on purpose they might see them)
with the Ecco of the of the woods so amazed them, as downe went their
bowes and arrowes; (and exchanging hostage) Iames Watkins
was sent six myles vp the woods to their Kings habitation. We were
kindly vsed of those Salvages, of whom we vnderstood, they were
commanded to betray vs, by the direction of Powhatan, and he so directed from the discontents at Iames towne, because our Captaine did cause them stay in their country against their wills.
A trecherous proiect.
A myne like Antimony.
An aboundant plenty of fish.
The like incounters we found at Patowomek Cecocawonee and diuers other places: but at Moyaones, Nacotchtant and Toags
the people did their best to content vs. Hauing gone so high as we
could with the bote, we met diuers Saluages in Canowes, well loaden
with the flesh of Beares, Deere and other beasts, whereof we had part,
here we found mighty Rocks, growing in some places aboue the grownd as
high as the shrubby trees, and diuers other solid quarries of diuers
tinctures: and diuers places where the waters had falne from the high
mountaines they had left a tinctured spăgled skurfe, that made many
bare places seeme as guilded. Digging the growne aboue in the highest
clifts of rocks, we saw it was a claie sand so mingled with yeallow
spangles as if it had beene halfe pin-dust. In our returne inquiring
still for this Matchqueon, the king of Patawomeke gaue vs guides to conduct vs vp a little riuer called Quiyough,
vp which we rowed so high as we could. Leauing the bote, with six shot,
and diuers Salvages, he marched seuen or eight myle before they came to
the mine: leading his hostages in a small chaine they were to haue for
their paines, being proud so richly to be adorned. The mine is a great
Rocky mountaine like Antimony; wherein they digged a great hole with shells & : and hard by it, runneth a fayre brooke of Christal-like
water, where they wash a way the drosse and keepe the remainder, which
they put in little baggs and sell it all ouer the country to paint
there bodyes, faces, or Idols; which makes them looke like Black-mores
dusted over with siluer. With so much as we could carry we returned to
our bote, kindly requiting this kinde king and all his kinde people.
The cause of this discovery was to search this mine, of which Newport did assure vs that those small baggs (we had giuen him) in England he had tryed to hold halfe siluer; but all we got proued of no value: also to search what furrs, the best whereof is at Cuscarawaoke, where is made so much Rawranoke
or white beads that occasion as much dissention among the the Salvages,
as gold and siluer amongst Christians; and what other mineralls,
riuers, rocks, nations, woods, fishings, fruites, victuall, and what
other commodities the land afforded: and whether the bay were endlesse
or how farre it extended: of mines we were all ignorant, but a few
Beuers, Otters, Beares, Martins and minkes we found, and in diuers
places that aboundance of fish, lying so thicke with their heads aboue
the water, as for want of nets (our barge driuing amongst them) we
attempted to catch them with a frying pan: but we found it a bad
instrument to catch fish with: neither better fish, more plenty, nor
more variety for smal fish, had any of vs euer seene in any place so
swimming in the water, but they are not to be caught with frying pans:
some small codd also we did see swim close by the shore by Smiths Iles, and some as high as Riccards Clifts. And some we haue found dead vpon the shore.
How to deale with the Salvages.
Captaine Smith neare killed with a Stingray.
To express all our
quarrels, trecheries and incounters amongst those Salvages I should be
too tedious: but in breefe, at all times we so incountred them, and
curbed their insolencies, that they concluded with presents to purchase
peace; yet we lost not a man: at our first meeting out Captaine euer
obserued this order to demand their bowes and arrowes, swordes,
mantells and furrs, with some childe or two for hostage, whereby we
could quickly perceiue, when they intended any villany. Hauing finished
this discouery (though our victuall was neere spent) he intended to see
his imprisonment-acquaintances vpon the riuer of Rapahanock, by
many called Toppahanock,
but our bote by reason of the ebbe, chansing to grownd vpon a many
shoules lying in the entrances, we spyed many fishes lurking in the
reedes; our Captaine sporting himselfe by nayling them to the grownd
with his sword, set vs all a fishing in that manner: thus we tooke more
in owne houre then we could eate in a day. But it chansed our Captaine
taking a fish from his sword (not knowing her condition) being much of
the fashion of a Thornback, but a long tayle like a ryding rodde,
whereon the middest is a most poysoned sting, of two or three inches
long, bearded like a saw on each side, which she strucke into the wrest
of his arme neere an inch and a halfe: no bloud nor wound was seene,
but a little blew spot, but the torment was instantly so extreame, that
in foure houres had so swolen his hand, arme and shoulder, we all with
much sorrow concluded his funerall, and prepared his graue in an Island
by, as himselfe directed: yet it pleased God by a precious oyle Docter Russell
at the first applyed to it when he sounded it with probe (ere night)
his tormenting paine was so well asswaged that he eate of the fish to
his supper, which gaue no lesse ioy and content to vs then ease to
himselfe, for which we called the Island Stingray Isle after the name of the fish.
The Salvages affrighted with their owne suspition.
Needlesse misery at Iames towne.
Chirurgian, nor Chirurgery, but that preseruatiue oyle we presẽtly set
sayles for Iames towne, passing the mouthes of the riuers of Payankatank, & Pamavnkee the next day we safely arriued at Kecougtan.
The simple Salvages seeing our Captaine hurt, and an other bloudy by
breaking his shinne, our numbers of bowes, arrowes, swords, mantles,
and furrs, would needes imagine we had beene at warres (the truth of
these accidents would not satisfie them) but impatiently importuned vs
to know with whom. Finding their aptnesse to beleeue we fayled not (as
a great secret) to tell them any thing that might affright them, what
spoyle we had got and made of the Massawomeks. This rumor went faster vp the river then our Barge, that arrived at Waraskoyack the 20 of Iuly; where trimming her with painted streamers, and such devises as we could, we made them at Iames
towne iealous of a Spanish Frigot, where we all God be thanked safely
arrived the 21 of Iuly. There we found the last Supply were all sicke,
the rest some lame, some bruised, all vnable to doe any thing but
complaine of the pride and vnreasonable needlesse crueltie of the silly
President, that had riotously consumed the store: and to fulfill his
follies about building him an vnnecessary building for his pleasure in
the woods, had brought them all to that misery; that had we not
arrived, they had as strangely tormented him with revenge; but the good
newes of our Discovery, and the good hope we had by the Salvages
relation, that our Bay had stretched into the South Sea, or somewhat
neare it, appeased their fury; but conditionally that Ratliffe should be deposed, and that Captaine Smith would take vpon him the government, as by course it did belong. Their request being effected, he substituted Mr Scrivener
his deare friend in the Presidency, equally distributing those private
provisions the other had ingrossed, appointing more honest officers to
assist master Scrivener (who then lay
exceeding sicke of a Callenture) and in regard of the weaknesse of the
company, and heate of the yeare, they being vnable to worke, he left
them to liue at ease, to recover their healths, but imbarked himselfe
to finish his Discovery.
Written by Walter Russell, Anas Todkill, and Thomas Momford.
The Government surrendred to Master Scrivener.
What happened the second Voyage in discovering the Bay.
THe 24 of Iuly, Captaine Smith set forward to finish the discovery with twelue men: their names were
- Nathaniell Powell.
- Thomas Momford.
- Richard Fetherston.
- Michell Sicklemore.
- Iames Bourne.
- Anthony Bagnall, Chir.
- Ionas Profit.
- Anas Todkill.
- Edward Pising.
- Richard Keale.
- Iames Watkins.
- William Ward.
The Salvages admire fireworkes.
An Incounter with the Massawomeks at the head of the Bay.
The wind being contrary caused our stay two or three dayes at Kecoughtan: the King feasted vs with much mirth, his people were perswaded we went purposely to be revenged of the Massawomeks.
In the evening we fired a few rackets, which flying in the ayre so
terrified the poore Salvages, they supposed nothing vnpossible we
attempted; and desired to assist vs. The first night we anchored at Stingray Isle. The next day crossed Patawomeks river, and hasted to the river Bolus.
We went not much further before we might see the Bay to divide in two
heads, and arriving there we found it divided in foure, all which we
searched so farre as we could sayle them. Two of them we found
inhabited, but in crossing the Bay, we incountred 7 or 8 Canowes full
of Massawomeks, we seeing them prepare to
assault vs, left our Oares and made way with our sayle to incounter
them, yet were we but fiue with our Captaine that could stand, for
within 2 dayes after we left Kecoughtan,
the rest (being all of the last supply) were sicke almost to death,
vntill they were seasoned to the Country. Having shut them vnder our
Tarpawling, we put their hats vpon stickes by the Barges side, and
betwixt two hats a man with two peeces, to make vs seeme many, and so
we thinke the Indians supposed those hats
to be men, for they fled with all possible speed to the shore, and
there stayed, staring at the sayling of our barge till we anchored
right against them. Long it was ere we could draw them to come vnto vs.
At last they sent two of their company vnarmed in a Canow, the rest all
followed to second them if neede required. These two being but each
presented with a bell, brought aboord all their fellowes, presenting
our Captaine with venison, beares flesh, fish, bowes, arrowes, clubs,
targets, and beares-skinnes. We vnderstood them nothing at all, but by
signes, whereby they signified vnto vs they had beene at warres with
the Tockwoghes, the which they confirmed
by shewing vs their greene wounds, but the night parting vs, we
imagined they appointed the next morning to meete, but after that we
never saw them.
An Incounter with the Tockwlieghs.
Entring the river of Tockwogh,
the Salvages all armed, in a fleete of boats, after their barbarous
manner, round invironed vs; so it chanced one of them could speake the
language of Powhatan, who perswaded the rest to a friendly parley. But when they saw vs furnished with the Massawomeks weapons, and we faining the invention of Kecoughtan,
to haue taken them perforce; they conducted vs to their pallizadoed
towne, mantelled with the barkes of trees, with scaffolds like mounts,
brested about with brests very formally. Their men, women, and children
with daunces, songs, fruits, furres, and what they had, kindly
welcommed vs, spreading mats for vs to sit on, stretching their best
abilities to expresse their loues.
Hatchets from the Sasquesahanocks.
kniues, peeces of iron, and brasse, we saw amongst them, which they
reported to haue from the Sasquesahanocks, a mightie people and mortall enemies with the Massawomeks. The Sasquesahanocks
inhabit vpon the chiefe Spring of these foure branches of the Bayes
head, two dayes iourney higher then our barge could passe for rocks,
yet we prevailed with the Interpreter to take with him another
Interpreter, to perswade the Sasquesahanocks
to come visit vs, for their language are different. Three or foure
dayes we expected their returne, then sixtie of those gyant-like people
came downe, with presents of Venison, Tobacco pipes three foot in
length, Baskets, Targets, Bowes and Arrowes. Fiue of their chiefe Werowances came boldly aboord vs to crosse the Bay for Tockwhogh, leaving their men and Canowes; the wind being so high they durst not passe.
The Sasquesahanocks offer to the English.
Our order was daily
to haue Prayer, with a Psalme, at which solemnitie the poore Salvages
much wondred, our Prayers being done, a while they were busied with a
consultation till they had contrived their businesse. Then they began
in a most passionate
manner to hold vp their hands to
the Sunne, with a most fearefull song, then imbracing our Captaine,
they began to adore him in like manner: though he rebuked them, yet
they proceeded till their song was finished: which done with a most
strange furious action, and a hellish voyce, began an Oration of their
loues; that ended, with a great painted Beares skin they covered him:
then one ready with a great chayne of white Beads, weighing at least
six or seaven pound, hung it about his necke, the others had 18
mantels, made of divers sorts of skinnes sowed together; all these with
many other toyes they layd at his feete, stroking their ceremonious
hands about his necke for his Creation to be their Governour and
Protector, promising their aydes, victualls, or what they had to be
his, if he would stay with them, to defend and revenge them of the Massawomeks. But we left them at Tockwhogh,
sorrowing for our departure, yet we promised the next yeare againe to
visit them. Many descriptions and discourses they made vs, of Atquanachuck, Massawomek,
& other people, signifying they inhabit vpon a great water beyond
the mountaines, which we vnderstood to be some great lake, or the river
of Canada: and from the French to haue their hatchets and Commodities by trade. These know no more of the territories of Powhatan, then his name, and he as little of them, but the Atquanachuks are on the Ocean Sea.
The highest mountaine we saw Northward wee called Perigrines mount, and a rocky river, where the Massawomeks went vp, Willowbyes river, in honor of the towne our Captaine was borne in, and that honorable house the Lord Willowby, his most honored good friend. The Sasquesahanocks river we called Smiths falles; the next poynt to Tockwhogh, Pisings poynt; the next it poynt Bourne. Powells Isles and Smals poynt is by the river Bolus; and the little Bay at the head Profits poole; Watkins, Reads, and Momfords poynts are on each side Limbo; Ward, Cantrell, and Sicklemore, betwixt Patawomek and Pamavnkee,
after the names of the discoverers. In all those places and the
furthest we came vp the rivers, we cut in trees so many crosses as we
would, and in many places made holes in trees, wherein we writ notes,
and in some places crosses of brasse, to signifie to any, Englishmen
had beene there.
Thus having sought
all the inlets and rivers worth noting, we returned to discover the
river of Pawtuxunt; these people we found very tractable, and more civill then any, we promised them, as also the Patawomeks to revenge them of the Massawomeks, but our purposes were crossed.
The exceeding loue of the Salvage Mosco.
Our fight with the Rapahanocks.
In the discovery of this river some call Rapahanock, we were kindly entertained by the people of Moraughtacund; here we incountered our old friend Mosco, a lusty Salvage of Wighcocomoco vpő the river of Patawomek, we supposed him some French
mans sonne, because he had a thicke blacke bush beard, and the Salvages
seldome haue any at all, of which he was not a little proud, to see so
many of his Countrymen. Wood and water he would fetch vs, guide vs any
whether, nay, cause divers of his Countrymen helpe vs towe against
winde or tyde from place to place till we came to Patawomek: there he rested till we returned from the head of the river, and occasioned our conduct to the mine we supposed Antimony. And in the place he fayled not to doe vs all the good he could, perswading vs in any case not to goe to the Rapahanocks, for they would kill vs for being friends with the Moraughtacunds
that but lately had stolne three of the Kings women. This we did thinke
was but that his friends might onely haue our trade: so we crossed the
river to the Rapahanocks. There some 12 or
16 standing on the shore, directed vs a little Creeke where was good
landing, and Commodities for vs in three or foure Canowes we saw lie
there: but according to our custome, we demanded to exchange a man in
signe of loue, which after they had a little consulted, foure or fiue
came vp to the middles, to fetch our man, and leaue vs one of them,
shewing we need not feare them, for they had neither clubs, bowes, nor
arrowes. Notwithstanding, Anas Todkill,
being sent on shore to see if he could discover any Ambuscadoes, or
what they had, desired to goe over the playne to fetch some wood, but
they were vnwilling, except we would come into the Creeke, where the
boat might come close ashore. Todkill by degrees
having got some two stones throwes vp the playne, perceived two or
three hundred men (as he thought) behind the trees, so that offering to
returne to the Boat, the Salvages assayed to carry him away perforce,
that he called to vs we were berrayed, and by that he had spoke the
word, our hostage was over-boord, but Warkins his keeper slew him in the water. Immediatly we let fly amongst them, so that they fled, & Todkill escaped, yet they shot so fast that he fell flat on the ground ere he could recover the boat. Here the Massawomek Targets stood vs in good stead, for vpon Mosco's
words, we had set them about the forepart of our Boat like a
forecastle, from whence we securely beat the Salvages from off the
plaine without any hurt: yet they shot more then a thousand Arrowes,
and then fled into the woods. Arming our selues with these light
Targets (which are made of little small sticks woven betwixt strings of
their hempe and silke grasse, as is our Cloth, but so firmely that no
arrow can possibly pierce them:) we rescued Todkill,
who was all bloudy by some of them who were shot by vs that held him,
but as God pleased he had no hurt; and following them vp to the woods,
we found some slaine, and in divers places much bloud. It seems all
their arrowes were spent, for we heard no more of them. Their Canows we
tooke; the arrowes we found we broke, saue them we kept for Mosco,
to whom we gaue the Canowes for his kindnesse, that entertained vs in
the best trivmphing manner, and warlike order in armes of conquest he
could procure of the Moraughtacunds.
The Salvages disguised like bushes fight.
The rest of the day
we spent in accomodating our Boat, in stead of thoules wee made stickes
like Bedstaues, to which we fastened so many of our Massawomek Targets, that invironed her as wast clothes. The next morning we went vp the river, and our friend Mosco followed vs along the shore, and at last desired to goe with vs in our Boat. But as we passed by Pisacack, Matchopeak, and Mccuppom,
three Townes situated vpon high white clay clifts; the other side all a
low playne marish, and the river there but narrow. Thirtie or fortie of
the Rapahanocks, had so accommodated
themselues with branches, as we tooke them for little bushes growing
among the sedge, still seeing their arrowes strike the Targets, and
dropped in the river: where-at Mosco fell flat in the Boat on his face, crying the Rapahanocks,
which presently we espied to be the bushes, which at our first volley
fell downe in the sedge: when wee were neare halfe a myle from them,
they shewed themselues dauncing and singing very merrily.
