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Roman Britain
(43 - 410)

43Romans, under Aulus Plautius, invade and Britain becomes part of the Roman Empire
47Aulus Plautius is recalled to Rome, he is replaced as by Publius Ostorius Scapula
50The south-west of Britain (the Belgae and Atrebates tribes) is united under the kingship of Tiberius Claudius Cogidubnus
51Caractacus, leader of British resistance to the Romans, is defeated by Ostorius Scapula
52Scapula dies while on campaign against the Silures in South Wales. He is replaced by Aulus Didius Gallus
57Aulus Didius Gallus replaced by Quintus Veranius
58Quintus Veranius Nepos dies after first campaign, replaced by Gaius Suetonius Paulinus
59Suetonius campaigns in South Wales
60Suetonius defeats Deceangli, and the Druids in Anglesey
61Suetonius relieved of command, replaced by Publius Petronius Turpilianus
61Boadicea leads the Iceni in revolt against the Romans
63Turpilianus replaced by Marcus Trebellius Maximus
69Mutiny of Roscius, Trebellius flees and Vitellius appoints Marcus Vettius Bolanus governor
71Bolanus relieved, Vespasian appoints Quintus Petillius Cerialis governor of Britain; Brigantes under Venutius defeated
74Cerialis replaced by Sextus Julius Frontinus
77 Frontinus moves Legio II from Gloucester to Caerleon, defeats the Silures and attacks the Ordovices; establishes many forts and roads in Wales
78Vespasian replaces Frotinius with Gnaeus Julius Agricola; Agricola defeats the Ordovices and-Brigantes, and reaches the Tyne-Solway; occupation of the Scottish Lowlands
79Agricola marches into Scotland, advances by western route from Chester and York; north-west England consolidated by forts and garrisons
80Agricola advances north by eastern route as far as the Tay
81Agricola consolidates the Forth-Clyde line by establishing forts at Camelon, Croy Hill & Bar Hill
82Agricola advances along west coast from Solway Firth to Galloway peninsula and Ayrshire
83Defeat of the Caledonians at Mons
84Agricola recalled to Rome by Domitian; Sallustius Lucullus governor
86Legio II Adiutrix withdrawn from Chester in Britain and posted to Dacia
87Highlands of Scotland abandoned - northern Roman frontier along Clyde-Forth line
94Lucullus recalled by Domitian
96Publius Metilius Nepos is governor
97Tiberius Avidius Quietus governor
99Legionary fortress at Isca Silurum (Caerleon, Gwent) rebuilt in stone; Auxiliary forts in Scotland abandoned, and forts throughout Wales rebuilt in stone
101Lucius Neratius Marcellus appointed governor
103Legionary fortress at Deva (Chester, Cheshire) rebuilt in stone
105Lowlands of Scotland abandoned; new frontier under Trajan along the Stanegate
107Legionary fortress at Eburacum (York, North Yorkshire) rebuilt in stone
115Marcus Appius Bradua/Marcus Atiuis/Attillus Bradua governor of Britain
117Revolt of the Brigantes tribe in the north of Britain
118Appius Bradua replaced by Quintus Pompeius Falco
122Hadrian visits Britain bringing with him Legio VI Victrix (to replace the Ninth legion at York); Aulus Platorius Nepos as governor, construction of Hadrian's Wall begins
131Sextus Julius Severus appointed governor
133Severus replaced by Publius Mummius Sisenna
138Antoninus Pius appoints Quintus Lollius Urbicus governor
139Urbicus crushes a revolt of the Brigantes
140Building of Antonine Wall started
140Romans conquer Scotland
145Gnaeus Papirius Aelianus governor
155Rebellion of the Brigantes tribe in the north of Britain is quelled by governor Gaius Julius Verus; Antonine Wall abandoned and Hadrian's Wall reoccupied
158Longinus, Longus or Lentulus new governor of Britain
161Marcus Statius Priscus governor
163Sextus Calpurnius Agricola governor; unsuccessful campaigns in Scotland
169Quintus Antistius Adventus governor
178Caerellius Priscus governor of Britain
180Ulpius Marcellus appointed governor by Emperor Commodus
184Revolt in North Britain is suppressed by Ulpius Marcellus
185Publius Helvius Pertinax appointed governor by Commodus
186Pertinax suppresses mutiny of the armies in Britain
187Pertinax forced to resign, it is unknown who governed Britain next
192Decimus Clodius Albinus governor of Britain
193Clodius claims the imperial throne and is grudgingly recognised by Septimius Severus
196Clodius crosses to France, removing troops from Britain; northern tribes (the Maeatae) break through Hadrian's Wall
197Virius Lupus appointed governor by Severus
202Marcus Antius Crescens Calpurnianus is Iuridicus Britanniae ( 'Administrator of Justice for Britain')
202Gaius Valerius Pudens appointed governor
205Lucius Alfenus Senecio last governor of all Roman Britain
206Britain divided into two provinces - Britannia Prima in the south, and the military Britannia Secunda in the north
208Hadrian's Wall is reinforced during the governorship of Aufenus Senecio; Emperor Septimius Severus and his sons Caracalla and Geta arrive in Britain
209Severus and Caracalla campaign into central Scotland, the Caledonian tribes surrender
210The Maeatae revolt, second Scottish campaign of Severus
211Severus dies at York; Scotland evacuated
212Caracalla extends Roman citizenship to all free-born provincials
213Gaius Julius Marcus governor of Britannia Inferior
