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Seminole Wars
(1817 - 1858)

1812During the War of 1812, the British encourage Seminoles to harass and attack settlements along the Georgia border, while the Governor of Florida (Spanish territory) encourages them to harass the Americans as well
181224 September - An American force of 110 men under Col. Daniel Newnan attack two chiefs on Spanish territory
181517 August - Two American gunboats under Lieutenant Loomis fire on and destroy a fort (on the Apalachicola River) that they suspect is manned by runaway slaves and a variety of Seminole and Creek warriors
181627 July - American troops on July 27, 1816, had destroyed the Seminole stronghold of Fort Apalachicola
1816December - Seminol attack on Fort Scott
181721 November - American attack on Fowl Town, a Seminole villiage, under Major Twiggs
181723 November - A second conflict at Fowl Town when returning U. S. forces (to obtain the supplies that were left) were surprised by waiting Seminoles
181727 December - General Andrew Jackson takes command, with orders to pursue the Indians across the Florida boundary (Official beginning of First Seminole War)
18187 April - General Jackson captures St. Marks
181820 April - Jackson marches to Bowlegs Town (named for Billy Bowleggs, Chieftain) and completely destroys it
181824 May - General Jackson captures Pensacola, securing American control of east Florida
181922 February - The United States Senate ratifies Adams-Onís Treaty with Spain, paying $5 million dollars for the territorial rights of Florida
181918 April - Capture of Robert Ambrister and Alexander Arbuthnot (two British traders alleged to be the instigators of the Indian raids): end of First Seminole War
181920 April - Georgia troops marched home to be disbanded
181924 April - General McIntosh and his brigade of Indians were dismissed
182318 September - Treaty of Moultrie Creek: Seminoles give up 28-million acres, retain 4 million acre reservation
183028 May - Indian Removal Act
18329 May - Treaty of Payne's Landing: 5 million acres in southwest Florida promised to Seminoles
183328 May - Treaty of Fort Gibson: Seminoles agree to give up their Florida lands within three years and move west of the Mississippi River, to the country assigned to the Creeks
1835June - Skirmish at Hog Town [present-day Gainesville]
1835August 6 - Attack on General Wiley Thompson at Fort King
183518 December - The battle of Black Point
183528 December - The Dade Massacre
183531 December - He and his warriors encountered a force of about 800 soldiers under General Clinch on the Withlacoochee River.
18369 January - Skirmish near Micanopy
183617 January - Skirmishes near St. Augustine
183622 January- Winfield Scott is ordered to assume command of the operations in Florida
183628 February - Skirmish at Camp Izard on the Withlacoochee River
18369 March - Gen. Gaines turns over command of Camp Izard to Gen. Clinch
183626 March-5 April - Winfield Scott’s Campaign fails, troops return to points of origin
18364 April-22 May - Blockhouse 12 miles from the mouth of the Withlacoochee Riveris besieged by a force of about 500 Seminoles
18365 April-17 April - Sieges of Camp Cooper and Fort Alabama
183614 April - A burial party from Fort Barnwell in Volusia is attacked
183620 April - Skirmish at Fort Drane
1836May/June - Fort King abandoned due to disease
183630 May - Governor Call assumes command of all forces in Florida
18369 July - Fort Defiance besieged
183617 July - Fort Drane ordered abandoned due to disease
183619 July - Battle of Welika Pond
183615-21 August - Major B. K. Pierce is ordered to travel to and close Fort Defiance, there he finds Osceola in command of Fort Drane; his force scatters the Seminoles into the surrounding hammock
183618 September - Colonel Warren reconnaissance mission is ambushed by a large force of Seminoles
18368-17 October - Call's force of 1,350 men is turned back at the bank of the Cove of the Withlacoochee
183613 November - Call's force crosses the Withlacoochee and burn 3 abandoned villages
183617-18 November - Call's forces charge two Seminole encampments
183621 November - Skirmish in in Wahoo Swamp
18369 December - Call is ordered to turn command over to Gen. Thomas Jesup
1836Mid-December - Gen. Jesup builds Fort Armstrong on the site of Dade's battle
183710 January - Gen. Jesup captures 52 blacks and flushes out a band of hostiles including Osceola; Osceola and three of his followers escape
183717 January - Militia from St. Augustine kills black leader John Ceasar
183723 January - Skirmish in a village near Lake Apopka
183727 January - Skirmish in a village on Lake Tohopekaliga
1837February - "Campaign of Re-location": Jesup decides to divide his army into 5 small groups
18373 February - Alligator, Jumper, and Micanopy arrive at Fort Dade to discuss a cease fire, they agree to return on the 8th for more discussion
18378 February - Chiefs fail to appear
18378 February - King Philip and his son's Coacoochee band attack at Lake Monroe
18379 February - Col. Foster's engages a village near Crystal River
18376 March - Treaty of Fort Dade: Seminoles and their allies agree to assemble at Fort Brooke to be moved west of the Mississippi, and that those Negroes with the Seminoles and their allies were to be relocated with them
18375 April - Boundary line established from the Hillsborough River due east and an order is given for no whites to cross it
18378 April - Gen. Jesup and several influential chiefs signed a secret agreement to turn over all slaves that were taken in the war. This would cause many problems due to the Indians not recording in writing when individuals were taken.