The Kings of Pissassack, Nandtaughtacund, and Cuttatawomen, vsed vs kindly, and all their people neglected not any thing to Mosco to bring vs to them. Betwixt Secobeck and Massawteck
is a small Isle or two, which causech the river to be broader then
ordinary; there it pleased God to take one of our Company called Mr Fetherstone,
that all the time he had beene in this Country, had behaved himselfe,
honestly, valiantly, and industriously, where in a little Bay we called
Fetherstones Bay wee buryed him with a
volley of shot: the rest notwithstanding their ill dyet, and bad
lodging, crowded in so small a Barge, in so many dangers never resting,
but alwayes tossed to and againe, had all well recovered their healths.
The next day wee sayled so high as our Boat would float, there setting
vp crosses, and graving our names in the tracs. Our Sentinell saw an
arrow fall by him, though we had ranged vp and downe more then an houre
in digging in the earth, looking of stones, herbs, and springs, not
seeing where a Salvage could well hide himselfe.
Our fight with the Manahaacks.
A Salvage shot and taken prisoner.
His relation of their countries.
How we concluded peace with the foure kings of Monahoke.
Vpon the alarum by
that we had recovered our armes, there was about an hundred nimble Indians
skipping from tree to tree, letting fly their arrows so fast as they
could: the trees here served vs for Baricadoes as well as they. But Mosco did vs more service then we expected, for having shot away his quiver of Arrowes, he ran to the Boat for more. The Arrowes of Mosco
at the first made them pause vpon the matter, thinking by his bruit and
skipping, there were many Salvages. About halfe an houre this
continued, then they all vanished as suddainly as they approached. Mosco
followed them so farre as he could see vs, till they were out of sight.
As we returned there lay a Salvage as dead, shot in the knee, but
taking him vp we found he had
life, which Mosco seeing, never was Dog more furious against a Beare, then Mosco
was to haue beat out his braines, so we had him to our Boat, where our
Chirurgian who went with vs to cure our Captaines hurt of the Stingray,
so dressed this Salvage that within an houre after he looked somewhat
chearefully, and did eate and speake. In the meane time we contented Mosco in helping him to gather vp their arrowes, which were an armefull, whereof he gloried not a little. Then we desired Mosco
to know what he was, and what Countries were beyond the mountaines; the
poore Salvage mildly answered, he and all with him were of Hasinninga, where there are three Kings more, like vnto them, namely the King of Stegora, the King of Tauxuntania, and the King of Shakahonea, that were come to Mohaskahod, which is onely a hunting Towne, and the bounds betwixt the Kingdome of the Mannahocks, and the Nandtaughtacunds,
but hard by where we were. We demanded why they came in that manner to
betray vs, that came to them in peace, and to seeke their loues; he
answered, they heard we were a people come from vnder the world, to
take their world from them. We asked him how many worlds he did know,
he replyed, he knew no more but that which was vnder the skie that
covered him, which were the Powhatans, with the Monacans, and the Massawomeks,
that were higher vp in the mountaines. Then we asked him what was
beyond the mountaines, he answered the Sunne: but of any thing els he
* They cannot trauell but where the woods are burnt.
These and many such questions wee demanded, concerning the Massawomeks, the Monacans, their owne Country, and where were the Kings of Stegora, Tauxsintania, and the rest. The Monacans
he sayd were their neighbours and friends, and did dwell as they in the
hilly Countries by small rivers, liuing vpon rootes and fruits, but
chiefly by hunting. The Massawomeks did
dwell vpon a great water, and had many boats, & so many men that
they made warre with all the world. For their Kings, they were gone
every one a severall way with their men on hunting: But those with him
came thither a fishing till they saw vs, notwithstanding they would be
altogether at night at Mahaskahod. For his
relation we gaue him many toyes, with perswasions to goe with vs, and
he as earnestly desired vs to stay the comming of those Kings that for
his good vsage should be friends with vs, for he was brother to Hasinninga. But Mosco
advised vs presently to be gone, for they were all naught, yet we told
him we would not till it was night. All things we made ready to
entertain what came, & Mosco was as
diligent in trimming his arrowes. The night being come we all imbarked,
for the riuer was so narrow, had it beene light the land on the one
side was so high, they might haue done vs exceeding much mischiefe. All
this while the K. of Hasinninga was
seeking the rest, and had consultation a good time what to doe. But by
their espies seeing we were gone, it was not long before we heard their
arrowes dropping on every side the Boat; we caused our Salvages to call
vnto them, but such a yelling & hallowing they made that they heard
nothing, but now and then a peece, ayming so neare as we could where we
heard the most voyces. More then 12 myles they followed vs in this
manner; then the day appearing, we found our selues in a broad Bay, out
of danger of their shot, where wee came to an anchor, and fell to
breakfast. Not so much as speaking to them till the Sunne was risen;
being well refreshed, we vntyed our Targets that couered vs as a Deck,
and all shewed our selues with those shields on our armes, and swords
in our hands, and also our prisoner Amoroleck; a long discourse there was betwixt his Countrimen and him, how good wee were, how well wee vsed him, how wee had a Patawomek
with vs, loued vs as his life, that would haue slaine him had we not
preserued him, and that he should haue his libertie would they be but
friends; and to doe vs any hurt it was impossible. Vpon this they all
hung their Bowes and Quivers vpon the trees, and one came swimming
aboord vs with a Bow tyed on his head, and another with a Quiver of
Arrowes, which they deliuered our Captaine as a present, the Captaine
hauing vsed them so kindly as he could, told them the other three Kings
should doe the like, and then the great King of our world should be
their friend, whose men we were. It was no sooner demanded but
vpon a low Moorish poynt of Land we went to the shore, where those foure Kings came and receiued Amoroleck:
nothing they had but Bowes, Arrowes, Tobaccobags, and Pipes: what we
desired, none refused to giue vs, wondering at every thing we had, and
heard we had done: our Pistols they tocke for pipes, which they much
desired, but we did content them with other Commodities, and so we left
foure or fiue hundred of our merry Mannahocks, singing, dauncing, and making merry, and set sayle for Moraughtacund.
How we became friends with the Rapahanocks.
The discovery of Payankatank.
In our returnes we
visited all our friends, that reioyced much at our Victory against the Mannahocks, who many times had Warres also with them, but now they were friends, and desired we would be friends with the Rapahanocks, as we were with the Mannahocks.
Our Captaine told them, they had twise assaulted him that came onely in
loue to doe them good, and therefore he would now burne all their
houses, destroy their corne, and for euer hold them his enemies, till
they made him satisfaction; they desired to know what that should be:
he told them they should present him the Kings Bow and Arrowes, and not
offer to come armed where he was; that they should be friends with the Moraughtacunds his friends, and giue him their Kings sonne in pledge to performe it, and then all King Iames his men should be their friends. Vpon this they presently sent to the Rapahanocks to meete him at the place where they first fought, where would be the Kings of Nautautacund and Pissassac: which according to their promise were there so soone as we; where Rapahanock
presented his Bow and Arrowes, and confirmed all we desired, except his
sonne, having no more but him he could not liue without him, but in
stead of his sonne he would giue him the three women Moraughtacund had stolne. This was accepted: and so in three or foure Canowes, so many as could went with vs to Moraughtacund, where Mosco
made them such relations, and gaue to his friends so many Bowes and
Arrowes, that they no lesse loued him then admired vs. The 3 women were
brought our Captaine, to each he gaue a chayne of Beads: and then
causing Moraughtacund, Mosco, and Rapahanock stand before him, bid Rapahanock take her he loued best, and Moraughtacund chuse next, & to Mosco
he gaue the third. Vpon this away went their Canowes over the water, to
fetch their venison, and all the provision they could, and they that
wanted Boats swam over the river: the darke commanded vs then to rest.
The next day there was of men, women, and children, as we coniectured,
six or seauen hundred, dauncing, & singing, and not a Bow nor Arrow
seene amongst them. Mosco changed his name Vttasantasough, which we interpret Stranger,
for so they call vs. All promising ever to be our friends, and to plant
Corne purposely for vs; and we to provide hatchets, beads, and copper
for them, we departed, giuing them a Volley of shot, and they vs as
loud shouts and cryes as their strengths could vtter. That night we
anchored in the river of Payankatank, and
discovered it so high as it was navigable, but the people were most a
hunting, saue a few old men, women, and children, that were tending
their corne, of which they promised vs part when we would fetch it, as
had done all the Nations where ever we had yet beene.
In a fayre calme, rowing towards poynt Comfort, we anchored in Gosnolls Bay, but such a suddaine gust surprised vs in the night with thunder and rayne, that we never thought more to haue seene Iames
Towne. Yet running before the wind, we sometimes saw the Land by the
flashes of fire from heaven, by which light onely we kept from the
splitting shore, vntill it pleased God in that blacke darknesse to
preserue vs by that light to finde poynt Comfort: there refreshing our selues, because we had onely but heard of the Chisapeacks & Nandsamunds, we thought it as fit to know all our neighbours neare home, as so many Nations abroad.
A notable trechery of the Nandsamunds.
The fight with the Chisapeacks and Nandsamunds.
How they became friends.
The proceeding at Iames Towne.
So setting sayle for
the Southerne shore, we sayled vp a narrow river vp the country of Chisapeack;
it hath a good channell, but many shoules about the entrance. By that
we had sayled six or seauen myles, we saw two or three little garden
plots with their houses, the shores overgrowne with the greatest Pyne
and Firre trees wee ever saw in the Country. But not seeing nor hearing
any people, and the riuer very narrow, we returned to the great riuer,
to see if we could finde any of them. Coasting
the shore towards Nandsamund,
which is most Oyster-bankes; at the mouth of that riuer, we espied six
or seauen Salvages making their wires, who presently fled: ashore we
went, and where they wrought we threw diuers toyes, and so departed.
Farre we were not gone ere they came againe, and began to sing, and
daunce, and recall vs: and thus we began our first acquaintance. At
last one of them desired vs to goe to his house vp that riuer, into our
Boat voluntarily he came, the rest ran after vs by the shore with all
shew of loue that could be. Seauen or eight myles we sayled vp this
narrow riuer: at last on the Westerne shore we saw large Cornefields,
in the midst a little lsle, and in it was abundance of Corne; the
people he told vs were all a hunting, but in the Isle was his house, to
which he inuited vs with much kindnesse: to him, his wife, and
children, we gaue such things as they seemed much contented them. The
others being come, desired vs also to goe but a little higher to see
their houses: here our host left vs, the rest rowed by vs in a Canow,
till we were so far past the Isle the riuer became very narrow. Here we
desired some of them to come abord vs, wherat pausing a little, they
told vs they would but fetch their bows and arrowes and goe all with
vs, but being a shore and thus armed, they perswaded vs to goe forward,
but we could neither perswade them into their Canow, nor into our Boat.
This gaue vs caufe to prouide for the worst. Farre we went not ere
seauen or eight Canowes full of men armed appeared following vs,
staying to see the conclusion. Presently from each side the riuer came
arrowes so fast as two or three hundred could shoot them, whereat we
returned to get the open. They in the Canowes let fly also as fast, but
amongst them we bestowed so many shot, the most of them leaped
overboord and swam ashore, but two or three escaped by rowing, being
against their playnes: our Muskets they found shot further then their
Bowes, for wee made not twentie shot ere they all retyred behind the
next trees. Being thus got out of their trap, we seised on all their
Canowes, and moored them in the midst of the open. More then an hundred
arrowes stucke in our Targets, and about the boat, yet none hurt, onely
Anthony Bagnall was shot in his Hat, and another in his sleeue. But seeing their multitudes, and suspecting as it was, that both the Nanasamunds, and the Chisapeacks
were together, we thought it best to ryde by their Canowes a while, to
bethinke if it were better to burne all in the Isle, or draw them to
composition, till we were prouided to take all they had, which was
sufficient to feed all our Colony: but to
burne the Isle at night it was concluded. In the interim we began to
cut in peeces their Canowes, and they presently to lay downe their
bowes, making signes of peace: peace we told them we would accept it,
would they bring vs their Kings bowes and arrowes, with a chayne of
pearle; and when we came againe giue vs foure hundred baskets full of
Corne, otherwise we would breake all their boats, and burne their
houses, and corne, and all they had. To performe all this they alledged
onely the want of a Canow; so we put one a drift & bad them swim to
fetch her: and till they performed their promise, wee would but onely
breake their Canowes. They cryed to vs to doe no more, all should be as
we would: which presently they performed, away went their bowes and
arrowes, and tagge and ragge came with their baskets: so much as we
could carry we tooke, and so departing good friends, we returned to Iames Towne, where we safely arrived the 7. of September, 1608. There we found Mr Scrivener,
and divers others well recovered: many dead; some sicke: the late
President prisoner for mutiny: by the honest diligence of Master Scrivener,
the haruest gathered, but the provision in the store much spoyled with
rayne. Thus was that summer (when little wanted) consumed and spent,
and nothing done (such was the gouernment of Captaine Ratliffe)
but onely this discovery; wherein to expresse all the dangers,
accidents, and incounters this small number passed in that small Barge,
by the scale of proportion, about three thousand myles, with such
watery dyet in those great waters and barbarous Countries (till then to
any Christian vtterly vnknowne) I rather referre their merit to the
censure of the courteous and experienced Reader, then I would be
tedious or partiall being a partie.
But to this place to come who will adventure,
with iudgements guide and reason how to enter:
Finds in this worlds broad sea, with winde and tyde,
Ther's safer sayle then any where beside.
But 'cause to wanton novices it is
A Province full of fearefulnesse I wiss;
Into the great vast deepe to venter out:
Those shallow rivers let them coast about.
And by a small Boat learne there first, and marks,
How they may come to make a greater Barke.
Written by Anthony Bagnall,
Nathanaell Powell, and Anas Todkill.
The Presidency surrendred to Captaine Smith: the Arrivall and
returne of the second Supply. And what happened.
Powhatans scorne when his courtesie was most deserved.
No better way to overthrow the busines then by our instructors.
A consultation, where all the Councell was against the President.
Capt. Smith goeth with 4. to Powhatan, when Newport feared with 120.
THe tenth of
September, by the Election of the Councell, and request of the Company,
Captaine Smith receiued the Letters
Patents: which till then by no meanes he would accept, though he was
often importuned therevnto. Now the building of Ratliffes
Pallace stayed as a thing needlesse; the Church was repaired; the
Store-house recouered; buildings prepared for the Supplyes, we
expected; the Fort reduced to a fiue square forme; the order of the
Watch renewed; the squadrons (each setting of the Watch) trained; the
whole Company euery Saturday exercised, in the plaine by the west
Bulwarke, prepared for that purpose, we called Smithfield:
where sometimes more then an hundred Salvages would stand in an
amazement to behold, how a fyle would batter a tree, where he would
make them a marke to shoot at; the boats trimmed for trade, which being
sent out with Lieutenant Percy, in their Iourney incountred the second Supply, that brought them backe to discover the Country of Monacan. How or why Captaine Newport
obtained such a private Commission, as not to returne without a lumpe
of gold, a certaintie of the South sea, or one of the lost company sent
out by Sir Water Raleigh, I know not; nor
why he brought such a fiue peeced Barge, not to beare vs to that South
sea, till we had borne her over the mountaines, which how farre they
extend is yet vnknowne. As for the Coronation of Powhatan,
and his presents of Bason and Ewer, Bed, Bedstead, Clothes, and such
costly nouelties, they had beene much better well spared then so ill
spent, for wee had his favour much better onely for a playne peece of
Copper, till this stately kinde of soliciting, made him so much
overvalue himselfe, that he respected vs as much as nothing at all. As
for the hyring of the Poles and Dutch-men,
to make Pitch, Tar, Glasse, Milles, and Sope ashes, when the Country is
replenished with people, and necessaries, would haue done well, but to
send them and seauentie more without victualls to worke, was not so
well aduised nor considered of, as it should haue beene. Yet this could
not haue hurt vs had they beene 200. though then we were 130 that
wanted for our selues. For we had the Salvages in that decorum
(their harvest being newly gathered, that we feared not to get victuals
for 500. Now was there no way to make vs miserable, but to neglect that
time to make prouision whilst it was to be had, the which was done by
the direction from England to performe
this strange discovery, but a more strange Coronation to loose that
time, spend that victualls we had, tyre and starue our men, hauing no
meanes to carry victuals, munition, the hurt or sicke, but on their
owne backes. How or by whom they were inuented I know not: but Captaine
Newport we onely accounted the Author, who
to effect these proiects, had so guilded mens hopes with great
promises, that both Company and Councell concluded his resolution
for the most part: God doth know
they little knew what they did, nor vnderstood their owne estates to
conclude his conclusions, against all the inconveniences the foreseeing
President alledged. Of this Supply there was added to the Councell, one
Captaine Richard Waldo, and Captaine Wynne, two auncient Souldiers, and valiant Gentlemen, but yet ignorant of the busines, (being but newly arriued.) Ratliffe was also permitted to haue his voyce, & Mr Scrivener, desirous to see strange Countries: so that although Smith was President, yet the Maior part of the Councell had the authoritie and ruled it as they listed. As for clearing Smiths
obiections, how Pitch and Tarre, Wainscot, Clapbord, Glasse, and Sope
ashes, could be provided, to relade the ship, or provision got to liue
withall, when none was in the Country, and that we had, spent, before
the ship departed to effect these projects. The answer was, Captaine Newport
vndertooke to fraught the Pinnace of twentie tunnes with Corne in going
and returning in his Discovery, and to refraught her againe from Werowocomoco of Powhatan. Also promising a great proportion or victualls from the Ship; inferring that Smiths
propositions were onely devices to hinder his iourney, to effect it
himselfe, and that the crueltie he had vsed to the Salvages, might well
be the occasion to hinder these Designes, and seeke revenge on him. For
which taxation all workes were left, and 120 chosen men were appointed
for Newports guard in this Discovery. But Captaine Smith to make cleare all those seeming suspitions, that the Salvages were not so desperate as was pretended by Captaine Newport,
and how willing (since by their authoritie they would haue it so) he
was to assist them what he could, because the Coronation would consume
much time, he vndertooke himselfe their message to Powhatan, to intreat him to come to Iames Towne to receiue his presents. And where Newport durst not goe with lesse then 120. he onely tooke with him Captaine Waldo, Mr Andrew Buckler, Edward Brinton, and Samuel Collier: with these foure he went over land to Werowocomoco, some 12 myles; there he passed the river of Pansevnkee in a Salvage Canow. Powhatan being 30 myles of, was presently sent for: in the meane time, Pocahontas and her women entertained Captaine Smith in this manner.
