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26 June, 2013

Anglo-Saxon England
(410 - 1065)

410Britons appeal for help to emperor Honorius, Honorius informs Britain to 'look to its own defences'
432Irish Scots arrive in Pictland
450Saxons Hengist and Horsa settle in Kent
450Ambrosius Aurelianus, son of Roman Emperor Constantine, rises to power against Vortigern
510The Battle of Mount Badon: British victory over the Saxons
563St. Augustine arrives in Kent and converts King Ethelbert to Roman Catholicism
617Northumbria becomes the Supreme Kingdom
740King Offa orders a dyke to be constructed along the Welsh border
779Mercia becomes the Supreme Kingdom and King Offa builds a Dyke along the Welsh Border
789First invasion by the Vikings
793Viking raid on Lindisfarne
802Viking ransack monastery on Iona
802Egbert seizes Wessex throne
821Wessex becomes the Supreme Kingdom
839Egbert dies; succeeded by his son Aethelwulf
855Aethelwulf goes on pilgrimage to Rome; leaves throne in hands of his sons Aethelbald and Aethelbert
860Aethelbald dies; Ethelbert takes the throne
866Invasion of the Great Danish (Viking) Army
866Ethelbert dies; he is succeeded by Ethelred
867The Vikings take Northumbria
871King Aethelred "The Unready" pays the Vikings not to attack
871Ethelbert dies; he is succeeded by Alfred the Great    GO !
871King Alfred defeats the Vikings but allows them to settle in Eastern England
878Battle of Edington, defeat of Viking forces; Treaty of Wedmore    GO !
886The North subjected to the Danelaw, the rules of the Vikings
895Danish fleet captured by Alfred the Great
899Alfred the Great dies; he is succeeded by Edward the Elder     GO !
924Edward the Elder dies; Athelstan is first king of all England
926Eastern England (Danelaw) is conquered by the Saxons
939Athelstan is succeeded by his brother Edmund I    GO !
946Edmund I is killed, succeeded by brother Edred
955Eadred dies, he is succeeded by his nephew Eadwig
959Edwig dies, Edgar takes the throne
975Edgar dies, his 13 year old son Edward II (the Martyr) gains the throne
979Edward II is murdered, he is succeeded by Ethelred II (the Unready) - age 12
1002Massacre of St. Brice's Day; Dan. settlers in England murdered by order of Ethelred II
1005Malcom II, King of Scotland
1007Ethelred II pays 30,000 pounds to the Danes to gain two years' freedom from attacks
1011Ethelred invades South Wales, and the Danes take Canterbury
1012Ethelred pays additional 48,000 pounds to the Danes
1013The Danes masters of England (Reign of Sweyn); Ethelred flees to Normandy
1014End of Norse rule in Ireland
1014Sweyn dies; succeeded by Canute: Ethelred returns    GO !
1015Wessex submits to Canute
1016King Canute of Denmark captures the English Crown
1016Ethelred II, the Unready, dies; Edmund II declared king by Londoners, Canute chosen by the Witan; the two make peace leaving Edmund with Wessex and Canute with Mercia and Northumbria. On Edmund's death in November, Canute is king of all England
1017Canute divides England into four earldoms
1018Union of southern and northern Scotland
1018Council of Oxford: Canute confirms laws of Edgar
1028Canute conquers Norway
1034Malcom II of Scotland dies; succeeded by his grandson Duncan
1035Canute dies, his kingdom is divided among his three sons: England to Harold, Norway to Sweyn, and Denmark to Hardicanute    GO !
1040Duncan of Scotland murdered by Macbeth, who becomes king
1040Harold dies; succeeded by Hardicanute    GO !
1041Siward murders Eardwulf and becomes sole ruler of Northumbria
1042Hardicanute dies; succeeded by Ethelred's son Edward the Confessor    GO !
1050Normans penetrate into England
1052Return of Earl Godwin
1053Harold succeeds his father Godwin as Earl of Wessex
1055Siward of Northumbria dies; succeeded by Tostig, son of Godwin
1057Macbeth murdered by Malcom; succeeded by his stepson Lulach
1057Leofric of Mercia dies; succeeded by Alfgar
1058Malcom slays Lulach and becomes King of Scotland
1063Harold and Tostig subdue Wales
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