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Medieval Britain
(1066 - 1487)

1066Edward the Confessor dies 1 May; Harold II crowned 1 June; Harold killed in Battle of Hastings on 14 October; William I, the Conqueror, crowned 25 Dec.    GO !
1066Edgar the Atheling mounts brief rebellion, is put down by William I
1068Nationalist risings in the north and west of England crushed by William I
1069William forces the Scottish king, Malcolm III, to submit to him as superior
1070Rising in Ely under Hereward
1087William the Conqueror dies; succeeded by William II "Rufus" in England and Robert in Normandy    GO !
1091Treaty of Caen between William II and Robert of Normandy
1092William II conquers Cumberland
1093Malcom of Scotland killed during invasion of England; succeeded by his brother Donald Bane
1096Start of the First Crusade with Godfrey of Bouillon, Duke of Lorraine, and Tancred, nephew of Robert Guiscard
1097Edgar, son of Malcom, becomes King of Scotland
1100William Rufus killed accidentally by Sir Walter Tyrel in the New Forest; succeeded by Henry I    GO !
1101Treaty of Alton; Robert of Normandy is bought off after invading England
1103Magnus III of Norway invades Ireland and is killed
1107Edgar of Scotland dies; succeeded by his brother Alexander I
1109Anglo-French war
1120Peace between Henry I of England and Louis VI of France
1120Disaster of the "White Ship"; the only legitimate son of Henry I of England drowned off Harfleur
1122Henry I creates earldom of Gloucester for his illegitimate son Robert of Caen
1124Alexander I of Scotland dies; suceeded by David I
1126The Eng. barons accept Matilda, widow of Emperor Henry V and daughter of Henry I of England, as successor to Henry I    GO !
1135King Henry I of England dies; succeeded by his nephew Stephen of Boulogne, a grandson of William the Conqueror    GO !
1136Matilda asserts her right to the Eng. throne
1137Gruffydd, Prince of North Wales, dies; succeeded by Owain the Great
1139Matilda lands at Arundel: civil war in England    GO !
1141Matilda proclaimed queen at Winchester
1144Geoffrey Plantagenet completes the conquest of Normandy
1152Geoffrey Plantagenet's heir Henry invades England
1153David I of Scotland dies; succeeded by his grandson Malcolm IV
1153The Treaty of Westminster allows Stephen to remain as king but names Henry as his heir
1154Stephen dies; Henry II, King of England; from now till 1485 the House of Plantagenet rules England    GO !
1155Pope Hadrian IV bestows Ireland on Henry II
1155Henry II abolishes fiscal earldoms and restores royal demesne
1163Quarrel starts between Henry II and Thomas à Becket
1164Becket flees to France
1164Constitutions of Clarendon    GO !
1165Malcolm IV dies; succeeded by his brother William the Lion
1170Although Henry II and Becket formally reconciled, Becket returns to Canterbury and is murdered by four Norman knights
1172Queen Eleanor raises Aquitaine against Henry II
1172Reconciliation between Henry II and the Pope
1173Queen Eleanor imprisoned
1174Henry II does penance at Canterbury for murder of Becket
1177Treaty of Ivry between Henry II and Louis VII
1189King Henry II of England dies; succeeded by Richard I, Coeur-de-Lion    GO !
1189Third Crusade
1191Richard I conquers Cyprus and sells it to the Templars
1192Richard I returns from the Crusade and is captured by Leopold, Duke of Austria
1193Richard is handed over to Henry VI and imprisoned
1194Richard I is released and crowned for the second time
1199King Richard I, Coeur-de-Lion, killed at a siege in France; succeeded by King John (Lackland), the youngest son of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine    GO !
1200Peace of Le Goulet between England and France
1204King John loses Normandy to France
1209King John invades Scotland and is excommunicated
1213Council of St. Albans, precursor of Parliament
1213King John of England submits to the Pope, making England and Ireland papal fiefs
1215King John seals Magna Carta at Runnymede    GO !
1216King John dies; succeeded by Henry III    GO !
1218Peace of Worcester between Henry III and Wales
1220Henry III crowned at Westminster
1224Anglo-French war
1225Magna Carta reissued for third time in definitive form
1227Henry III declares himself of age
1227Truce in Anglo-Fr. war
1240Dafydd ap Llywelyn, Prince of Snowdon
1240Crusade of Richard of Cornwall and Simon de Montfort to Jaffa
1240Border fixed between England and Scotland
1240Five-year truce between England and France
1257Llywelyn assumes the title Prince of Wales, and establishes peace between England and Wales
1258Establishment of House of Commons ("Provisions of Oxford")    GO !
1264Simon de Montfort defeats Henry III at the Battle of Lewes
1272Henry III of England dies; succeeded by Edward I    GO !
1274Edward I crowned at Westminster
1277England annexes Wales
1286Alexander III of Scotland dies; succeeded by his infant niece Margaret, "the Maid of Norway", under six guardians
1291Scottish nobles allow King Edward of England to select the next Scottish King and declare allegiance to the English crown
1292Scottish throne to John Baliol
1295Alliance between France and Scotland
1296John Baliol resigns Scot crown to Edward I
1296Scot. coronation stone moved from Scone to Westminster