A Virginia Maske.
In a fayre plaine
field they made a fire, before which, he sitting vpon a mat, suddainly
amongst the woods was heard such a hydeous noise and shreeking, that
the English betooke themselues to their armes, and seized on two or
three old men by them, supposing Powhatan with all his power was come to surprise them. But presently Pocahontas
came, willing him to kill her if any hurt were intended, and the
beholders, which were men, women, and children, satisfied the Captaine
there was no such matter. Then presently they were presented with this
anticke; thirtie young women came naked out of the woods, onely covered
behind and before with a few greene leaues, their bodies all painted,
some of one colour, some of another, but all differing, their leader
had a fayre payre of Bucks hornes on her head, and an Otters skinne at
her girdle, and another at her arme, a quiver of arrowes at her backe,
a bow and arrowes in her hand; the next had in her hand a sword,
another a chib, another a pot-sticke; all horned alike: the rest every
one with their severall devises. These fiends with most hellish shouts
and cryes, rushing from among the trees, cast themselues in a ring
about the fire, singing and dauncing with most excellent ill varietie,
oft falling into their infernall passions, and solemnly againe to sing
and daunce; having spent neare an houre in this Mascarado, as they
entred in like manner they departed.
The Womens entertainement.
themselues, they solemnly invited him to their lodgings, where he was
no sooner within the house, but all these Nymphes more tormented him
then ever, with crowding, pressing, and hanging about him, most
tediously crying, Loue you not me? loue you not me? This salutation
ended, the feast was set, consisting of all the Salvage dainties they
could devise: some attending, others singing and dauncing about them;
which mirth being ended, with fire-brands in stead of Torches they
conducted him to his lodging.
Thus did they shew their feats of armes, and others art in dauncing:
Some other vs'd there oaten pipe, and others voyces chanting.
Captaine Smiths message.
The next day came Powhatan. Smith delivered his message of the presents sent him, and redelivered him Namontack he had sent for England, desiring him to come to his Father Newport, to accept those presents, and conclude their revenge against the Monacans. Wherevnto this subtile Savage thus replyed.
your King haue sent me Presents, I also am a King, and this is my land:
eight dayes I will stay to receiue them. Your Father is to come to me,
not I to him, ner yet to your Fort, neither will I bite at such a bait:
as for the Monacans I can revenge my owne iniuries, and as for Atquanachuk, where
you say your brother was slaine, it is a contrary way from those parts
you suppose it; but for any salt water beyond the mountaines, the
Relations you haue had from my people are false. Wherevpon he
began to draw plots vpon the ground (according to his discourse) of all
those Regions. Many other discourses they had (yet both content to giue
each other content in complementall Courtesies) and so Captaine Smith returned with this Answer.
Vpon this the
Presents were sent by water which is neare an hundred myles, and the
Captains went by land with fiftie good shot. All being met at Werowocomoco,
the next day was appointed for his Coronation, then the presents were
brought him, his Bason and Ewer, Bed and furniture set vp, his scarlet
Cloke and apparell with much adoe put on him, being perswaded by Namontack
they would not hurt him: but a foule trouble there was to make him
kneele to receiue his crowne, he neither knowing the maiesty nor
meaning of a Crowne, nor bending of the knee, endured so many
perswasions, examples, and instructions, as tyred them all; at last by
leaning hard on his shoulders, he a little stooped, and three having
the crowne in their hands put it on his head, when by the warning of a
Pistoll the Boats were prepared with such a volley of shot, that the
King start vp in a horrible feare, till he saw all was well. Then
remembring himselfe, to congratulate their kindnesse, he gaue his old
shooes and his mantell to Captaine Newport: but perceiving his purpose was to discover the Monacans, he laboured to divert his resolution, refusing to lend him either men or guides more then Namontack; and so after some small complementall kindnesse on both sides, in requitall of his presents he presented Newport
with a heape of wheat eares that might containe some 7 or 8 Bushels,
and as much more we bought in the Towne, wherewith we returned to the
The discovery of Monacan.
How the Salvages deluded Cap. Newport.
The Ship having
disburdened her selfe of 70 persons, with the first Gentlewoman and
woman-seruant that arrived in our Colony. Captaine Newport with 120 chosen men, led by Captaine Waldo, Lieutenant Percie, Captaine Winne, Mr West, and Mr Scrivener, set forward for the discovery of Monacan,
leaving the President at the Fort with about 80 or 90. (such as they
were) to relade the Ship. Arriving at the Falles we marched by land
some fortie myles in two dayes and a halfe, and so returned downe the
same path we went. Two townes we discovered of the Monacans, called Massinacak and Mowhemenchouch,
the people neither vsed vs well nor ill, yet for our securitie we tooke
one of their petty Kings, and led him bound to conduct vs the way. And
in our returnes searched many places we supposed Mines, about which we
spent some time in refyning, having one William Callicut,
a refyner fitted for that purpose. From that crust of earth we digged,
he perswaded vs to beleeue he extracted some small quantitie of silver;
and (not vnlikely) better stuffe might be had for the digging. With
this poore tryall, being contented to leaue this fayre, fertile, well
watered Country; and comming to the Falles, the Salvages fayned there
were divers ships come into the Bay, to kill them at Iames
Towne. Trade they would not, and finde their Corne we could not; for
they had hid it in the woods: and being thus deluded, we arrived at Iames
Towne, halfe sicke, all complaining, and tyred with toyle, famine, and
discontent, to haue onely but discovered our guilded hopes, and such
fruitlesse certainties, as Captaine Smith fortold vs.
But those that hunger seeke to slake,
Which thus abounding wealth would rake:
Not all the gemmes of Ister shore,
Nor all the gold of Lydia's store,
Can fill their greedie appetite;
It is a thing so infinite.
A punishment for swearing.
No sooner were we
landed, but the President dispersed so many as were able, some for
Glasse, others for Tarre, Pitch, and Sope-ashes, leauing them with the
Fort to the Councels oversight, but 30 of vs he conducted downe the
river some 5 myles from Iames towne, to learne to make Clapbord, cut downe trees, and lye in woods. Amongst the rest he had chosen Gabriel Beadle, and Iohn Russell,
the onely two gallants of this last Supply, and both proper Gentlemen.
Strange were these pleasures to their conditions; yet lodging, eating,
and drinking, working or playing, they but doing as the President did
himselfe. All these things were carried so pleasandy as within a weeke
they became Masters: making it their delight to heare the trees thunder
as they fell; but the Axes so oft blistered their tender fingers, that
many times every third blow had a loud othe to drowne the eccho; for
remedie of which sinne, the President devised how to haue every mans
othes numbred, and at night for every othe to haue a Cann of water
powred downe his sleeue, with which every offender was so washed
(himselfe and all) that a man should scarce heare an othe in a weeke.
For he who scornes and makes but iests of cursings, and his othe,
He doth contemne, not man but God, nor God, nor man, but both.
3. Men better then 100.
By this, let no man
thinke that the President and these Gentlemen spent their times as
common Wood haggers at felling of trees, or such other like labours, or
that they were pressed to it as hirelings, or common slaues; for what
they did, after they were but once a little invred, it seemed and some
conceited it, onely as a pleasure and recreation, yet 30 or 40 of such
voluntary Gentlemen would doe more in a day then 100 of the rest that
must be prest to it by compulsion, but twentie good workemen had beene
better then them all.
The Chickahamania's forced to contribution.
Master Scrivener, Captaine Waldo, and Captaine Winne
at the Fort, every one in like manner carefully regarded their charge.
The President returning from amongst the woods, seeing the time
consumed and no provision gotten, (and the Ship lay idle at a great
charge and did nothing) presently imbarked himselfe in the discovery
barge, giving order to the Councell to send Lieutenant Percie after him with the next barge that arrived at the Fort; two Barges he had himselfe and 18 men, but arriving at Chickahamania,
that dogged Nation was too well acquainted with our wants, refusing to
trade, with as much scorne and insolency as they could expresse. The
President perceiuing it was Powhatans
policy to starue vs, told them he came not so much for their Corne, as
to revenge his imprisonment, and the death of his men murthered by
them, and so landing his men and readie to charge them, they
immediately fled: and presently after sent their Ambassadors with
corne, fish, foule, and what they had to make their peace, (their Corne
being that yeare but bad) they complained extreamely of their owne
wants, yet fraughted our Boats with an hundred Bushels of Corne, and in
like manner Lieutenant Percies, that not long after arrived, and having done the best they could to content vs, we parted good friends, and returned to Iames towne.
A bad reward for well-doing.
Though this much
contented the Company, (that feared nothing more then starving) yet
some so envied his good successe, that they rather desired to hazzard a
starving, then his paines should proue so much more effectuall then
theirs. Some proiects there were invented by Newport and Ratliffe,
not onely to haue deposed him, but to haue kept him out of the Fort;
for that being President, he would leaue his place and the Fort without
their consents, but their hornes were so much too short to effect it,
as they themselues more narrowly escaped a greater mischiefe.
A good Taverne in Virginia.
A bad trade of the masters and saylers.
All this time our
old Taverne made as much of all them that had either money or ware as
could be desired: by this time they were become so perfect on all sides
(I meane the souldiers, saylers, and Salvages) as there was tenne times
more care to maintaine their damnable and private trade, then to
provide for the Colony things
that were necessary. Neither was it a small policy in Newport and the Marriners to report in England
we had such plentie, and bring vs so many men without victuals, when
they had so many private Factors in the Fort, that within six or seauen
weeks, of two or three hundred Axes, Chissels, Hows, and Pick-axes,
scarce twentie could be found: and for Pike-heads, shot, Powder, or any
thing they could steale from their fellowes, was vendible; they knew as
well (and as secretly) how to convey them to trade with the Salvages
for Furres, Baskets, Mussaneeks, young Beasts, or such like Commodities, as exchange them with the Saylers for Butter, Cheese, Beefe, Porke, Aqua vita, Beere, Bisket, Oatmeale, and Oyle: and then fayne all was sent them from their friends And though Virginia
affoorded no Furres for the Store, yet one Master in one voyage hath
got so many by this indirect meanes, as he confested to haue sold in England for 301.
Those are the Saint-seeming Worthies of Virginia,
that haue notwithstanding all this meate, drinke, and wages; but now
they begin to grow weary, their trade being both perceived and
prevented; none hath beene in Virginia
that hath observed any thing, which knowes not this to be true, and yet
the losse, the scorne, the misery, and shame, was the poore Officers,
Gentlemen, and carelesse Governours, who were all thus bought &
sold; the adventurers cousened, and the action overthrowne by their
false excuses, informations, and directions. By this let all men iudge,
how this businesse could prosper, being thus abused by such pilfring
occasions. And had not Captaine Newport cryed Peccavi, the President would haue discharged the ship, and caused him to haue stayed one yeare in Virginia, to learne to speake of his owne experience.
Master Scriveners voyage to Werowocomoco.
Master Scrivener was sent with the Barges and Pinnace to Werowocomoco,
where he found the Salvages more readie to fight then trade; but his
vigilancy was such as prevented their proiects, and by the meanes of Namontack got three or foure hogsheads of Corne, and as much Pocones, which is a red roote, which then was esteemed an excellent Dye.
being dispatched, with the tryals of Pitch, Tarre, Glasse,
Frankincense, Sope ashes; with that Clapboord and Waynscot that could
be provided: met with Mr Scrivener at poynt Comfort, and so returned for England. We remaining were about two hundred.
The Copy of a Letter sent to the Treasurer
and Councell of Virginia from Captaine Smith,
then President in VIRGINIA.
Right Honorable, &c.
Received your Letter, wherein you write, that our minds are so set vpon
faction, and idle conceits in diuiding the Country without your
consents, and that we feed You but with ifs
& ands, hopes, & some few proofes; as if we would keepe the
mystery of the businesse to our selues: and that we must expresly
follow your instructions sent by Captain Newport: the
charge of whose voyage amounts to neare two thousand pounds, the which
if we cannot defray by the Ships returne, we are like to remain as
banished men. To these particulars I humbly intreat your Pardons if I
offend you with my rude Answer.
our factions, vnlesse you would haue me run away and leaue the Country,
I cannot prevent them: because I do make many stay that would els fly
any whether. For the idle Letter sent to my Lord of Salisbury, by the President and his confederats, for diuiding the Country &c. What it was I know not, for you saw no hand
of mine to it; nor euer dream't I of any such
matter. That we feed you with hopes, &c. Though I be no scholer, I
am past a schoole-boy; and I desire but to know, what either you, and
these here doe know, but that I haue learned to tell you by the
continuall hazard of my life. I haue not concealed from you anything I
know; but I feare some cause you to beleeue much more then is true.
Expresly to follow your direstions by Captaine Newport, though
they be performed, I was directly against it; but according to our
Commission, I was content to be overruled by the maior part of the
Councell, I feare to the hazard of vs all; which now is generally
confessed when it is too late. Onely Captaine Winne and Captaine Waldo I haue sworne of the Councell, and Crowned Powhatan according to your instructions.
the charge of this Voyage of two or three thousand pounds, we haue not
receiued the value of an hundred pounds. And for the quartred Boat to
be borne by the Souldiers over the Falles, Newport had 120 of
the best men he could chuse. If he had burnt her to ashes, one might
haue carried her in a bag, but as she is, fiue hundred cannot, to a
navigable place aboue the Falles. And for him at that time to find in
the South Sea, a Mine of gold; or any of them sent by Sir Walter Raleigh: at our Consultation I told them was as likely as the rest. But during this great discovery of thirtie myles, (which might as well haue beene done by one man, and much more, for the value of a pound of Copper at a seasonable tyme) they
had the Pinnace and all the Boats with them, but one that remained with
me to serue the Fort. In their absence I followed the new begun workes
of Pitch and Tarre, Glasse, Sopeashes, and Clapboord, where of some
small quantities we haue sent you. But if you rightly consider, what an
infinite toyle it is in Russia and Swethland, where
the woods are proper for naught els, and though there be the helpe both
of man and beast in those ancient Common-wealths, which many an hundred
yeares haue vsed it, yet thousands of those poore people can scarce get
necessaries to liue, but from hand to mouth. And though your Factors
there can buy as much in a week as will fraught you a ship, or as much
as you please; you must not expect from vs any such matter, which are
but a many of ignorant miserable soules, that are scarce able to get
where with to liue, and defend our selues against the inconstant Salvages: finding but here and there a tree fit for the purpose, and want all things els the Russians haue. For the Coronation of Powhatan, by
whose advice you sent him such presents, I know not; but this giue me
leaue to tell you, I feare they will be the confusion of vs all ere we
heare from you againe. At your Ships arrivall, the Salvages harvest
was newly gathered, and we going to buy it, our owne not being halfe
sufficient for so great a number. As for the two ships loading of Corne Newport promised to provide vs from Powhatan, he brought vs but fourteene Bushels; and from the Monacans nothing,
but the most of the men sicke and neare famished. From your Ship we had
not provision in victuals worth twenty pound, and we are more then two
hundred to liue vpon this: the one halfe sicke, the other little
better. For the Saylers (I confesse) they
daily make good cheare, but our dyet is a little meale and water, and
not sufficient of that. Though there be fish in the Sea, foules in the
ayre, and Beasts in the woods, their bounds are so large, they so
wilde, and we so weake and ignorant, we cannot much trouble them.
Captaine Newport we much suspect to be the
Authour of those inventions. Now that you should know, I haue made you
as great a discovery as he, for lesse charge then he spendeth you every
meale; I haue sent you this Mappe of the Bay and Rivers, with an annexed
Relation of the Countries and Nations that inhabit
them, as you may see at large. Also two barrels of stones, and such as
I take to be good Iron ore at the least; so devided, as by their notes
you may see in what places I found them. The Souldiers say many of your
officers maintaine their families out of that you send vs: and that Newport hath
an hundred pounds a yeare for carrying newes. For every master you haue
yet sent can find the way as well as he, so that an hundred pound might
be spared, which is more then we haue all, that helps to pay him wages.