183718 April - Yaholoochee's band turns themselves in At Fort Brooke, the clans of Osceola, Sam Jones, Coa Hadjo, King Philip, Tuskinia, and Coacoochee arrive at Fort Mellon
18371 May - Whites are given permission to pass the boundary established 5 April, so they may gather their strayed cattle
1837Late May - Leaders Micanopy, Alligator, Jumper, and Cloud are moved with their bands from Fort Mellon to Fort Brooke
18372 June - Sam Jones and Osceola raid the camp near near Fort Brooke and scatter the Seminoles there awaiting relocation
18376 September - New order demands that all ex-slaves captured are to be turned over to the army instead of being permitted to stay with the Seminoles
18378 September - An ex-slave leads the army to King Philip's camp; all of the band is captured along with King Philip
18379 September - Village of Yuchi Billy cleared, the area of St.Augustine now nearly free of hostiles
183727 October l837 The capture of Osceola under false flag of truce
1837November - Fall Campaign of 1837: Army of the South is split into 4 parts
18375-14 December - Delegation of Cherokees appeal to chiefs for end of hostilities; a few chiefs agree to talk, but are taken capture as they approach with a flag of truce. Micanopy, Yaholoochee, Tuskegee, Nocose, and Yaholo are removed to Fort Marion
183719 December - Chief Jumper and his band turn surrender
183720 December - 26 Indians from the Lake Okeechobee area turn themselves over to Colonel Taylor
183725 December - Battle of Lake Okeechobee, it is a humiliating defeat for the army
183815 January - Skirmish against Tuskegee band near the headwaters of the Jupiter River
183824 January - The Battle of Lockahatchee
183830 January - Osceola dies of malaria in prison
18388 February - Tuskegee and Halleck Hajo discuss possible terms with Gen. Jesup, request a reservation in South Florida
183817 March - Reply from Washington D. C.: reservation proposal is refused
183821 March - Colonel David E. Twiggs disarms the Seminoles gathered for talks, the largest capture of the war
183822 March - Warriors under Holatoochee skirmish with troops under James Bankhead, Holatoochee is captured shortly after
1838Early April - Abraham and Holatoochee convince Chief Alligator to surrender
183815 May - Gen. Jesup turns over his command to Zachary Taylor
183827 May - Skirmish near the Okefenokee Swamp
18384 June - Seminoles burn Fort Dade to the ground; skirmish on Kanapaha Prairie
18381 October - Remaining Apalachicola Indians agree to leave Florida
1838November - Gen. Taylor sets his Fall and Winter Campaigns in motion
18392 February - 18 Indians captured near Fort Mellon
183925 February - 196 Indians are transported out of Florida to the Indian Territory
183918 March - General Macomb is ordered to Florida to help bring the war to an end through more negotiated treaties
183920 May - Chiefs Halleck Tustenuggee and Chito Tustenuggee sign an agreement that allows all bands in Florida to live in peace south of Pease Creek starting July 15th 1839
18395 June - Thirty Indians held near Tampa Bay while awaiting removal) escape
183923 July - Col. William Harney's force near the mouth of the Caloosahatchee River is attacked
1839November - Governor Richard Call is replaced by Robert Raymond Reid
184028 March - A band of warriors ambush a scouting mission from Fort King under Captain Gabriel J. Rains
18406 May - W. R. Armistead relieves Z. Taylor
184019 May - Warriors under Coacoochee attack a force under James S. Sanderson; Newnansville is under siege by a band of hostiles
18402 June - Bennett Riley destroys Chocachatti stronghold
1840August - Hostilities are put on hold in hopes that the remaining bands will come in and agree to leave the territory
18407 August - Hostiles under Chakaika raid Indian Key
1840November - Hostilities are put on hold in hopes that the remaining bands will come in and agree to leave the territory
184010 November - Halleck Tustenuggee and Thlocko Tustenuggee meet with Gem. Armistead for peace talks, the Indians obtain supplies and leave, and hostilities are ordered to resume in the territory
18404 December - Lt. Col. Harney capture and execute Chekika along with six of his followers
184028 December - Skirmish at Martin's Point
1841February - 270 Indians are in containment camps awaiting removal to the west
1841March - Alburtis counters Chief Halleck Tustenuggee's ambush plans at Fort Brooks and fights the hostiles off
1841March - Chief Halleck Tustenuggee's band attacks a baggage train
1841March - General Armistead receives an allowance of $25,000 to bribe the Indian leaders into relocation; Coosa Tustenuggee receives $5,000 and each of the 60 warriors he brings in receives $30 and rifles for turning themselves in
