Peace Treaty of Versailles (Articles 313 - 320: Aerial Navigation) (28 June 1919)
The aircraft of the Allied and Associated Powers shall have full
liberty of passage and landing over and in the territory and
territorial waters of Germany, and shall enjoy the same privileges
as German aircraft, particularly in case of distress by land or
The aircraft of the Allied and Associated Powers shall, while in
transit to any foreign country whatever, enjoy the right of flying
over the territory and territorial waters of Germany without
landing, subject always to any regulations which may be made by
Germany, and which shall be applicable equally to the aircraft of
Germany and to those of the Allied and Associated countries.
All aerodromes in Germany open to national public traffic shall be
open for the aircraft of the Allied and Associated Powers, and in
any such aerodrome such aircraft shall be treated on a footing of
equality with German aircraft as regards charges of every
description, including charges for landing and accommodation.
Subject to the present provisions, the rights of passage, transit
and landing, provided for in Articles 313, 314 and 315, are subject
to the observance of such regulations as Germany may consider it
necessary to enact, but such regulations shall be applied without
distinction to German aircraft and to those of the Allied and
Certificate of nationality, airworthiness, or competency, and
licences, issued or recognised as valid by any of the Allied or
Associated Powers, shall be recognised in Germany as valid and as
equivalent to the certificates and licences issued by Germany.
As regards internal commercial air traffic, the aircraft of the,
Allied and Associated Powers shall enjoy in Germany most favoured
Germany undertakes to enforce the necessary measures to ensure that
all German aircraft flying over her territory shall comply with the
Rules as to lights and signals, Rules of the Air and Rules for Air
Traffic on and in the neighbourhood of aerodromes, which have been
laid down in the Convention relative to Aerial Navigation concluded
between the Allied and Associated Powers.
The obligations imposed by the preceding provisions shall remain in
force until January 1, 1923, unless before that date Germany shall
have been admitted into the League of Nations or shall have been
authorised, by consent of the Allied and Associated Powers, to
adhere to the Convention relative to Aerial Navigation concluded
between those Powers.