Cap. Ratliffe is now called Sicklemore, a
poore counterfeited Imposture. I haue sent you him home, least the
company should cut his throat. What he is, now every one can tell you:
if he and Archer returne againe, they are
sufficient to keepe vs alwayes in factions. When you send againe I
intreat you rather send but thirty Carpenters, husbandmen, gardiners,
fisher men, blacksmiths, masons, and diggers vp of trees, roots, well
provided, then a thousand of such as we haue; for except wee be able
both to lodge them, and feed them, the most will consume with want of
necessaries before they can be made good for anything. Thus if you
please to consider this account, and of the vnnecessary wages to
Captaine Newport, or his ships so long lingering and staying here (for notwithstanding his boasting to leaue vs victuals for 12 moneths, though we had 89 by
this discovery lame and sicke, and but a pinte of Corne a day for a
man, we were constrained to giue him three hogsheads of that to
victuall him homeward) or yet to send into Germany or Poleland for
glasse-men & the rest, till we be able to sustaine our selues, and
relieue them when they come. It were better to giue fiue hundred pound
a tun for those grosse Commodities in Denmarke, then
send for them hither, till more necessary things be provided. For in
over-toyling our weake and vnskilfull bodies, to satisfie this desire
of present profit, we can scarce ever recover our selues from one
Supply to another. And I humbly intreat you hereafter, let vs know what
we should receiue, and not stand to the Saylers courtesie to leaue vs
what they please, els you may charge vs with what you will, but we not
you with anything. These are the causes that haue kept vs in Virginia, from
laying such a foundation, that ere this might haue given much better
content and satisfaction; but as yet you must not looke for any
profitable returnes: so I humbly rest.
The Names of those in this Supply, were these:
with their Proceedings and Accidents.
were appoynted to be of the Councell.
Master Francis VVest, brother to the Lord La VVarre.
- Captaine Peter Winne,
- Captaine Richard Waldo,
- Thomas Graues.
- Raleigh Chroshaw.
- Gabriel Beadle.
- Iohn Beadle.
- Iohn Russell.
- William Russell.
- Iohn Cuderington.
- William Sambage.
- Henry Leigh.
- Henry Philpot.
- Harmon Harrison.
- Daniel Tucker.
- Henry Collings.
- Hugh Wolleston.
- Iohn Hoult.
- Thomas Norton.
- George Yarington.
- George Burton.
- Thomas Abbay.
- William Dowman.
- Thomas Maxes.
- Michael Lowick.
- Master Hunt.
- Thomas Forrest.
- Iohn Dauxe.
- Thomas Phelps.
- Iohn Prat.
- Iohn Clarke.
- Ieffrey Shortridge.
- Dionis Oconor.
- Hugh Winne.
- Dauid ap Hugh.
- Thomas Bradley.
- Iohn Burras.
- Thomas Lavander.
- Henry Bell.
- Master Powell.
- David Ellis.
- Thomas Gibson.
- Thomas Dawse.
Mistresse Forrest, and Anne Burras her maide; eight Dutch-men and Poles, with some others, to the number of seaventie persons, &c.
- Thomas Mallard.
- William Tayler.
- Thomas Fox.
- Nicholas Hancock.
Nandsamund forced to contribution.
The first marriage in Virginia.
conclusions so affrighted vs all with famine, that the President
provided for Nandsamund, and tooke with him Captaine Winne, and Mr Scrivener, then returning from Captaine Newport.
These people also long denied him not onely the 400 Baskets of Corne
they promised, but any trade at all; (excusing themselues they had
spent most they had, and were commanded by Powhatan
to keepe that they had, and not to let vs come into their river) till
we were constrained to begin with them perforce. Vpon the discharging
of our Muskets they all fled and shot not an Arrow; the first house we
came to we set on fire, which when they perceiued, they desired we
would make no more spoyle, and they would giue vs halfe they had: how
they collected it I know not, but before night they loaded our three
Boats; and so we returned to our quarter some foure myles downe the
River, which was onely the open woods vnder the lay of a hill, where
all the ground was covered with snow, and hard frozen; the snow we
digged away and made a great fire in the place; when the ground was
well dryed, we turned away the fire; and covering the place with a mat,
there we lay very warme. To keepe vs from the winde we made a shade of
another Mat; as the winde turned we turned our shade, and when the
ground grew cold we remoued the fire. And thus many a cold winter night
haue wee laine in this miserable manner, yet those that most commonly
went vpon all those occasions, were alwayes in health, lusty, and fat.
For sparing them this yeare, the next yeare they promised to plant
purposely for vs; and so we returned to Iames towne. About this time there was a marriage betwixt Iohn Laydon and Anne Burras; which was the first marriage we had in Virginia.
Long he stayed not, but fitting himselfe and Captaine Waldo with two Barges. From Chawopoweanock,
and all parts thereabouts, all the people were fled, as being iealous
of our intents; till we discovered the river and people of Apamatuck;
where we found not much, that they had we equally divided, but gaue
them copper, and such things as contented them in consideration. Master
Scrivener and Lieutenant Percie went also abroad, but could find nothing.
The President seeing
the procrastinating of time, was no course to liue, resolved with
Captaine Waldo (whom he knew to be sure in time of need) to surprise Powhatan, and all his provision, but the unwillingnesse of Captaine Winne, and Master Scrivener, for some private respect, plotted in England to ruine Captaine Smith, did their best to hinder their proiect; but the President whom no perswasions could perswade to starue, being invited by Powhatan
to come vnto him: and if he would send him but men to build him a
house, giue him a gryndstone, fiftie swords, some peeces, a cock and a
hen, with much copper and beads, he would load his Ship with Corne. The
President not ignorant of his devises and subtiltie, yet vnwilling to
neglect any opportunitie, presently sent three Dutch-men and two English,
having so small allowance, few were able to doe any thing to purpose:
knowing there needed no better a Castle to effect this proiect, tooke
order with Captaine Waldo to second him, if need required; Scrivener
he left his substitute, and set forth with the Pinnace, two Barges, and
fortie-six men, which onely were such as voluntarily offered themselues
for his Iourney, the which by reason of Mr Scriveners ill successe, was censured very desperate, they all knowing Smith
would not returne emptie, if it were to be had; howsoever, it caused
many of those that he had appointed, to find excuses to stay behinde.
Captaine Smiths Iourney to Pamavnkee.
THe twentie-nine of December he set forward for Werowocomoco: his Company were these;
In the Discovery Barge himselfe.
- Robert Behethland.
- Nathanael Graues.
- Iohn Russell.
- Raleigh Chrashow.
- Michael Sicklemore.
- Richard Worley.
In the Pinnace.
- Anas Todkill.
- William Loue.
- William Bentley.
- Ieffrey Shortridge.
- Edward Pising.
- William Ward.
- Lieutenant Percie, brother to the Earle of Northumberland.
- Master Francis West, brother to the Lord La Warre.
- William Phittiplace, Captaine of the Pinnace.
- Michael Phittiplace.
- Ieffrey Abbot, Serieant.
- William Tankard.
- George Yarington.
- Jonas Profit, Master.
- Robert Ford, Clarke of the Councell.
- Iames Browne.
- Edward Brinton.
- George Burton.
- Thomas Coe.
Thomas Gipson, David Ellis, Nathanael Peacock, Saylers. Iohn Prat, George Acrig, Iames Read, Nicholas Hancock, Iames Watkins, Thomas Lambert, foure Dutch-men, and Richard Salvage were sent by land before to build the house for Powhatan against our Arrivall.
- Iohn Dods, Souldier.
- Henry Powell, Souldier.
The good counsell of Warraskoyack.
This company being
victualled but for three or foure dayes, lodged the first night at Warraskoyack, where the President tooke sufficient provision. This kind King did his best to divert him from seeing Powhatan, but perceiuing he could not prevaile, he advised in this manner. Captaine Smith, you shall find Powhatan
to vse you kindly, but trust him not, and be sure he haue no
oportunitie to seize on your Armes; for he hath sent for you onely to
cut your throats. The Captaine thanking him for his good counsell: yet
the better to try his loue, desired guides to Chawwonock; for he would send a present to that King, to bind him his friend. To performe this iourney was sent Mr Sicklemore,
a very valiant, honest, and a painefull Souldier: with him two guides,
and directions how to seeke for the lost company of Sir Walter Raleighs, and silke Grasse. Then we departed thence, the President assuring the King perpetuall loue; and left with him Samuel Collier his Page to learne the Language.
So this Kings deeds by sacred Oath adiur'd.
More wary proues, and circumspect by ods:
Fearing at least his double forfeiture;
To offend his friends, and sin against his Gods.
Plentie of victualls.
148 Foules killed at three shootes.
The next night being lodged at Kecoughtan;
six or seaven dayes the extreame winde, rayne, frost and snow caused vs
to keepe Christmas among the Salvages, where we were never more merry,
nor fed on more plentie of good Oysters, Fish, Flesh, Wild-foule, and
good bread; nor never had better fires in England, then in the dry smoaky houses of Kecoughtan:
but departing thence, when we found no houses we were not curious in
any weather to lye three or foure nights together vnder the trees by a
fire, as formerly is sayd. An hundred fortie eight foules the
President, Anthony Bagnall, and Serieant Pising did kill at three shoots. At Kiskiack
the frost & contrary winds forced vs three or foure dayes also (to
suppresse the insolency of those proud Salvages) to quarter in their
houses, yet guard our Barge, and cause them giue vs what we wanted;
though we were but twelue and himselfe, yet we never wanted shelter
where we found any houses. The 12 of Ianuary we arrived at Werowocomoco, where the river was frozen neare halfe a myle from the shore; but to neglect
no time, the President with his Barge so far had approached by breaking
the ice, as the ebbe left him amongst those oasie shoules, yet rather
then to lye there frozẽ to death, by his owne example he taught them to
march neere middle deepe, a flight shot through this muddy frozen oase.
When the Barge floated, he appoynted two or three to returne her aboord
the Pinnace. Where for want of water in melting the ice, they made
fresh water, for the river there was salt. But in this march Mr Russell,
(whom none could perswade to stay behinde) being somewhat ill, and
exceeding heauie, so overtoyled himselfe as the rest had much adoe (ere
he got ashore) to regaine life into his dead benummed spirits.
Quartering in the next houses we found, we sent to Powhatan
for provision, who sent vs plentie of bread, Turkies, and Venison; the
next day having feasted vs after his ordinary manner, he began to aske
vs when we would be gone: sayning he sent not for vs, neither had he
any corne; and his people much lesse: yet for fortie swords he would
procure vs fortie Baskets. The President shewing him the men there
present that brought him the message and conditions, asked Powhatan
how it chanced he became so forgetfull; thereat the King concluded the
matter with a merry laughter, asking for our Commodities, but none he
liked without gunnes and swords, valuing a Basket of Corne more
precious then a Basket of Copper; saying he could rate his Corne, but
not the Copper.
Cap. Smiths discourse to Powhatan.
Captaine Smith seeing the intent of this subtill Salvage began to deale with him after this manner. Powhatan,
though I had many courses to haue made my provision, yet beleeving your
promises to supply my wants, I neglected all to satisfie your desire:
and to testifie my loue, I sent you my men for your building,
neglecting mine owne. What your people had you haue ingressed, for
bidding them our trade: and now you thinke by consuming the time, we
shall consume for want, not having to fuifill your strange demands. As
for swords and gunnes, I told you long agoe I had none to spare; and
you must know those I haue can keepe me from want: yet steale or wrong
you I will not, nor dissolue that friendship we haue mutually promised,
except you constraine use by our bad vsage.
Powhatans reply and flattery.
King having attentiuely listned to this Discourse, promised that both
he and his Country would spare him what he could, the which within two
dayes they should receiue. Yet Captaine Smith, sayth
the King, some doubt I haue of your comming hither that makes me not so
kindly seeke to relieue you as I would: for many doe informe me, your
comming hither is not for trade, but to invade my people, and possesse
my Country, who dare not come to bring you Corne, seeing you thus armed
with your men. To free vs of this feare, leaue aboord your weapons, for
here they are needlesse, we being all friends, and for ever Powhatans.
With many such
discourses they spent the day, quartering that night in the Kings
houses. The next day he renewed his building, which hee little intended
should proceede. For the Dutch-men finding
his plentie, and knowing our want, and perceiving his preparations to
surprise vs, little thinking we could escape both him and famine; (to
obtaine his favour) revealed to him so much as they knew of our estates
and proiects, and how to prevent them. One of them being of so great a
spirit, iudgement, and resolution, and a hireling that was certaine of
his wages for his labour, and ever well vsed both he and his
Countrymen; that the President knew not whom better to trust; and not
knowing any fitter for that imployment, had sent him as a spy to
discover Powhatans intent, then little doubting his honestie, nor could ever be certaine of his villany till neare halfe a yeare after.
Whilst we expected
the comming in of the Country, we wrangled out of the King ten quarters
of Corne for a copper Kettell, the which the President perceiving him
much to affect, valued it at a much greater rate; but in regard of his
scarcity he would accept it, provided we should haue as much more the
next yeare, or els the Country of Monacan. Wherewith each seemed well contented, and Powhatan began to expostulate the difference of Peace and Warre after this manner.
Powhatans discourse of peace and warre.
Captaine Smith, you
may vnderstand that I having seene the death of all my people thrice,
and not any one liuing of these three generations but my selfe; I know
the difference of Peace and Warre better then any in my Country. But
now I am old and ere long must die, my brethren,
namely Opitchapam, Opechancanough, and Kekataugh, my
two sisters, and their two daughters, are distinctly each others
successors. I wish their experience no lesse then mine, and your loue
to them no lesse then mine to you. But this bruit from Nandsamund, that
you are come to destroy my Country, so much affrighteth all my people
as they dare not visit you. What will it availe you to take that by
force you may quickly haue by loue, or to destroy them that provide you
food. What can you get by warre, when we can hide our provisions and
fly to the woods? whereby you must famish by wronging vs your friends.
And why are you thus iealous of our loues seeing vs vnarmed, and both
doe, and are willing still to feede you, with that you cannot get but
by our labours? Thinke you I am so simple, not to know it is better to
eate good meate, lye well, and sleepe quietly with my women and
children, laugh and be merry with you, haue copper, hatchets, or what I
want being your friend: then be forced to flie from all, to lie cold in
the woods, feede vpon Acornes, rootes, and such trash, and be so hunted
by you, that I can neither rest, eate, nor sleepe; but my tyred men
must watch, and if a twig but breake, every one cryeth there commeth
Captaine Smith: then must I fly I know not
whether: and thus with miserable feare, end my miserable life, leauing
my pleasures to such youths as you, which through your rash
vnaduisednesse may quickly as miserably end, for want of that, you
never know where to finde. Let this therefore assure you of our loues,
and every yeare our friendly trade shall furnish you with Corne; and
now also, if you would come in friendly manner to see vs, and not thus
with your guns and swords as to invade your foes. To this subtill discourse, the President thus replyed.
Capt. Smiths Reply.
you will not rightly conceiue of our words, we striue to make you know
our thoughts by our deeds; the vow I made you of my loue, both my selfe
and my men haue kept. As for your promise I find it euery day violated
by some of your subiects: yet we finding your loue and kindnesse, our
custome is so far from being vngratefull, that for your sake onely, we
haue curbed our thirsting desire of revenge; els had they knowne as
well the crueltie we vse to our enemies, as our true loue and courtesie
to our friends. And I thinke your iudgement sufficient to conceiue, as
well by the adventures we haue vndertaken, as by the advantage we haue
(by our Armes) of yours: that had we intended you any hurt, long ere
this we could haue effected it. Your people comming to Iames Towne
are entertained with their Bowes and Arrowes without any exceptions; we
esteeming it with you as it is with vs, to weare our armes as our
apparell. As for the danger of our enemies, in such warres consist our
chiefest pleasure: for your riches we haue no vse: as for the hiding
your provision, or by your flying to the woods, we shall not so
vnadvisedly starue as you conclude, your friendly care in that behalfe
is needlesse, for we haue a rule to finde beyond your knowledge.
discourses they had, till at last they began to trade. But the King
seeing his will would not be admitted as a law, our guard dispersed,
nor our men disarmed, he (sighing) breathed his minde once more in this
Pawhatans importunity to haue vs vnarmed to betray vs.
Captaine Smith, I neuer vse any Werowance so kindely as your selfe, yet from you I receiue the least kindnesse of any. Captaine Newport gaue
me swords, copper, cloathes, a bed, towels, or what I desired; euer
taking what I offered him, and would send away his gunnes when I
intreated him: none doth deny to lye at my feet, or refuse to doe what
I desire, but onely you; of whom I can haue nothing but what you regard
not, and yet you will haue whatsoeuer you demand. Captaine Newport you
call father, and so you call me; but I see for all vs both you will doe
what you list, and we must both seeke to content you. But if you intend
so friendly as you say, send hence your armes, that I may beleeue you;
for you see the loue I beare you, doth cause me thus nakedly to forget
Cap. Smiths discourse to delay time, till he found oportunity to surprise the King.
seeing this Salvage but trifle the time to cut his throat, procured the
salvages to breake the ice, that his Boate might come to fetch his
corne and him: and gaue order for more men to come on shore, to
surprise the King, with whom also he but trifled the time till his men
were landed: and to keepe him from suspicion, entertained the time with
must know, as I haue but one God, I honour but one King; and I liue not
here as your subiect, but as your friend to pleasure you with what I
can. By the gifts you bestow on me, you gaine more then by trade: yet
would you visit mee as I doe you, you should know it is not our
custome, to sell our curtesies as a vendible commodity. Bring all your
countrey with you for your guard, I will not
dislike it as being ouer iealous. But to content you, tomorrow I will
leaue my Armes, and trust to your promise. I call you father indeed,
and as a father you shall see I will loue you: but the small care you
haue of such a childe caused my men perswade me to looke to my selfe.
Powhatans plot to haue murdered Smith.
A chaine of pearle sent the Captaine for a present.
By this time Powhatan
hauing knowledge his men were ready whilest the ice was a breaking,
with his luggage women and children, fled. Yet to auoyd suspicion, left
two or three of the women talking with the Captaine, whilest hee
secretly ran away, and his men that secretly beset the house. Which
being presently discouered to Captaine Smith,
with his pistoll, sword, and target hee made such a passage among these
naked Diuels; that at his first shoot, they next him tumbled one ouer
another, and the rest quickly fled some one way some another: so that
without any hurt, onely accompanied with Iohn Russell, hee obtained the corps du guard.