1297William Wallace and the Scots defeat the English at the Battle of Stirling Bridge
1298King Edward defeats William Wallace at the Battle of Falkirk, retaining his hold on Scotland
1300Edward I invades Scotland
1301Edward I's son made Prince of Wales
1302Anglo-Scot. truce
1305William Wallace is captured and executed for treason
1306Robert Bruce crowned King of Scots and defeated by the English at Methuen and Dalry
1307Edward I dies; succeeded by Edward II     GO !
1308Coronation of Edward II
1311English barons force King Edward II to appoint "lord ordainers", and slowly transfer power away from him     GO !
1314Robert Bruce defeats Edward II at Bannockburn
1316Edward Bruce crowned King of Ireland
1318Edward Bruce killed in Battle of Faughart
1323Edward II of England signs a truce with Robert the Bruce
1327Edward II, deposed by Parliament and murdered at Berkeley Castle, is succeed by Edward III
1329David II, King of Scots
1332Edward Baliol, crowned King of Scots, recognises Edward III of overlord
1332First record of Parliament divided into two houses
1337Beginning of the Hundred Years' War
1338Alliance of Coblenz between Louis IV and Edward III
1348Edward III founds the Order of the Garter
1359Treaty of London restores Fr. possessions once held by Henry II of England to Eng. crown
1360Treaty of Calais between Edward III and Philip of Burgundy
1366English Parliament refuses to pay feudal dues to the pope
1371Robert II, King of Scots: accession of the House of Stewart
1375Truce of Bruges between England and France
1376The Black Prince dies
1377Edward III dies; succeeded by his grandson Richard II     GO !
1378Renewal of Anglo-Fr. war
1381Anglo-Fr. truce for six years
1381Peasants' Revolt in England under Wat Tyler
1384Anglo-Scot. war renewed
1385Anglo-Fr. war renewed
1389Truce between England, Scotland, and France
1390Robert III, King of Scots
1395Irish rulers do homage to Richard II, receive amnesty
1396Richard II of England marries Isabella of France at Calais; Anglo-Fr. truce extended to 28 years
1399Richard II deposed: Henry of Lancaster, son of John of Gaunt, succeeds to the throne as Henry IV
1400Richard II murdered    GO !
1400Henry IV suppresses rebellion of the barons
1413Henry IV dies; succeeded by his son Henry V
1419Henry allies with Philip II of Burgundy
1420Treaty of Troyes; Henry V, recognised by Charles VI as heir apparent to the French throne, marries Catherine of France and enters Paris
1422Henry V of England dies; succeeded by nine-month-old Henry VI
1423James I of Scotland released by the English
1428Treaty of Delft: peace between England and Flanders
1428Joan of Arc leads Fr. armies against England
1429Henry VI crowned at Westminster
1431Henry VI of England crowned King of France in Paris
1437James I murdered at Perth; succeeded by James II
1438Nine-years' truce between England and Scotland
1448Anglo-Scot. war renewed, Lancaster and York forming the two rival groups in England
1449English break truce with France, capture Fougères
1450Jack Cade's rebellion in England
1453End of Hundred years' War between England and France
1454Richard, Duke of York, named "Protector of England" during insanity for Henry VI; Edward, son of Henry, named Prince of Wales
1455Duke of York, excluded from Council, defeats royal forces at St. Albans, May, and becomes again "Protector": Beginning of the Wars of the Roses
1459Renewal of civil war in England
1460James II of Scotland dies; succeeded by James III
1461Edward, son of Richard of York, crowned Edward IV, King of England
1464Peace between England and Scotland
1471Edward IV, King of England, defeats and kills Richard, Earl of Warwick at Barnet, defeats Queen Margaret and kills Prince Edward at Tewkesbury, and enters London; Henry VI murdered in the Tower
1483Edward IV of England dies; succeeded by his son young Edward V
1483Edward V and his brother disappear, probably murdered by their uncle, Richard of Gloucester, who claims the throne as Richard III
1485Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond defeats and kills Richard III; succeeds as Henry VII; starts Tudor dynasty
Related Articles/Works
Daily Life
Double Majesty

Notable Persons
Alexander I (the Fierce) of Scotland
Constantine II
David I of Scotland
Edgar (the Valiant) of Scotland
Edgar the Ætheling
Harold II, Godwinson
Judith of Lens
Máel Coluim mac Domnaill (Malcolm I)
Margaret of Scotland, St
Matilda of Flanders
Matilda of Scotland
Matilda of Flanders
Robert de Mowbray
Ralph de Gael
Roger of Salisbury
Waltheof of Northumbria

Harrying of the North
A series of campaigns waged by William the Conqueror to subjugate northern England. William's army carried out a campaign of general destruction of homes, stock and crops as well as the means of food production. Men, women and children were slaughtered and many thousands are said to have died due to the famine that followed. According to the Domesday Book large areas of Yorkshire and other northern counties were still lying in waste in 1086.
Norman conquest of England
The defeat of King Harold of England by the Normans, under William (the Conqueror) I, in 1066. A Norman aristocracy was superimposed on the English, and the new elite brought with it Norman feudal customs