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Cold War Era
(1946 - 1960)

1946Philippines regain their independence from the U.S.
1946Civil Rights Commission
1946American plan for control of atomic energy fails
1946Atomic Energy Act
1946Iran crisis
1946Employment Act
1947Presidential Succession Act
1947National Security Act
1947General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
1947Soviet Union rejects U.S. plan for UN atomic-energy control
1947Truman proposes Truman Doctrine, which was to aid Greece and Turkey in resisting communist expansion    GO !
1947Marshall Plan for European recovery proposed—a coordinated program to help European nations recover from ravages of war    GO !
1947Defence budget of $13 billion
1947Federal Employee Loyalty Program
1947House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) investigates the movie industry
1947Taft-Hartley Act
1948Marshall Plan    GO !
1948Truman desegregates armed forces
1948Organization of American States: Alliance of North America and South America
1948Berlin airlift
1948Hiss-Chambers case
1948Truman elected president    GO !
1948"Dixiecrat" party formed
1949Start of North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)—treaty signed by 12 nations    GO !
1949Truman launches Fair Deal
1950Korean War begins     GO !
1950McCarthyism begins in U.S.
1950Truman orders development of hydrogen bomb
1950Alger Hiss convicted
1950McCarran Internal Security Act
195122cd Amendment    GO !
1951Mutual Security Act
1951Truman signs peace treaty with Japan, officially ending WWII
1951Dennis v. United States (free speech is a guaranteed right, but not an unlimited one - "clear and present danger")
1952Immigration and Nationality Act
1952ANZUS Treaty enters into force
1952McCarthy heads Senate Permanent Investigations Subcommittee
1953Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower inaugurated president of United States    GO !
1953Defence budget of $47 billion
1953End of Korean War    GO !
1953Submerged Lands Act
1954Saint Lawrence Seaway Act
1954Baghdad Pact
1954Eight-nation Southeast Asia defence treaty (SEATO) signed at Manila    GO !
1954Geneva Conference
1954Guatemalan government overthrown with CIA help
1954Army-McCarthy hearings
1954Brown v. Board of Education ("in the eyes of the law, justice is color-blind." - beginning of civil rights movement)    GO !
1950Warsaw Pact
1955Merger of AFL and CIO
1956Eisenhower reelected
1956Suez incident
1956Interstate Highway Act
1957Yates v. United States (the Court draws a distinction between a statement of an idea and the advocacy that a certain action be taken - freedom of speech)
1957Eisenhower Doctrine
1957Civil Rights Act    GO !
1958National Defense Education Act
1958NASA formed
1958Eisenhower orders U.S. Marines into Lebanon at request of President Chamoun, who fears overthrow
1959Alaska is the 49th admitted to the Union
1959Hawaii is the 50th admitted to the Union
1959Landrum-Griffin Act
1959Alaska and Hawaii become states
1960Civil Rights Act of 1960
1960American U-2 spy plane, piloted by Francis Gary Powers, shot down over Russia ; Khrushchev kills Paris summit conference as a result
1960Cuba begins confiscation of $770 million of U.S. property
1960J.F.Kennedy elected president
Related Articles/Works
Daily Life
Consensus and Change
Cold War Aims
Harry Truman's Leadership
The Culture of the 1950's
Eisenhower's Approach
The Fair Deal
The Postwar Economy: 1945-1960
The Cold War at Home
Eisenhower and the Cold War
The Cold War in Asia and the Middle East
Origins of the Cold War
The Original 51
New York, New York
Modern Style Architecture
Un-American Art

Atomic Energy Act of 1946
The Truman Doctrine
(12 March 1947)
Marshall Plan
North Atlantic Treaty
(4 April 1949)
(14 April 1950)
22cd Amendment
Brown v. Board of Education
(17 May 1954)
Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty (Manila Pact)
(8 September 1954)
Civil Rights Act of 1957

Korean War
Conflict between Communist (Republic of Korea - aided by China)and non-Communist (People's Democratic Republic aided by the U.S. and 15 other U.N. nations) forces in Korea

Music     Stephen Sondheim
Aaron Copland
Aaron Copland
John Cage
Leonard Bernstein
Ernst Bacon
Virgil Garnett Thomson
Frank Loesser
Elliott Cook Carter
Milton Byron Babbitt
Samuel Barber
Art     Lee Krasner
Howard Chandler Christy
Everett Shinn
Frank E. Schoonover
Georgia O'Keeffe
Helen Frankenthaler
Robert Rauschenberg
Roy Lichtenstein
Wayne Thiebaud
Jackson Pollock
Norman Rockwell
Mark Rothko
Ansel Adams
Frank Lloyd Wright
Buckminster Fuller
Alexander Calder
Jasper Johns
Charles Sheeler
Jacob Lawrence
Adolph Gottlieb
Stuart Davis
Isabel Bishop
Romare Bearden
Robert Indiana
Arthur Dove
Audrey Flack
Milton Avery
Andrew Newell Wyeth
Anna Mary Robertson (G'ma Moses)
Robert Motherwell
Franz Kline
Kenneth Noland
Clyfford Still
Jack Levine
Literature     Wallace Stevens
Marianne Moore
Archibald MacLeish
Robert Frost
T S Eliot
ee cummings
Edgar Lee Masters
James Fenimore Cooper
Theodore Roethke
Howard Nemerov
Carl Sandburg
Allen Ginsberg
Dorothy Parker
William Carlos Williams
Hilda Doolittle
Langston Hughes
Ezra Loomis Pound
Ernest Hemingway
Gertrude Stein
Upton Sinclair
James Thurber
Nathaniel Hawthorne
John Langston Hughes
Charles Beard
Jack Kerouac
History     Franklin Delano Roosevelt
Harry S Truman
Dwight David Eisenhower
John Fitzgerald Kennedy
Eleanor Roosevelt
John Edgar Hoover
Henry Agard Wallace
John Llewellyn Lewis
Alger Hiss
Whittaker Chambers
Joseph Raymond McCarthy
Thomas Edmund Dewey
George Catlett Marshall
John Foster Dulles
Religion     Charles Gradison Finney
Blessed John XXIII, Pope
Pius XII, Pope