When they perceiued him so well escaped, and with his eighteene men
(for he had no more with him a shore) to the vttermost of their skill
they sought excuses to dissemble the matter: and Powhatan
to excuse his flight and the sudden comming of this multitude, sent our
Captaine a great bracelet and a chaine of pearle, by an ancient Oratour
that bespoke vs to this purpose, perceiuing euen then from our Pinnace,
a Barge and men departing and comming vnto vs.
Captaine Smith, our
Werowance is fled, fearing your gunnes, and knowing when the ice was
broken there would come more men, sent these numbers but to guard his
corne from stealing, that might happen without your knowledge: now
though some bee hurt by your misprision, yet Powhatan is
your friend and so will for euer continue. Now since the ice is open,
he would haue you send away your corne, and if you would haue his
company, send away also your gunnes, which so affrighteth his people,
that they dare not come to you as hee promised they should.
to kill our men loaded with baskets, we caused them do it them. selues.
Pocahontas bewrayes her fathers deceit to kill vs.
Then hauing prouided
baskets for our men to carry our corne to the boats, they kindly
offered their seruice to guard our Armes, that none should steale them.
A great many they were of goodly well proportioned fellowes, as grim as
Diuels; yet the very sight of cocking our matches, and being to let
fly, a few wordes caused them to leaue their bowes and arrowes to our
guard, and beare downe our corne on their backes; wee needed not
importune them to make dispatch. But our Barges being left on the oase
by the ebbe, caused vs stay till the next high-water, so that wee
returned againe to our old quarter. Powhatan and his Dutch-men brusting with desire to haue the head of Captaine Smith,
for if they could but kill him, they thought all was theirs, neglected
not any oportunity to effect his purpose. The Indians with all the
merry sports they could deuise, spent the time till night: then they
all returned to Powhatan, who all this
time was making ready his forces to surprise the house and him at
supper. Notwithstanding the eternall all-seeing God did preuent him,
and by a strange meanes. For Pocahontas
his dearest iewell and daughter, in that darke night came through the
irksome woods, and told our Captaine great cheare should be sent vs by
and by: but Powhatan and all the power he
could make, would after come kill vs all, if they that brought it could
not kill vs with our owne weapons when we were at supper. Therefore if
we would liue shee wished vs presently to bee gone. Such things as shee
delighted in, he would haue giuen her: but with the teares running
downe her cheekes, shee said shee durst not be seene to haue any: for
if Powhatan should know it, she were but
dead, and so shee ranne away by her selfe as she came. Within lesse
then an houre came eight or ten lusty fellowes, with graat platters of
venison and other victuall, very importunate to haue vs put out our
matches (whose smoake made them sicke) and sit down to our victuall.
But the Captaine made them taste euery dish, which done hee sent some
of them backe to Powhatan, to bid him make
haste for hee was prepared for his comming. As for them hee knew they
came to betray him at his supper: but hee would prevent them and all
their other intended villanies: so that they might be gone. Not long
after came more messengers, to see what newes; not long after them
others. Thus wee spent the night as vigilantly as they, till it was
high-water, yet seemed to the saluages
as friendly as they to vs: and that wee were so desirous to giue Powhatan content, as hee requested, wee did leaue him Edward Brynton to kill him foule, and the Dutch-men to finish his house; thinking at our rerurne from Pamavnkee
the frost would be gone, and then we might finde a better oportunity if
necessity did occasion it, little dreaming yet of the Dutch-mens
treachery, whose humor well suted this verse:
Is any free, that may not liue as freely as he list?
Let vs liue so, then w'are as free, and bruitish as the best.
How wee escaped surprising at Pamavnkee.
The Dutch men deceiue Cap. Winne.
WE had no sooner set sayle but Powhatan returned, and sent Adam and Francis (two stout Dutch-men) to Iames towne: who faining to Captaine Winne that all things were well, and that Captaine Smith
had vse of their armes, wherefore they requested new (the which were
giuen them) they told him their comming was for some extraordinary
tooles, and shift of apparell; by which colourable excuse they obtained
sixe or seauen more to their confederacie, such expert theeues, that
presently furnished them with a great many swords, pike-heads, peeces,
shot, powder and such like: Saluages they had at hand to carry it away,
and the next day they returned vnsuspected, leauing their confederates
to follow, and in the interim to convay them such things as they could:
for which seruice they should liue with Powhatan as his chiefe affected, free from those miseries that would happen the Colony. Samuel their other consort Powhatan
kept for their pledge, whose diligence had prouided them three hundred
of their kinde of hatchets; the rest fifty swords, eight peeces, and
eight pikes. Brynton and Richard Salvage seeing the Dutch-men so diligent to accommodate the Saluages with weapons, attempted to haue gotten to Iames towne, but they were apprehended, and expected euer when to be put to death.
The Dutch men furnish the Saluages with Armes.
Within two or three dayes we arriued at Pamavnkee,
the King as many dayes entertained vs with feasting and much mirth. And
the day appointed to beginne our trade, the President, Lieutenant Percie, Mr. West, Mr. Russell, Mr. Behethland, Mr. Crashaw, Mr. Powell, Mr. Ford, and some others to the number of fifteene, went vp to Opechancanoughs
house a quarter of a mile from the riuer) where wee found nothing but a
lame fellow and a boy: and all the houses round about of all things
abandoned. Not long wee stayed ere the King arriued, and after him came
diuerse of his people loaden with bowes and arrowes: but such pinching
commodities, and those esteemed at such a value, as our Captaine began
with the King after this manner.
Smiths Speech to Opechancanough.
the great loue you professe with your tongue seemes meere deceit by
your actions. Last yeere you kindly fraughted our ship: but now you
haue inuited mee to starue with hunger: you know my want, and I your
plenty; of which by some meanes I must haue part: remember it is fit
for Kings to keepe their promise. Here are my commodities, whereof take
your choice, the rest I will proportion fit bargains for your people.
700. Saluages beset the English being but 16.
The King seemed
kindly to accept his offer, and the better to colour his proiect, sold
vs what they had to our owne content, promising the next day more
company, better prouided. The Barges and Pinnace being committed to the
charge of Mr. Phetiplace;
the President with his old fifteene marched vp to the Kings house,
where wee found foure or fiue men newly arriued, each with a great
basket. Not long after came the King, who with a strained cheerfulnesse
held vs with discourse what paines he had taken to keep his promise;
till Mr. Russell brought vs in newes that we were all betrayed; for at least seuen hundred Saluages well armed, had inuironed
the house, and beset the fields. The King coniecturing what Russell
related, wee could well perceiue how the extremity of his feare
bewrayed his intent: whereat some of our company seeming dismaied with
the thought of such a multitude; the Captaine encouraged vs to this
Smiths speech to his Company.
Countrey-men, were the mischiefes of my seeming friends no more then
the danger of these enemies, I little cared were they as many more: if
you dare doe, but as I. But this is my torment, that if I escape them,
our malicious Councell with their open mouthed Minions, will make me
such a peace breaker (in their opinions in England) as will breake my
necke. I could wish those here, that make these seeme Saints, and me an
oppressor. But this is the worst of all, wherein I pray you aid mee
with your opinions. Should wee beginne with them and surprise the King,
we cannot keepe him and defend well our selues. If wee should each kill
our man, and so proceed with all in the house; the rest will all fly:
then shall wee get no more then the bodies that are slaine, and so
starue for victuall. As for their fury it is the least danger, for well
you know, being alone assaulted with two or three hundred of them, I
made them by the helpe of God compound to saue my life. And wee are
sixteene, and they but seauen hundred at the most; and assure your
selues, God will so assist vs that if you dare stand but to discharge
your pieces, the very smoake will bee sufficient to affright them. Yet
howsoeuer, let vs fight like men, and not die like sheepe: for by that
meanes you know God hath oft deliuered mee, and so I trust will now.
But first, I will deale with them, to bring it to passe wee may fight
for something, and draw them to it by conditions. If you like this
motion, promise me you will be valiant.
The time not
permitting any argument, all vowed to execute whatsoeuer hee attempted,
or die: whereupon the Captaine in plaine tearmes told the King this.
Smiths offer to Opechancanough.
I see Opechancanough your
plot to murder me, but I feare it not. As yet your men and mine haue
done no harme, but by our direction. Take therefore your Armes, you see
mine, my body shall bee as naked as yours: the Isle in your riuer is a
fit place, if you be contented: and the conquerour (of vs two) shall be
Lord and Master ouer all our men. If you haue not enough, take time to
fetch more, and bring what number you will; so euery one bring a basket
of corne, against all which I will stake the value in copper, you see I
haue but fifteene, and our game shall be, the Conquerour take all.
Opechancanoughs deuice to betray Smith.
Smith taketh the King prisoner.
The King being
guarded with forty or fifty of his chiefe men, seemed kindly to appease
Smiths suspicion of vnkindnesse, by a great
present at the doore, they intreated him to receiue. This was to draw
him out of the doore, where the bait was guarded with at least two
hundred men, and thirty lying vnder a great tree (that lay thwart as a
barricado) each his arrow nocked ready to shoot. The President
commanded one to go see what what kind of deceit this was, and to
receiue the present; but hee refused to doe it: yet the Gentlemen and
all the rest were importunate to goe, but he would not permit them,
being vexed at that Coward: and commanded Lieutenant Percie, Master West, and the rest to make good the house; Master Powell and Master Behethland
he commanded to guard the doore, and in such a rage snatched the King
by his long locke in the middest of his men, with his Pistoll readie
bent against his brest. Thus he led the trembling King, neare dead with
feare amongst all his people: who delivering the Captaine his Vambrace,
Bow, and Arrowes, all his men were easily intreated to cast downe their
Armes, little dreaming any durst in that manner haue vsed their King:
who then to escape himselfe bestowed his presents in good sadnesse, and
causing a great many of them come before him vnarmed, holding the King
by the hayre (as is sayd) he spake to them to this effect.
Smiths discourse to the Pamavnkees.
I see (you Pamavnkees)
the great desire you haue to kill me, and my long suffering your
iniuries hath imboldened you to this presumption. The cause I haue
forborne your insolencies, is the promise I made you (before the God I
serue) to be your friend, till you giue me iust cause to be your enemy.
If I keepe this vow, my God will keepe me, you cannot hurt me, if I
breake it, he will destroy me. But if you shoot but one Arrow to shed
one drop of bloud of any of my men, or steale the least of these Beads,
or Copper, I spurne here before you with my foot; you shall see I will
not cease revenge (if once I begin) so long as I can heare where to
finde one of
your Nation that will not deny the name of Pamavnk. I am not now at Rassaweak halfe
drowned with myre, where you tooke me prisoner; yet then for keeping
your promise and your good vsage and saving my life, I so affect you,
that your denyals of your trechory, doe halfe perswade me to mistake my
selfe. But if I be the marke you ayme at, here I stand, shoot he that
dare. You promised to fraught my Ship ere I departed, and so you shall,
or I meane to load her with your dead carcasses, yet if as friends you
will come and trade, I once more promise not to trouble you, except you
giue me the first occasion, and your King shall be free and be my
friend, for I am not come to hurt him or any of you.
The Salvages dissemble their intent.
Their excuse and reconcilement.
Vpon this away went
their Bowes and Arrowes, and men, women, and children brought in their
Commodities: two or three houres they so thronged about the President
and so overwearied him, as he retyred himselfe to rest, leauing Mr Behethland and Mr Powell
to receiue their presents, but some Salvages perceiuing him fast
asleepe, & the guard somewhat carelesly dispersed, fortie or fiftie
of their choise men each with a club, or an English sword in his hand
began to enter the house with two or three hundred others, that pressed
to second them. The noyse and hast they made in, did so shake the house
they awoke him from his sleepe, and being halfe amazed with this
suddaine sight, betooke him strait to his sword and Target; Mr Chrashaw
and some others charged in like manner; whereat they quickly thronged
faster backe then before forward. The house thus cleansed, the King and
some of his auncients we kept yet with him, who with a long Oration,
excused this intrusion. The rest of the day was spent with much
kindnesse, the companie againe renewing their presents with their best
provisions, and whatsoever he gaue them they seemed therewith well
The losse of Mr. Scrivener and others with a Skiff.
Now in the meane while since our departure, this hapned at our Fort. Master Scrivener having receiued Letters from England to make himselfe either Cćsar or nothing he began to decline in his affection to Captaine Smith, that ever regarded him as himselfe, and was willing to crosse the surprising of Powhatan. Some certaine daies after the Presidents departure, he would needs goe visit the Isle of Hogs, and tooke with him Captaine Waldo (though the President had appointed him to be ready to second his occasions) with Mr Anthony Gosnoll
and eight others; but so violent was the wind (that extreame frozen
time) that the Boat sunke, but where or how none doth know. The Skiff
was much over-loaden, and would scarce haue liued in that extreame
tempest had she beene empty: but by no perswasion he could be diverted,
though both Waldo and an hundred others
doubted as it hapned. The Salvages were the first that found their
bodies, which so much the more encouraged them to effect their
proiects. To advertise the President of this heavie newes, none could
be found would vndertake it, but the Iorney was often refused of all in
the Fort, vntill Master Richard Wyffin vndertooke alone the performance thereof.
Master Wyffins desperate iourney.
In this Iourney he
was incountred with many dangers and difficulties in all parts as he
passed. As for that night he lodged with Powhatan, perceiuing such preparation for warre, not finding the President there: he did assure himselfe some mischiefe was intended. Pocahontas
hid him for a time, and sent them who pursued him the cleane contrary
way to seeke him; but by her meanes and extraordinry bribes and much
trouble in three dayes travell, at length he found vs in the middest of
these turmoyles. This vnhappy newes the President swore him to conceale
from the company, and so dissembling his sorrow with the best
countenances he could, when the night approched went safely aboord with
all his Souldiers; leauing Opechancanough at libertie, according to his promise, the better to haue Powhatan in his returne.
Powhatan constraineth his men to be trecherous.
The third attempt to betray vs.
Now so extreamely Powhatan had threatned the death of his men, if they did not by some meanes kill Captaine Smith:
that the next day they appointed all the countrey should come to trade
vnarmed: yet vnwilling to be trecherous, but that they were
constrained, hating fighting with him almost as ill as hanging, such
feare they had of bad successe. The next morning the Sunne had not long
appeared, but the fields appeared covered with people and Baskets, to
tempt vs on shore: but nothing was to be had without his presence, nor
they would not indure the sight of a gun.
When the President saw them begin
to depart, being vnwilling to loose such a bootie, he so well contrived
the Pinnace, and his Barges with Ambuscadoes, as onely with Lieutenant Percie, Mr West, and Mr Russell,
with their Armes went on shore; others he appointed vnarmed to receiue
what was brought. The Salvages flocked before him in heapes, and the
banke serving as a trench for a retreat, he drew them fayre open to his
Ambuscado's. For he not being to be perswaded to goe visit their King,
the King knowing the most of them vnarmed, came to visit him with two
or three hundred men, in the forme of two halfe Moones; and with some
twentie men, and many women loaden with painted Baskets. But when they
approached somewhat neare vs, their women and children fled. For when
they had environed and beset the fields in this manner, they thought
their purpose sure, yet so trembled with feare as they were scarse able
to nock their Arrowes: Smith standing with
his three men ready bent, beholding them till they were within danger
of our Ambuscado's, who vpon the word discovered themselues, and he
retyred to the Barge. Which the Salvages no sooner perceived, then away
they fled, esteeming their heeles for their best advantage.
That night we sent Mr Chrashaw, and Mr Ford to Iames towne to Cap. Winne. In the way betweene Werowocomoco and the Fort they met foure or fiue of the Dutch-mens Confederates going to Powhatan: the which to excuse those Gentlemens suspition of their running to the Salvages, returned to the Fort and there continued.
A chayne of pearle sent to obtaine peace.
The Salvages hearing
our Barge goe downe the river in the night, were so terribly affrayde,
that we sent for more men (we having so much threatned their ruine, and
the rasing of their houses, boats, and wires) that the next day the
King sent our Captaine a chayne of Pearle, to alter his purpose and
stay his men: promising though they wanted themselues, to fraught our
ship and bring it aboord to avoyd suspition. So that fiue or six dayes
after, from all parts of the Country within ten or twelue myles in the
extreame frost and snow, they brought vs provision on their naked
The President poysoned: the offender punished.
The Salvages want and povertie.
this kindnesse and trade, had their art and poyson beene sufficient,
the President, with Mr West, and some others had beene poysoned; it made them sicke, but expelled it selfe. Wecuttanow,
a stout young fellow, knowing he was suspected for bringing this
present of poyson, with fortie or fiftie of his chiefe companions
(seeing the President but with a few men at Potavncak)
so proudly braued it, as though he expected to incounter a revenge.