215Colonial Eburacum (York, North Yorkshire); established under Caracalla
216Marcus Antonius Gordianus (Gordian I) governor of Britannia Inferior
219Modius Julius appointed governor of Britannia Inferior by Elagabalus
220Rufinus appointed governor of Britannia Superior; Tiberius Claudius Paulinus appointed governor of Britannia Inferior
221Marius Valerianus appointed governor of Britannia Inferior
223Tiberius Julius Pollienus Auspex appointed governor of Britannia Superior; Claudius Xenephon and Maximus serve as governor of Britannia Inferior
225Maximus appointed governor of Britannia Inferior
235Caius Junius Faustinus Postumianus appointed governor of Britannia Superior; Claudius Apellinus , Calvisius Rufus and Valerius Crescens Fulvianus serve as governor of Britannia Inferior
237Tuccianus appointed governor of Britannia Inferior
242Nonius Philippus appointed governor of Britannia Inferior
244Maecilius Fuscus and Egnatius Lucilianus serve as governor of Britannia Inferior
250Titus Desticius Juba appointed governor of Britannia Superior
266Octavius Sabinus appointed governor of Britannia Inferior
274Britain absorbed into the Gallic Empire of Postumus and his successors
275Increase in Saxon raids on south-east British coasts
282Beginning of the "Saxon Shore" fort system according to a document known as "Notitia Dignitatum"
287Revolt of Carausius the commander of the British fleet, declares himself Emperor of Britain and North Gaul
293Constantius appointed Caesar in the West, captures Boulogne from Carausius; Carausius is murdered by fellow rebel Allectus
296Allectus killed, Constantius recovers Britain; fortresses at Chester and York are rebuilt, along with several forts along the length of Hadrian's Wall
306Constantius, now emperor, and his son Constantine, campaign in Scotland. Constantius dies at York and Constantine is hailed Caesar in the West by the soldiers of Legio VI Victrix; office of Count of the Saxon Shore perhaps established now
306Constantine the Great declared Emperor at York
337Constantine dies; joint rule of Constantine's three sons: Constantine II (to 340); Constans (to 350); Constantius (to 361)
343Disturbances north of Hadrian's Wall; Constans campaigns in Britain and pacifies the Scottish tribes
350The Picts and Scots attack the border
353Magnentius removes more troops from Britain
360Emperor Julian sends Lupicinus to Britain as governor to repel raids by the Scots, the Attacotti, and the Picts
367Nectaridus the Count of the Saxon Shore in Britain is killed; Fullofordes, Duke of Britain is routed and flees to the continent
369Roman general Theodosius drives the Picts and Scots out of Roman Britain; a fifth British province, Velantia, is established in the Scottish Borders
383Magnus Maximus governor of Britain, revolts and defeats the forces sent by Gratian, taking control of Gaul and Spain
388Maximus occupies Rome, is defeated in battle by Theodosius and beheaded; Britains loses valuable troops
395Theodosius dies, leaving his son Honorius, emperor in the West
396The Roman general, Stilicho (acting regent during Honorius' minority), reorganises British defenses
400End of Hadrian's Wall
401Stilicho recalls troops from Britain to defend Italy against the Visigoth Alaric; : Anglo Saxons migrants begin to settle
406In early January a barbarian force consisting of the Suevi, Alans, Vandals & Burgundians sweeps into central Gaul, severing contact between Rome and Britain; in autumn, the remaining Roman army in Britain decided to mutiny - one Marcus was proclaimed emperor in Britain, but was immediately assassinated
407The usurper Constantine III, withdraws the remaining Roman legion (the Second Augusta) and crosses over into Gaul
408Devastating attacks by the Picts, Scots and Saxons
410Britons appeal for help to emperor Honorius, Honorius informs Britain to 'look to its own defences'
Related Articles/Works
Daily Life
Roman Britain
Governors of Roman Britain
Roman conquest of Britain
The Roman Era in Britain
Life of Cnaeus Julius Agricola c.98 CE
Early Britain - Anglo-Saxon Britain
The Histories
The Annals
The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
On The Ruin of Britain
Historia Brittonum
Ecclesiastical History of the English Nation, Book I
The Foundations Of England
Early Britain--Roman Britain
The Romanization of Roman Britain

Documents
Notitia Dignitatum - Partibus Occidentis
(420)

Notable Persons
Boudica


Conflicts
Boudica's Rebellion
In 61 CE, Boudicca, widow of the king of the Iceni, led a rebellion against the Roman conquerors, burning three of Rome's three biggest city centers in England.


Notables
History     Publius Aelius Hadrianus (Hadrian)
Lucius Septimius Severus
Gaius Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus
Caracalla
Religion     Ursula, Saint
Philosophy     Gaius Cornelius Tacitus


Maps
Roman Britain ~410
Principal sites in Roman Britain
Reference Map of the European Provinces of the Roman Empire
Germanic Migrations and Conquests, 150-1066
Roman Britain - Circa 400
Expansion of Christianity
Roman Empire from 500 BCE to 117 CE
Gaul before complete Roman conquest circa 58 BC.
Roman Empire from 500 BCE to 117 CE
Principal sites in Roman Britain