18415 March - Coacoochee arrives at Fort Cummings hoping to receive much needed supplies for his followers and possibly favorable treatment for his people
184122 March - Coacoochee arrives at Fort Brooke and agrees that he and his band will turn themselves in for removal west
184131 May - General Armistead is succeeded by General William J. Worth
1841August - Coacoochee helps bring in Hospetarke, he talks the leader to come onboard a ship for a parley, which leads to his capture; a few of Hospetarke's followers are sent ashore to talk the rest of his band to turn themselves over for relocation
18419 August - Col. Worth's plan for white resettlement of the territory sees its first successful settlement: 13 white people and eight slaves attempt to resettle at Cedar Hammock near Fort White
184112 October - Col. Worth sends a total of 211 Indians, including Coacoochee and Hospetarke, west saving a few of them to be used as guides and interpreters for the army
184119 October - A delegation of Seminole chiefs from Indian Territory, were sent to Fort Brooke in hopes they could persuade other bands to turn themselves in; they are successful in talking the chiefs Tiger Tail and Nethlochemathla and their followers (numbering about 160) to turn themselves over to the army at Fort Brooke
184120 December - Halleck Tustenuggee attacks Mandarin, which results in a renewed campaign in the northern sections of the territory
184221 January - Tiger Tail leaves Fort Brooke ostensibly to work furthering the cause of relocation; he escapes and encourages Octiarche and his band of Creeks to resist to the last man
184225 January - A detachment under Major Joseph Plympton finds Halleck Tustenuggee's band near Dunn's Lake; the resulting skirmish chases the band deeper into the wild
1842February - Col. Worth states that the southern portion of the state is nearly clear of hostiles, most troops from that area to move north
184219 April - Halleck Tustenuggee and his band are cornered near Peliklakaha. Forces under Col. Worth attempt to capture the band, but in what is considered the last battle of the Second Seminole War, they only succeed in scattering them once again
184229 April - Halleck meets with Col. Worth, they travel together to Fort King for a feast prepared to lure Indians into the fort; capture yields 43 warriors, 37 women and 34 children
184214 July - Halleck and his people are transported west
1842August - The government passes the Armed Occupation Bill into law
18425 August - Holato Mico and two of his sub-chiefs meet with Col. Worth, they are joined on the 9th by Tiger Tail and Octiarche; Col. Worth promises that the people can live in peace on a designated reservation along the west coast of Florida
1842l4 August - President John Tyler orders the end of military actions against the Seminoles; the government declares the war over although no peace treaty is ever signed [official end of second Seminole War]
1845Treaty between Creek, Seminole and U.S. to settle disputes in Indian territory
185519 December - The Third Seminole War begins when a U.S. Army survey party raids the plantation of Seminole Chief Holata Micco (Billy Bowlegs)
185520 December - Holata Micco leads attack on U.S. soldiers in Big Cypress Swamp; Fort Drum and Fort Shackleford burned
1856Spring - Seminoles harrass crew of the Jupiter Lighthouse during its construction
1856May - Action near Holata Micco's town; Seminoles retreat
1856July - Destruction of Fort Deynaud
1856Treaty of 1856 provides some relief to Seminoles under Creek rule in Indian territories
1856December - Command under Col. Rogers is ambushed after burning Seminole village
18575 March - Last skirmish
18587 May - Holata Micco surrenders, accepting $8,000 to migrate, taking with him 165 followers [Official end of third Seminole War]
1858A few hundred Seminoles, including Abiaka, remain in Big Cypress and other isolated parts of Florida. U.S. government abandons efforts to remove all Seminoles
1866Treaty of Washington, D.C. with the Seminoles regarding rights, slavery, etc after the Civil War (the Seminole nation did make treaties with the Confederate States of America)
Related Articles/Works
The Seminole War

Adams-Onís Treaty
(22 February 1819)
Treaty of Moultrie Creek
(18 September 1823)
The Removal Act
(28 May 1830)
Treaty of Payne's Landing
(9 May 1832)
Treaty at Fort Gibson
(28 March 1833)
Treaty with the Creeks and Seminole
(4 January 1845)
Treaty with the Creeks, Etc.
(7 August 1856)
Treaty of Washington, D.C. with the Seminoles
(21 March 1866)

Related Works