Which the President perceiving in the midst of his company, did not
onely beate, but spurned him like a dogge, as scorning to doe him any
worse mischiefe. Wherevpon all of them fled into the woods, thinking
they had done a great matter to haue so well escaped: and the townsmen
remaining presently fraughted our Barge to be rid of our companies,
framing many excuses to excuse Wecuttanow, (being sonne to their chiefe King, but Powhatan)
and told vs if we would shew them him that brought the poyson, they
would deliver him to vs to punish as we pleased. Men may thinke it
strange there should be such a stirre for a little corne, but had it
beene gold with more ease wee might haue got it; and had it wanted, the
whole Colony had starued. Wee may be
thought very patient to endure all those iniuries, yet onely with
fearing them wee got what they had. Whereas if we had taken revenge,
then by their losse, we should haue lost our selues. We searched also
the Countries of Youghtanund and Mattapanient,
where the people imparted that little they had with such complaints and
teares from the eyes of women and children, as he had beene too cruell
to haue beene a Christian, that would not haue beene satisfied and
moued with compassion. But had this hapned in October, November, and
December, when that vnhappie discovery of Monacan was made, we might haue fraughted a ship of fortie runs, and twise as much might haue beene had from the Rivers of Rapahanock, Patawemek, and Pawtuxunt.
The Dutch-men did much hurt.
The maine occasion
of our thus temporizing with them was, to part friends as we did, to
giue the lesse cause of suspition to Powhatan to fly, by whom we now returned
with a purpose to haue surprised him and his provision. For effecting
whereof (when we came against the Towne) the President sent Mr Wyffin and Mr Coe ashore to discover and make way for his intended project. But they found that those damned Dutch-men had caused Powhatan to abandon his new house and Werowocomoco,
and to carry away all his corne and provision: and the people they
found so ill affected, that they were in great doubt how to escape with
their liues. So the President finding his intent frustrated, and that
there was nothing now to be had, and therefore an vnfit time to revenge
their abuses, sent Master Michael Phittiplace by Land to Iames towne, whether we sayled with all the speed we could; wee having in this Iourney (for 251.of Copper, and 501.of
Iron & Beads) enough to keepe 46 men six weekes, and every man for
his reward a moneths provision extraordinary (no Trade being allowed
but for the store) we got neare 2001 waight of deere suet, and delivered to the Cape Merchant 479 Bushels of Corne.
proceedings to some may seeme too charitable, to such a daily daring
trecherous people: to others not pleasing, that we washed not the
ground with their blouds, nor shewed such strange inventions in
mangling, murdering, ransacking, and destroying (as did the Spanyards)
the simple bodies of such ignorant soules; nor delightfull, because not
stuffed with Relations of heapes and mynes of gold and silver, nor such
rare commodities, as the Portugals and Spanyards found in the East and West Indies.
The want whereof hath begot vs (that were the first vndertakers) no
lesse scorne and contempt, then the noble conquests and valiant
adventures beautified with it, prayse and honour. Too much I confesse
the world cannot attribute to their ever memorable merit: and to cleare
vs from the blind worlds ignorant censure, these few words may suffice
any reasonable vnderstanding.
An Apology for the first Planters.
It was the Spanyards
good hap to happen in those parts where were infinite numbers of
people, who had manured the ground with that providence, it affoorded
victualls at all times. And time had brought them to that perfection,
they had the vse of gold and silver, and the most of such commodities
as those Countries affoorded: so that, what the Spanyard
got was chiefely the spoyle and pillage of those Countrey people, and
not the labours of their owne hands. But had those fruitfull Countries
beene as salvage, as barbarous, as ill peopled, as little planted,
laboured, and manured, as Virginia: their proper labours it is likely would haue produced as small profit as ours. But had Virginia beene peopled, planted, manured, and adorned with such store of precious lewels, and rich commodities as was the Indies:
then had we not gotten and done as much as by their examples might be
expected from vs, the world might then haue traduced vs and our merits,
and haue made shame and infamy our recompence and reward.
But we chanced in a
Land even as God made it, where we found onely an idle, improvident,
scattered people, ignorant of the knowledge of gold or silver, or any
commodities, and carelesse of any thing but from hand to mouth, except
bables of no worth; nothing to incourage vs, but what accidentally we
found Nature afforded. Which ere we could bring to recompence our
paines, defray our charges, and satisfie our Adventurers; we were to
discover the Countrey, subdue the people, bring them to be tractable,
civill, and industrious, and teach them trades, that the fruits of
their labours might make vs some recompence, or plant such Colonies
of our owne, that must first make prouision how to liue of themselues,
ere they can bring to perfection the commodities of the Country: which
doubtlesse will be as commodious for England as the west Indies for Spaine,
if it be rightly mannaged: notwithstanding all our home-bred opinions,
that will argue the contrary, as formerly some haue done against the Spanyards and Portugalls.
But to conclude, against all rumor of opinion, I onely say this, for
those that the three first yeares began this Plantation;
notwithstanding all their factions, mutinies, and miseries, so gently
corrected, and well prevented: pervse the Spanish Decades; the Relations of Master Hackluit,
and tell me how many ever with such small meanes as a Barge of 22 tuns,
sometimes with seauen, eight, or nine, or but at most, twelue or
sixteene men, did ever discover so
many fayre and navigable Rivers,
subiect so many severall Kings, people, and Nations, to obedience, and
contribution, with so little bloudshed.
And if in the search
of those Countries we had hapned where wealth had beene, we had as
surely had it as obedience and contribution, but if we haue overskipped
it, we will not enuie them that shall find it: yet can we not but
lament, it was our fortunes to end when we had but onely learned how to
begin, and found the right course how to proceed.
By Richard Wyffin, William Phittiplace, Ieffrey Abbot, and Anas Todkill.
How the Salvages became subiect to the English.
WHen the Ships
departed, all the provision of the Store (but that the President had
gotten) was so rotten with the last Summers rayne, and eaten with Rats
and Wormes, as the Hogges would scarcely eate it. Yet it was the
Souldiers dyet till our returnes, so that we found nothing done, but
our victuals spent, and the most part of our tooles, and a good part of
our Armes conveyed to the Salvages. But now casting vp the Store, and
finding sufficient till the next harvest, the feare of starving was
abandoned, and the company divided into tens, fifteens, or as the
businesse required; six houres each day was spent in worke, the rest in
Pastime and merry exercises, but the vntowardnesse of the greatest
number caused the President advise as followeth.
The Presidents advice to the Company.
the long experience of our late miseries, I hope is sufficient to
perswade every one to a present correction of himselfe, and thinke not
that either my pains, nor the Adventurers purses, will ever maintaine
you in idlenesse and sloath. I speake not this to you all, for divers
of you I know deserue both honour and reward, better then is yet here
to be had: but the greater part must be more industrious, or starue,
how euer you haue beene heretofore tollerated by the authoritie of the
Councell, from that I haue often commanded you. You see now that power
resteth wholly in my selfe: you must obey this now for a Law, that he
that will not worke shall not eate (except by sicknesse he be
disabled:) for the labours of thirtie or fortie houest and industrious
men shall not be consumed to maintaine an hundred and fiftie idle
loyterers. And though you presume the authoritie here is but a shadow,
and that I dare not touch the liues of any but my owne must answer it:
the Letters patents shall each weeks be read to you, whose Contents
will tell you the contrary. I would wish you therefore without contempt
seeke to obserue these orders set downe, for there are now no more
Counsellers to protect you, nor curbe my endevours. Therefore he that
offendeth, let him assuredly expect his due punishment.
He made also a
Table, as a publicke memoriall of every mans deserts, to incourage the
good, and with shame to spurre on the rest to amendment. By this many
became very industrious, yet more by punishment performed their
businesse, for all were so tasked, that there was no excuse could
prevaile to deceiue him: yet the Dutch-mens
consorts so closely convayed them powder, shot, swords, and tooles,
that though we could find the defect, we could not finde by whom, till
it was too late.
The Dutch-mens plot to murther Cap. Smith.
Smith taketh the King of Paspahegh prisoner.
All this time the Dutch men remaining with Powhatan,
(who kindly entertained them to instruct the Salvages the vse of our
Armes) and their consorts not following them as they expected; to know
the cause, they sent Francis their companion, a stout young fellow, disguised like a Salvage, to the Glasse-house, a place in the woods neare a myle from Iames Towne; where was their Rendezvous for all their vnsuspected villany. Fortie men they procured to lie in Ambuscado for Captaine Smith, who no sooner heard of this Dutch-Man, but he sent to apprehend him (but he was gone) yet to crosse his returne to Powhatan, the Captaine presently dispatched 20.
shot after him, himselfe returning from the Glasse-house alone. By the way he incountred the King of Paspuhegh,
a most strong stout Salvage, whose perswasions not being able to
perswade him to his Ambush, seeing him onely armed but with a faucheon,
attempted to haue shot him, but the President prevented his shoot by
grapling with him, and the Salvage as well prevented him for drawing
his faucheon, and perforce bore him into the River to haue drowned him.
Long they strugled in the water, till the President got such hold on
his throat, he had neare strangled the King; but having drawne his
faucheon to cut off his head, seeing how pitifully he begged his life,
he led him prisoner to Iames Towne, and put him in chaynes.
Cap. Smith taketh two Salvages prisoners.
ere long was also brought in, whose villany though all this time it was
suspected, yet he fayned such a formall excuse, that for want of
language Captaine Winne vnderstood him not rightly, and for their dealings with Powhatan,
that to saue their liues they were constrained to accommodate his
armes, of whom he extreamely complained to haue detained them perforce,
and that he made this escape with the hazard of his life, and meant not
to haue returned, but was onely walking in the woods to gather Walnuts.
Yet for all this faire tale, there was so small appearance of truth,
and the plaine confession of Paspahegh of his trechery, he went by the heeles: Smith purposing to regaine the Dutch-men, by the saving his life. The poore Salvage did his best by his daily messengers to Powhatan, but all returned that the Dutch-men would not returne, neither did Powhatan
stay them; and to bring them fiftie myles on his mens backes they were
not able. Daily this Kings wiues, children, and people came to visit
him with presents, which he liberally bestowed to make his peace. Much
trust they had in the Presidents promise: but the King finding his
guard negligent, though fettered yet escaped. Captaine Winne
thinking to pursue him found such troupes of Salvages to hinder his
passage, as they exchanged many vollies of shot for flights of Arrowes.
Captaine Smith hearing of this in returning to the Fort, tooke two Salvages prisoners, called Kemps and Tussore, the two most exact villaines in all the Country. With these he sent Captaine Winne and fiftie choise men, and Lieutenant Percie,
to haue regained the King, and revenged this iniury, and so had done,
if they had followed his directions, or beene advised with those two
villaines, that would haue betrayed both King & kindred for a peece
of Copper, but he trifling away the night, the Salvages the next
morning by the rising of the Sunne, braved him to come ashore to fight:
a good time both sides let fly at other, but we heard of no hurt, onely
they tooke two Canowes, burnt the Kings house, and so returned to Iames towne.
The Salvages desire Peace.
fearing those Bravado's would but incourage the Salvages, began againe
himselfe to try his conclusions, where by six or seauen were slaine, as
many made prisoners. He burnt their houses, tooke their Boats, with all
their fishing wires, and planted some of them at Iames
towne for his owne vse, and now resolved not to cease till he had
revenged himselfe of all them had iniured him. But in his iourney
passing by Paspahegh towards Chickahamania,
the Salvages did their best to draw him to their Ambuscadoes; but
seeing him regardlesly passe their Country, all shewed themselues in
their bravest manner. To try their valours he could not but let fly,
and ere he could land, they no sooner knew him, but they threw downe
their armes and desired peace. Their Orator was a lustie young fellow
called Okaning, whose worthy discourse deserveth to be remembred. And thus it was:
Okaning his Oration.
Captaine Smith, my Master is here present in the company, thinking it Capt. Winne, and
not you, (of him he intended to haue beene revenged) having never
offended him. If he hath offended you in escaping your imprisonment,
the fishes swim, the foules fly, and the very beasts striue to escape
the snare and liue. Then blame not him being a man. He would intreat
you remember, you being a prisoner, what paines he tooke to saue your
life. If since he hath iniured you he was compelled to it but
howsoeuer, you haue revenged it with our too great losse. We perceiue
and well know you intend to destroy us, that are here to intreat and
desire your friendship, and to enioy our houses and plant our fields,
of whose fruit you shall participate: otherwise you will haue the worse
by our absence; for we can plant any where,
though with more labour, and we know you cannot
liue if you want our harvest, and that reliefe we bring you. If you
promise vs peace, we will beleeue you; if you proceed in revenge we
will abandon the Country.
Vpon these tearmes
the President promised them peace, till they did vs iniury, vpon
condition they should bring in provision. Thus all departed goods
friends, and so continued till Smith left the Countrey.
A Salvage smoothered at Iames towne, and recovered.
Arriving at Iames Towne, complaint was made to the President, that the Chickahamanians,
who all this while continued trade and seemed our friends, by colour
thereof were the onely theeues. And amongst other things a Pistoll
being stolne and the theefe fled, there was apprehended two proper
young fellowes, that were brothers, knowne to be his confederates. Now
to regaine this Pistoll, the one was imprisoned, the other was sent to
returne the Pistoll againe within twelue houres, or his brother to be
hanged. Yet the President pittying the poore naked Salvage in the
dungeon, sent him victuall and some Char-coale for a fire: ere midnight
his brother returned with the Pistoll, but the poore Salvage in the
dungeon was so smoothered with the smoake he had made, and so
pittiously burnt, that wee found him dead. The other most lamentably
bewayed his death, and broke forth into such bitter agonies, that the
President to quiet him, told him that if hereafter they would not
steale, he would make him aliue againe: but he little thought he could
be recovered. Yet we doing our best with Aqua vita and Vineger,
it pleased God to restore him againe to life, but so drunke &
affrighted, that he seemed Lunaticke, the which as much tormented and
grieued the other, as before to see him dead. Of which maladie vpon
promise of their good behaviour, the President promised to recover him:
and so caused him to be layd by a fire to sleepe, who in the morning
having well slept, had recovered his perfect senses, and then being
dressed of his burning, and each a peece of Copper giuen them, they
went away so well contented, that this was spread among all the
Salvages for a miracle, that Captaine Smith could make a man aliue that was dead.
Two or three Salvages slaine in drying Powder.
Another ingenuous Salvage of Powhatans, having gotten a great bag of Powder, and the backe of an Armour, at Werowocomoco amongst a many of his companions, to shew his extraordinary skill, he did dry it on the backe as he had seene the Souldiers at Iames
Towne. But he dryed it so long, they peeping over it to see his skill,
it tooke fire, and blew him to death, and one or two more, and the rest
so scorched, they had little pleasure to meddle any more with powder.
These and many other such pretty Accidents, so amazed and affrighted both Powhatan,
and all his people, that from all parts with presents they desired
peace; returning many stolne things which we never demanded nor thought
of; and after that, those that were taken stealing, both Powhatan and his people haue sent them backe to Iames towne, to receiue their punishment; and all the Country became absolute as free for vs, as for themselues.
What was done in three moneths having Victualls. The Store devoured
by Rats, how we liued three moneths of such naturall
fruits as the Country affoorded.
NOw we so quietly
followed our businesse, that in three moneths wee made three or foure
Last of Tarre, Pitch, and Sope ashes; produced a tryall of Glasse; made
a Well in the Fort of excellent sweet water, which till then was
wanting; built some twentie houses; recovered our Church; provided Nets
and Wires for fishing; and to stop the disorders of our disorderly
theeues, and the Salvages, built a Blockhouse in the neck of our Isle,
kept by a Garrison to entertaine
the Saluages trade, and none to
passe nor repasse Saluage nor Christian without the presidents order.
Thirtie or forty Acres of ground we digged and planted. Of three sowes
in eighteene moneths, increased 60, and od Piggs. And neere 500.
chickings brought vp themselues without hauing any meat giuen them: but
the Hogs were transported to Hog. Isle: where also we built a
block-house with a garison to giue vs notice of any shipping, and for
their exercise they made Clapbord and waynscot, and cut downe trees. We
built also a fort for a retreat neere a conuenient Riuer vpon a high
commanding hill, very hard to be assalted and easie to be defended, but
ere it was finished this defect caused a stay.
Great extremitie by Rats.
Bread made of dried Sturgeon.
Their desire to destroy themselues.
In searching our
casked corne, we found it halfe rotten, and the rest so consumed with
so many thousands of Rats that increased so fast, but there originall
was from the ships, as we knew not how to keepe that little we had.
This did driue vs all to our wits end, for there was nothing in the
country but what nature afforded. Vntill this time Kemps and Tassore
were fettered prisoners, and did double taske and taught vs how to
order and plant our fields: whom now for want of victuall we set at
liberty, but so well they liked our companies they did not desire to
goe from vs. And to expresse their loues for 16. dayes continuance, the
Countrie people brought vs (when least) 100. a day, of Squirrils,
Turkyes, Deere and other wilde beasts: But this want of corne
occasioned the end of all our works, it being worke sufficient to
provide victuall. 60. or 80. with Ensigne Laxon was sent downe the riuer to liue vpon Oysters, and 20. with liutenant Percy to try for fishing at Poynt Comfort: but in six weekes they would not agree once to cast out the net, he being sicke and burnt sore with Gunpouder. Master West
with as many went vp to the falls, but nothing could be found but a few
Acornes; of that in store euery man had their equall proportion. Till
this present, by the hazard and indeuours of some thirtie or fortie,
this whole Colony had ever beene fed. We had more Sturgeon, then could
be deuoured by Dog and Man, of which the industrious by drying and
pounding, mingled with Caviare, Sorell and other wholesome hearbes
would make bread and good meate: others would gather as much Tockwhogh
roots, in a day as would make them bread a weeke, so that of those
wilde fruites, and what we caught, we liued very well in regard of such
a diet, But such was the strange condition of some 150, that had they
not beene forced nolens, volens, perforce
to gather and prepare their victuall they would all haue starued or
haue eaten one another. Of those wildfruits the Salvages often brought
vs, and for that, the President would not fullfill the vnreasonable
desire, of those distracted Gluttonous Loyterers, to sell not only out
kettles, hows, tooles, and Iron, nay swords, pieces, and the very
Ordnance and howses, might they haue prevayled to haue beene but Idle:
for those Saluage fruites, they would haue had imparted all to the
Saluages, especially for one basket of Corne they heard of to be at Powhatăs,
fifty myles from our Fort. Though he bought neere halfe of it to
satisfie their humors, yet to haue had the other halfe, they would haue
sould their soules, though not sufficient to haue kept them a weeke.
Thousands were there exclamations, suggestions and deuises, to force
him to those base inventions to haue made it an occasion to abandon the
Country. Want perforce constrained him to indure their exclaiming
follies, till he found out the author, one Dyer a most crafty fellow and his ancient Maligner, whom he worthily punished, and with the rest he argued the case in this maner.
The Presidents order for the drones
souldiers, I did little thinke any so false to report, or so many to be
so simple to be perswaded, that I either intend to starue you, or that Powhatan at
this present hath corne for himselfe, much lesse for you; or that I
would not haue it, if I knew where it were to be had. Neither did I
thinke any so malitious as now I see a great many; yet it shal not so
passionate me, but I will doe my best for my most maligner. But dreame
no longer of this vaine hope from Powhatan, not
that I will longer forbeare to force you, from your Idlenesse, and
punish you if you rayle. But if I finde any more runners for
Newfoundland with the Pinnace, let him assuredly looke to ariue at the
Gallows. You cannot deny but that by the hazard of my life many a time
I haue saued yours, when (might your owne wills hane preuailed) you
would haue starued; and will doe still whether I
will or noe; But I protest by that God that made me, since necessitie
bath not power to force you to gather for your selues those fruites the
earth doth yeeld, you shall not onely gather for your selues, but those
that are sicke. As yet I neuer had more from the store then the worst
of you: and all my English extraordinary prouision that I haue, you
shall see me diuide it amongst the sick. And this Saluage trash you so
scornfully repine at; being put in your mouthes your stomackes can
disgest, if you would haue better you should haue brought it; and
therefore I will take a course you shall prouide what is to be had. The
sick shall not starue, but equally share of all our labours; and he
that gathereth not every day as much as I doe, the next day shall be
set beyond the riuer, and be banished from the Fort as a drone; till he
amend his conditions or starue. But some would say with Seneca,
I know those things thou sayst are true good Nurse,
But fury forceth me to follow worse.
My minde is hurried headlong vp and downe:
Desiring better counsell, yet finds none.
But seuen of 200 dyed in nine moneths.
This order many
murmured was very cruell, but it caused the most part so well bestirre
themselues, that of 200. (except they were drowned) there died not past
seuen as: for Captaine Winne and Master Leigh
they were dead ere this want hapned, and the rest dyed not for want of
such as preserued the rest. Many were billetted amongst the Saluages,
whereby we knew all their passages, fields and habitations, how to
gather and vse there fruits as well as themselues; for they did know
wee had such a commanding power at Iames towne they durst not wrong vs of a pin.
The Salvages returne our fugitiues.
So well those poore
Salvages vsed vs that were thus billetted, that diuers of the Souldiers
ran away to search Kemps & Tassore our
old prisoners. Glad were these Salvages to haue such an oportunity to
testifie their loue vnto vs, for in stead of entertaining them, and
such things as they had stollen, with all their great Offers, and
promises they made them how to reuenge their iniuryes vpon Captaine Smith; Kemps
first made himselfe sport, in shewing his countrie men (by them) how he
was vsed, feeding thẽ with this law, who would not work must not eat,
till they were neere starued indeede, continually threatning to beate
them to death: neither could they get from him, till hee and his
consorts brought them perforce to our Captaine, that so well contented
him and punished them, as many others that intended also to follow
them, were rather contented to labour at home, then aduenture to liue
idlely amongst the Salvages; (of whom there was more hope to make
better Christians & good subiects, then the one halfe of those that
counterfeited themselues both.) For so affraide was al those kings and
the better sort of the people to displease vs, that some of the baser
sort that we haue extreamly hurt and punished for there villanies would
hire vs, we should not tell it to their kings, or countrymen, who would
also repunish them, and yet returne them to Iames towne to content the President for a testimony of their loues.
Master Sicklemores Iourney to Chawwonoke
Master Sicklemore well returned from Chawwonoke; but found little hope and lesse certaintie of them were left by Sir Walter Raleigh.
The riuer, he saw was not great, the people few, the countrey most over
growne with pynes, where there did grow here and there straglingly Pemminaw, we call silke grasse. But by the riuer the ground was good, and exceeding furtill;
Master Powels iorney to the Mangoags.
Master Nathanael powell and Anas Todkill were also by the Quiyoughqnohanocks conducted to the Mangoags
to search them there: but nothing could they learne but they were all
dead. This honest proper good promise-keeping king, of all the rest did
euer best affect vs, and though to his false Gods he was very zealous,
yet he would confesse our God as much exceeded his as our Gunns did his
Bow and Arrowes, often sending our President may presents, to pray to
his God for raine or his corne would perish, for his Gods were angry.
Three dayes iorney they conducted
them through the woods, into a
high country towards the Southwest: where they saw here and there a
little corne field, by some little spring or smal brooke, but no riuer
they could see: the people in all respects like the rest, except there
language: they liue most vpon rootes, fruites and wilde beasts; and
trade with them towards the sea and the fatter countryes for dryed fish
and corne, for skins.
The Dutch mens proiects.
Two Gentlemen sent to the Germans.
All this time to recouer the Dutch-men and one Bentley another fugitiue, we imployed one William Volday, a Zwitzar
by birth, with Pardons & promises to regaine them. Little we then
suspected this double villaine of any villany; who plainly taught vs,
in the most trust was the greatest treason; for this wicked hypocrite,
by the seeming hate he bore to the lewd conditions of his cursed
country men, (hauing this oportunity by his imployment to regaine them)
conuayed them euery thing they desired to effect their proiects, to
distroy the Colony. With much deuotion they expected the Spaniard,
to whom they intended good seruice, or any other, that would but carry
them from vs. But to begin with the first oportunity; they seeing
necessitie thus inforced vs to disperse our selues, importuned Powhatan
to lend them but his forces, and they would not onely distroy our
Hoggs, fire our towne, and betray our Pinnace; but bring to his seruice
and subiection the most of our company. With this plot they had
acquainted many Discontents, and many were agreed to their Deuilish
practise. But one Thomas Douse, and Thomas Mallard (whose christian hearts relented at such an vnchristian act) voluntarily reuealed it to Captaine Smith, who caused them to conceale it, perswading Douse and Mallard to proceed in their confedracie: onely to bring the irreclamable Dutch
men and the inconstant Salvages in such a maner amongst such
Ambuscado's as he had prepared, that not many of thẽ should returne
from our Peninsula. But this brute cőming to the eares of the impatiẽt multitude they so importuned the President to cut off those Dutch men, as amongst many that offred to cut their throats before the face of Powhată, the first was Lieutenăt Pčrcy, and Mr. Iohn Cuderington,
two Gentlemen of as bold resolute spirits as could possibly be foũd.
But the Presidẽt had occasiő of other imploiment for them, & gaue
gaue way to Master Wyffin and Sarieant Ieffrey Abbot, to goe and stab them or shoor them. But the Dutch men made such excuses, accusing Volday whom they supposed had reuealed their proiect, as Abbot would not, yet Wyffing would, perceiuing it but deceit. The King vnderstanding of this their imployment, sent presently his messengers to Captaine Smith
to signifie it was not his fault to detaine them, nor hinder his men
from executing his command: nor did he nor would he mantaine them, or
any to occasion his displeasure.
The first arriuall of Captaine Argall.
But whilst this businesse was in hand, Arriued one Captaine Argall, and Master Thomas Sedan, sent by Master Cornelius to truck with the Colony,
and fish for Sturgeon, with a ship well furnished, with wine and much
other good provision. Though it was not sent vs, our necessities was
such as inforced vs to take it. He brought vs newes of a great supply
and preparation for the Lord La Warre,
with letters that much taxed our President for his heard dealing with
the Salvages, and not returning the shippes fraughted. Notwithstanding
we kept this ship tell the fleete arriued. True it is Argall
lost his voyage, but we reuictualled him, and sent him for England,
with a true relation of the causes of our defailments, and how
imposible it was to returne that wealth they expected, or obserue there
instructions to indure the Salvages insolencies, or doe any thing to
any purpose, except they would send vs men and meanes that could
produce that they so much desired: otherwises all they did was lost,
and could not but come to confusion. The villany of Volday we still dissembled. Adam vpon his pardon came home but Samuell still stayed with Powhahan to heare further of their estates by this supply. Now all their plots Simth
so well vnderstood, they were his best advantages to secure vs from any
trechery, could be done by them or the Salvages: which with facility he
could revenge when he would, because all those countryes more feared
him then Powhatan, and hee had such
parties with all his bordering neighbours: and many of the rest for
loue or feare would haue done anything he would haue them, vpon any
though these fugitiues had done all they could to perswade Powhatan, King Iames would kill Smith, for vsing him and his people so vnkindly.
Note these inconveniences.
By this you may see
for all those crosses, trecheries, and dissentions, how hee wrestled
and overcame (without bloudshed) all that happened: also what good was
done; how few dyed; what food the Countrey naturally affoordeth; what
finall cause there is men should starue, or be murthered by the
Salvages, that haue discretion to mannage them with courage and
industrie. The two first yeares, though by his adventures, he had oft
brought the Salvages to a tractable trade, yet you see how the envrous
authoritie ever crossed him, and frustrated his best endevours. But it
wrought in him that experience and estimation amongst the Salvages, as
otherwise it had bin impossible, he had ever effected that he did.
Notwithstanding the many miserable, yet generous and worthy adventures,
he had oft and long endured in the wide world, yet in this case he was
againe to learne his Lecture by experience. Which with thus much adoe
having obtained, it was his ill chance to end, when he had but onely
learned how to begin. And though he left those vnknowne difficulties
(made easie and familiar) to his vnlawfull successors, (who onely by
liuing in Iames Towne, presumed to know
more then all the world could direct them:) Now though they had all his
Souldiers, with a tripple power, and twice tripple better meanes; by
what they haue done in his absence, the world may see what they would
haue done in his presence, had he not prevented their indiscretions: it
doth iustly proue, what cause he had to send them for England, and that he was neither factious, mutinous, nor dishonest. But they haue made it more plaine since his returne for England;
having his absolute authoritie freely in their power, with all the
advantages and opportunitie that his labours had effected. As I am
sorry their actions haue made it so manifest, so I am vnwilling to say
what reason doth compell me, but onely to make apparant the truth,
least I should seeme partiall, reasonlesse, and malicious.
The Arrivall of the third Supply.
The alteration of the government.
1609. Sir Thomas Smith Treasurer.
The losse of Virginia.
The Salvages offer to fight vnder our colours.
TO redresse those
jarres and ill proceedings, the Treasurer, Councell, and Company of Virginia,
not finding that returne, and profit they expected; and them ingaged
there, not having meanes to subsist of themselues, made meanes to his
Maiestie, to call in their Commission, and take a new in their owne
names, as in their owne publication, 1610. you may reade at large.
Having thus annihilated the old by vertue of a Commission made to the
right Honourable, Sir Thomas West, Lord de la Warre, to be Generall of Virginia; Sir Thomas Gates, his Lieutenant; Sir George Somers, Admirall; Sir Thomas Dale, high Marshall; Sir Fardinando Wainman,
Generall of the Horse; and so all other offices to many other worthy
Gentlemen, for their liues: (though not any of them had ever beene in Virginia, except Captaine Newport, who was also by Patent made vice-Admirall:) those noble Gentlemen drew in such great summes of money, that they sent Sir Thomas Gates, Sir George Somers, and Captaine Newport
with nine shippes, and fiue hundred people, who had each of them a
Commission, who first arrived to call in the old, without the knowledge
or consent of them, that had endured all those former dangers to beat
the path, not any regard had at all of them. All things being ready,
because those three Captaines could not agree for place, it was
concluded they should goe all in one ship, so all their three
Commissions were in that Ship with them called the Sea-Venture. They set sayle from England
in May 1609. A small Catch perished at Sea in a Hericano: the Admirall
with an hundred and fiftie men, with the two Knights, and their new
Commission, their Bils of Loading, with all manner of directions, and
the most part of their provision arrived not. With the other
seaven Ships as Captaines arrived Ratliffe, whose right name (as is sayd) was Sicklemore, Martin, and Archer, with Captaine Wood, Captaine Webbe, Captaine Moone, Captaine King, Captaine Davis,
and divers Gentlemen of good meanes, and great parentage. But the first
as they had beene troublesome at Sea, began againe to marre all ashore:
for though (as is said) they were formerly sent for England,
yet now returning againe, graced by the titles of Captaines of the
passengers, seeing the Admirall wanting, and great probabilitie of her
losse, strengthened themselues with those new companies, so exclaiming
against Captaine Smith, that they mortally
hated him ere ever they saw him. Who vnderstanding by his Scouts the
arrivall of such a Fleet, little dreaming of any such supply, supposed
them Spanyards. But he quickly so
determined and ordered our affaires, as we little feared their
Arrivall, nor the successe of our incounter; nor were the Salvages any
way negligent for the most part, to ayd and assist vs with their best
power. Had it so beene we had beene happy; for we would not haue
trusted them but as our foes, where receiuing them as our Countreymen
and friends, they did what they could to murther our President, to
surprise the Store, the Fort, and our lodgings, to vsurpe the
government, and make vs all their servants and slaues, till they could
consume vs and our remembrance; and rather indeed to supplant vs then
supply vs, as master William Box an honest Gentleman in this voyage thus relateth.
In the tayle of a Hericano wee were separated from the Admirall, which although it was but the remainder of that Storme, there is seldome any such in England, or those Northerne parts of Europe.
Some lost their Masts, some their Sayles blowne from their Yards; the
Seas so over-raking our Ships, much of our prouision was spoyled, our
Fleet separated, and our men sicke, and many dyed, and in this
miserable estate we arrived in Virginia.
But in this Storme,
When ratling Thunder ran along the Clouds;
Did not the Saylers poore, and Masters proud
A terror feele as strucke with feare of God?
Did not their trembling ioynts then dread his rod?
Least for foule deeds and black mouth'd blasphemies,
The rufull time be come that vengeance cryes.
To a thousand
mischiefes those lewd Captaines led this lewd company, werein were many
vnruly Gallants, packed thither by their friends to escape ill
destinies, and those would dispose and determine of the government,
sometimes to one, the next day to another; to day the old Commission
must rule, to morrow the new, the next day neither, in fine they would
rule all, or ruine all: yet in charitie we must endure them thus to
destroy vs, or by correcting their follies, haue brought the worlds
censure vpon vs to be guiltie of their blouds. Happie had we beene had
they never arrived, and we for ever abandoned, and as we were left to
our fortunes: for on earth for the number was never more confusion, or
misery, then their factions occasioned.
The planting Nandsamund.
The President seeing
the desire those Braues had to rule; seeing how his authoritie was so
vnexpectedly changed, would willingly haue left all, and haue returned
for England. But seeing there was small
hope this new Commission would arriue, longer he would not suffer those
factious spirits to proceede. It would be too tedious, too strange, and
almost incredible; should I particularly relate the infinite dangers,
plots, and practices, he daily escaped amongst this factious crew; the
chiefe whereof he quickly layd by the heeles, till his leasure better
served to doe them iustice: and to take away all occasions of further
mischiefe, Master Percie had his request granted to returne for England, being very sicke; and Mr West with an hundred and twentie of the best he could chuse, he sent to the Falles; Martin with neare as many to Nandsamund, with their due proportions of all provisions according to their numbers.
The breach of peace with the Salvages.
Now the Presidents yeare being neare expired, he made Captaine Martin
President to follow the order for the election of a President every
yeare: but he knowing his owne insufficiency, and the companies
vntowardnesse and little regard of him, within three houres after
resigned it againe to Captaine Smith, and at Nandsamund
thus proceeded. The people being contributers vsed him kindly; yet such
was his iealous feare, in the midst of their mirth, he did surprise
this poore naked King, with his Monuments, houses, and the Isle he
inhabited, and there fortified himselfe; but so apparantly distracted
with feare, as imboldened the Salvages to assault him, kill his men,
release their King, gather and carry away a thousand bushels of Corne,
he not once offering to intercept them; but sent to the President then
at the Falles for thirtie good shot; which from Iames
Towne immediately was sent him. But he so well imployed them they did
iust nothing, but returned complaining of his tendernesse: yet he came
away with them to Iames Towne, leauing his company to their fortunes.
Here I cannot omit the courage of George Forrest,
that had seauenteene Arrowes sticking in him, and one shot through him,
yet liued sixe or seauen dayes, as if he had small hurt, then for want
of Chirurgery dyed.
Master West having seated his men by the Falles, presently returned to reuisit Iames
Towne: the President followed him to see that company seated, met him
by the way, wondering at his so quicke returne; and found his company
planted so inconsiderately, in a place not onely subiect to the rivers
invndation, but round invironed with many intollerable inconueniences.
Powhatan bought for Copper.
For remedie whereof he presently sent to Powhatan to sell him the place called Powhatan, promising to defend him against the Monacans.
And these should be his Conditions (with his people) to resigne him the
Fort and houses, and all that Countrey for a proportion of Copper; that
all stealing offenders should be sent him, there to receiue their
punishment; that every house as a Custome should pay him a Bushell of
Corne for an inch square of Copper, and a proportion of Pocones, as a yearely tribute to King Iames for their protection, as a dutie; what else they could spare to barter at their best discretions.
Fiue suppresse an hundred and twentie.
Breach of peace with the Salvages at the Falles.
But both this
excellent place and those good Conditions did those furies refuse,
contemning both him, his kinde care and authoritie. So much they
depended on the Lord Generals new Commission, as they regarded none:
the worst they could doe to shew their spights they did; supposing all
the Monacans Country, gold; and none
should come there but whom they pleased. I doe more then wonder to
thinke how onely with fiue men, he either durst or would adventure as
he did, (knowing how greedie they were of his bloud) to land amongst
them, and commit to imprisonment all the Chieftaines of those mutinies,
till by their multitudes being an hundred and twentie they forced him
to retyre: yet in that interim he surprised one of their Boates,
wherewith he returned to their ship; where in deed was their prouision,
which also he tooke, and well it chanced he found the Marriners so
tractable and constant, or there had beene small possibilitie he had
ever escaped. There were divers other of better reason and experience,
that from their first landing, hearing the generall good report of his
old Souldiers, and seeing with their eyes his actions so well mannaged
with discretion, as Captaine Wood, Captaine Webbe, Cap. Moone, Captaine Fitz Iames, Master William Powell, Master Partridge, Master White, and divers others, when they perceiued the malice of Ratliffe and Archer,
and their faction, left their companies, and ever rested his faithfull
friends. But the worst was that the poore Salvages, that daily brought
in their contribution to the President, that disorderly company so
tormented those poore soules, by stealing their corne, robbing their
gardens, beating them, breaking their houses and keeping some
prisoners; that they daily complained to Captaine Smith, he had brought them for Protectors, worse enemies then the Monacans
themselues: which though till then, for his loue they had endured, they
desired pardon if hereafter they defended themselues; since he would
not correct them, as they had long expected he would. So
much they importuned him to
punish their misdemeanors, as they offered (if he would leade them) to
fight for him against them. But having spent nine dayes in seeking to
reclaime them; shewing them how much they did abuse themselues with
these great guilded hopes of the South Sea Mines, commodities, or
victories, they so madly conceived; then seeing nothing would prevaile,
he set sayle for Iames Towne.
Thus oft we see from small greene wounds, and from a little griefe,
A greater sore and sicknesse growes, then will admit reliefe:
For thus themselues they did beguile, and with the rest play'd theefe.
An assalt by the Salvages
The planting of Non-such.
Now no sooner was
the Ship vnder sayle, but the Salvages assaulted those hundred and
twentie in their Fort, finding some stragling abroad in the woods: they
slew many, and so affrighted the rest, as their prisoners escaped, and
they safely retyred, with the swords and cloakes of those they had
slaine. But ere wee had sayled halfe a league, our ship grounding, gaue
vs once more libertie to summon them to a parley; where we found them
all so strangely amazed with this poore silly assault of twelue
Saluages, that they submitted themselues vpon any tearmes to the
Presidents mercy; who presently put by the heeles sixe or seauen of the
chiefe offenders: the rest he seated gallantly at Powhatan,
in that Salvage Fort, readie built, and prettily fortified with poles
and barkes of trees, sufficient to haue defended them from all the
Salvages in Virginia, dry houses for
lodgings and neere two hundred accres of ground ready to be planted,
and no place we knew so strong, so pleasant and delightfull in Virginia for which we called it Non-such. The Salvages also hee presently appeased, redeliuering to either party their former losses. Thus all were friends.
The Salvages appeased.
appointed to command, and the President againe ready to depart, at that
instant arriued Captaine West, whose
gentle nature (by the perswasions and compassion of those mutinous
prisoners, alledging they had onely done this for his honor) was so
much abused, that to regaine their old hopes, new turboyles did arise.
For they a-shore being possessed of all there victuall, munition, and
euery thing, grew to that height in their former factions, as the
President left them to their fortunes: they returned againe to the open
ayre at Wests Fort, abandoning Non-such, and he to Iames towne with his best expedition, but this hapned him in that Iourney.
Captaine Smith blowne vp with powder.
A bloudy intent.
Sleeping in his
Boate, (for the ship was returned two daies before) accidentallie, one
fired his powder-bag, which tore the flesh from his body and thighes,
nine or ten inches square in a most pittifull manner; but to quench the
tormenting fire, frying him in his cloaths he leaped over-boord into
the deepe river, where ere they could recouer him he was neere drowned.
In this estate without either Chirurgian, or Chirurgery he was to goe
neere an hundred myles. Arriving at Iames towne, causing all things to be prepared for peace or warres to obtaine provision, whilest those things were providing, Ratliffe, Archer,
& the rest of their Confederates, being to come to their trials;
their guiltie consciences, fearing a iust reward for their deserts,
seeing the President, vnable to stand, and neere bereft of his senses
by reason of his torment, they had plotted to haue murdered him in his
bed. But his heart did faile him that should haue giuen fire to that
mercilesse Pistoll. So not finding that course to be the best, they
ioyned together to vsurpe the government, thereby to escape their
punishment. The President, had notice of their proiects, the which to
withstand, though his old souldiers importuned him but permit them to
take their heads that would resist his command, yet he would not suffer
them, but sent for the Masters of the ships, and tooke order with them
for his returne for England. Seeing there was neither Chirurgian, nor
Chirurgery in the Fort to cure his hurt, and the ships to depart the
next day, his Commission to be suppressed he knew not why, himselfe and
souldiers to be rewarded he knew not how, and a
new commission granted they knew
not to whom (the which disabled that authority he had, as made them
presume so oft to those mutinies as they did:) besides so grievous were
his wounds, and so cruell his torments (few expecting he could liue)
nor was hee able to follow his busines to regaine what they had lost,
suppresse those factions, and range the countries for provision as he
intended; and well he knew in those affaires his owne actions and
presence was as requisit as his directions, which now could not be, he
went presently abroad, resoluing there to appoint them governours, and
to take order for the mutiners, but he could finde none hee thought fit
for it would accept it. In the meane time, seeing him gone, they
perswaded Master Percy
to stay, who was then to goe for England, and be their President.
Within lesse then an houre was this mutation begun and concluded. For
when the Company vnderstood Smith would
leaue them, & saw the rest in Armes called Presidents &
Councellors, divers began to fawne on those new commanders, that now
bent all their wits to get him resigne them his Commission: who after
much adoe and many bitter repulses; that their confusion (which he
tould them was at their elbowes) should not be attributed to him, for
leauing the Colony without a Commission, he was not vnwilling they
should steale it, but never would he giue it to such as they.
Strange violent forces drew vs on vnwilling:
Reason perswading 'gainst our loues rebelling.
We saw and knew the better, ah curse accurst!
That notwithstanding we imbrace the worst.
The causes why Smith left the Countrey and his Commission.
But had that
vnhappie blast not hapned, he would quickly haue qualified the heate of
those humors, and factions, had the ships but once left them and vs to
our fortunes; and haue made that provision from among the Salvages, as
we neither feared Spanyard, Salvage, nor famine; nor would haue left Virginia,
nor our lawfull authoritie, but at as deare a price as we had bought
it, and payd for it. What shall I say but thus, we left him, that in
all his proceedings, made Iustice his first guide, and experience his
second, even hating basenesse, sloath, pride, and indignitie, more then
any dangers; that neuer allowed more for himselfe, then his souldiers
with him; that vpon no danger would send them where he would not lead
them himselfe; that would never see vs want, what he either had, or
could by any meanes get vs; that would rather want then borrow, or
starue then not pay; that loued action more then words, and hated
falshood and covetousnesse worse then death; whose adventures were our
liues, and whose losse our deaths.
Leaving vs thus with
three ships, seaven boats, commodities readie to trade, the harvest
newly gathered, ten weeks provision in the store, foure hundred nintie
and od persons, twentie-foure Peeces of Ordnance, three hundred
Muskets, Snaphances, and Firelockes, Shot, Powder, and Match
sufficient, Curats, Pikes, Swords, and Morrios, more then men; the
Salvages, their language, and habitations well knowne to an hundred
well trayned and expert Souldiers; Nets for fishing; Tooles of all
sorts to worke; apparell to supply our wants; six Mares and a Horse;
fiue or sixe hundred Swine; as many Hennes and Chickens; some Goats;
some sheepe; what was brought or bred there remained. But they
regarding nothing but from hand to mouth, did consume that wee had,
tooke care for nothing, but to perfect some colourable complaints
against Captaine Smith. For effecting
whereof three weekes longer they stayed the Ships, till they could
produce them. That time and charge might much better haue beene spent,
but it suted well with the rest of their discretions.
towne that was strongly Pallizadoed, containing some fiftie or sixtie
houses, he left fiue or sixe other severall Forts and Plantations:
though they were not so sumptuous as our successors expected, they were
better then they provided any for vs. All this time we had but one
Carpenter in the Countrey, and three others
that could doe little, but
desired to be learners: two Blacksmiths; two saylers, & those we
write labourers were for most part footmen, and such as they that were
Adventurers brought to attend them, or such as they could perswade to
goe with them, that neuer did know what a dayes worke was, except the Dutch-men and Poles,
and some dozen other. For all the rest were poore Gentlemen, Tradsmen,
Serving-men, libertines, and such like, ten times more fit to spoyle a
Common-wealth, then either begin one, or but helpe to maintaine one.
For when neither the feare of God, nor the law, nor shame, nor
displeasure of their friends could rule them here, there is small hope
ever to bring one in twentie of them ever to be good there.
Notwithstanding, I confesse divers amongst them, had better mindes and
grew much more industrious then was expected: yet ten good workemen
would haue done more substantiall worke in a day, then ten of them in a
weeke. Therefore men may rather wonder how we could doe so much, then
vse vs so badly, because we did no more, but leaue those examples to
make others beware, and the fruits of all, we know not for whom.
The ends of the Dutch-men.
But to see the justice of God vpon these Dutch-men; Valdo before spoke of, made a shift to get for England,
where perswading the Merchants what rich Mines he had found, and great
service he would doe them, was very well rewarded, and returned with
the Lord La Warre: but being found a meere Impostor, he dyed most miserably. Adam and Francis his two consorts were fled againe to Powhatan,
to whom they promised at the arrivall of my Lord, what wonders they
would doe, would he suffer them but to goe to him. But the King seeing
they would be gone, replyed; You that would haue betrayed Captaine Smith to mee, will certainely betray me to this great Lord for your peace: so caused his men to beat out their braines.
To conclude, the
greatest honour that ever belonged to the greatest Monarkes, was the
inlarging their Dominions, and erecting Common-weales. Yet howsoever
any of them haue attributed to themselues, the Conquerors of the world:
there is more of the world never heard of them, then ever any of them
all had in subiection: for the Medes, Persians, and Assyrians, never Conquered all Asia, nor the Grecians but part of Europe and Asia. The Romans indeed had a great part of both, as well as Affrica: but as for all the Northerne parts of Europe and Asia, the interior Southern and Westerne parts of Affrica, all America & Terra incognita,
they were all ignorant: nor is our knowledge yet but superficiall. That
their beginnings, ending, and limitations were proportioned by the
Almightie is most evident: but to consider of what small meanes many of
them haue begun is wonderfull. For some write that even Rome her selfe, during the Raigne of Romulus, exceeded not the number of a thousand houses. And Carthage grew so great a Potentate, that at first was but in circuled in the thongs of a Bulls skinne, as to fight with Rome for the Empire of the world. Yea Venice at this time the admiration of the earth, was at first but a Marish, inhabited by poore Fishermen. And likewise Ninivie, Thebes, Babylon, Delus, Troy, Athens, Mycena and Sparta,
grew from small beginnings to be most famous States, though now they
retaine little more then a naked name. Now this our young Common-wealth
in Virginia, as you haue read once
consisted but of 38 persons, and in two yeares increased but to 200.
yet by this small meanes so highly was approved the Plantation in Virginia,
as how many Lords, with worthy Knights, and braue Gentlemen pretended
to see it, and some did, and now after the expence of fifteene yeares
more, and such massie summes of men and money, grow they disanimated?
If we truely consider our Proceedings with the Spanyards,
and the rest, we haue no reason to despayre, for with so small charge,
they never had either greater Discoveries, with such certaine tryals of
more severall Commodities, then in this short time hath beene returned
from Virginia, and by much lesse meanes. New England
was brought out of obscuritie, and affoorded fraught for neare 200
sayle of ships, where there is now erected a braue Plantation. For the
happines of Summer Isles, they are no lesse then either, and yet those haue had a far lesse, and a more difficult beginning, then either Rome, Carthage, or Venice.
Written by Richard Pots, Clarke of the Councell, William Tankard, and G.P.
Now seeing there is thus
much Paper here to spare, that you should not be altogether cloyed with
Prose; such Verses as my worthy Friends bestowed vpon New England, I here present you, because with honestie I can neither reiect, nor omit their courtesies.
In the deserued Honour of the Author, Captaine Iohn Smith, and his Worke.
DAmn'd Envie is a sp'rite, that ever haunts
Beasts, mis-nam'd Men; Cowards, or Ignorants.
But, onely such shee followes, whose deare WORTH
(Maugre her malice) sets their glory forth.
If this faire Overture, then, take not; It
Is Envie's spight (deare friend) in men of wit;
Or Feare, lest morsels, which our mouths possesse,
Might fall from thence; or else, tis Sottishnesse.
If either; (I hope neither) thee they raise;
Thy* Letters are as Letters in thy praise;
Who, by their vice, improue (when they reprooue.)
Thy vertue; so, in hate, procure thee Loue.
Then, On firme Worth: this Monument I frame;
Scorning for any Smith to forge such fame.
* Hinderess.Iohn Davies, Heref:
To his worthy Captaine the Author.
THat which wee call the subiect of all Storie,
Is Truth: which in this Worke of thine giues glorie
To all that thou hast done. Then, scorne the spight
Of Envie; which doth no mans Merits right.
My sword may helpe the rest: my Pen no more
Can doe, but this; I'aue said enough before.
Your sometime Souldier,
I. Codrinton, now Templer.
To my Worthy Friend and Cosen, Captaine Iohn Smith.
IT over-ioyes my heart, when as thy Words
Of these designes, with deeds I doe compare.
Here is a Booke, such worthy truth affords,
None should the due desert thereof impare:
Sith thou, the man, deserving of these Ages,
Much paine hast ta'en for this our Kingdomes good,
In Climes vnknowne, Mongst Turks and Salvages,
T'inlarge our bounds; though with thy losse of blood.
Hence damn'd Detraction: stand not in our way.
Envie, it selfe, will not the Truth gainesay.
In the deserved Honour of my honest and worthy Captaine, Iohn Smith, and his Worke.
CAptaine and friend; when I pervse thy Booke
(With Iudgements eyes) into my heart I looke:
And there I finde (what sometimes Albion knew)
A Souldier, to his Countries-honour, true.
Some fight for wealth; and some for emptie praise;
But thou alone thy Countries Fame to raise.
With due discretion, and vndanted heart,
I (oft) so well haue seene thee act thy Part
In deepest plunge of hard extreamitie,
As forc't the troups of proudest foes to flie.
Though men of greater Ranke and lesse desert
Would Pish away thy Praise, it can not start
From the true Owner: for, all good mens tongues
Shall keepe the same. To them that Part belongs.
If, then, Wit, Courage, and Successe should get
Thee Fame; the Muse for that is in thy debt:
Apart whereof (least able though I be)
Thus here I doe disburse, to honor Thee.
Michael Phettiplace, Wil: Phettiplace, and Richard Wiffing, Gentlemen, and Souldiers vnder Captaine Smiths command: In his deserved honour for his Worke, and Worth.
VVHy may not wee in this Worke haue our Mite,
That had our share in each black day and night,
When thou Virginia foild'st, yet kept'st vnstaind;
And held'st the King of Paspeheh enchaind.
Thou all alone this Salvage sterne didst take.
Pamavnkees King wee saw thee captiue make
Among seauen hundred of his stoutest men,
To murther thee and us resolved; when
Fast by the hayre thou ledst this Salvage grim,
Thy Pistoll at his breast to governe him:
Which did infuse such awe in all the rest
(Sith their drad Soveraigne thou had'st so distrest)
That thou and wee (poore sixteene) safe retir'd
Vnto our helplesse Ships. Thou (thus admir'd)
Didst make proud Powhatan, his subiects send
To Iames his Towne, thy censure to attend:
And all Virginia's Lords, and pettie Kings,
Aw'd by the vertue, crouch, and Presents brings
To gaine thy grace; so dreaded thou hast beene;
And yet a heart more milde is seldome seene;
So, making Valour Vertue, really;
Who hast nought in thee counterfeit, or slie;
If in the sleight be not the truost Art,
That makes men famoused for faire desert.
Who saith of thee, this sauors of vaine glorie,
Mistakes both thee and vs, and this true Storie.
If it be ill in Thee, so well to doe;
Then, is ill in Vs, to praise thee too.
But, if the first be well done; it is well,
To say it doth (if so it doth) excell.
Praise is the guerdon of each deare desert
Making the praised act the praised part
With more alacritie: Honours Spurre is Praise;
Without which, it (regardlesse) soone decaies.
And for this paines of thine wee praise thee rather,
That future Times may know who was the father
Of that rare Worke (New England) which may bring,
Praise to thy God, and profit to thy King.