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28 October, 2012
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Reformation & Restoration
(1486 - 1713)

1488James III of Scotland murdered; succeeded by James IV
1491Five-year truce of Colstream between England and Scotland
1492Peace of Etaples: France expels Warbeck and pays England an indemnity of £159,000
1494Henry VII of England sends Edward Pynings as deputy to Ireland to end support for Perkin Warbeck: Poynings' Laws make Irish legislature dependent on England
1494Maximilian I recognises Perkin Warbeck as King of England
1494Parliament of Drogheda marks subservience of Ireland to England
1502The Council of Regency loses its effectiveness
1506Treaty of Windsor
1509Henry, Prince of Wales succeeds his father as King Henry VIII of England
1511Henry VIII joins Holy League and begins to reform Royal Navy
1513James IV of Scotland dies at Battle of Flodden against English; succeeded by his infant son James V, for whom his mother Margaret Tudo assumes regency
1513Treaty of Mechlin: Maximilian I, Henry VIII, the pope, and Ferdinand of Aragon agree to invade France
1514Anglo-Fr. truce
1515Anglo-Fr. peace treaty signed
1515Scottish Parliament names Duke of Albany, nephew of James III, as Protector of Scotland; Margaret Tudor, Queen Regent, escapes to England
1518Peace of London between England, France, Emperor Maximilian I, the pope, and Spain
1524James V, King of Scotland
1525Peace signed between England and France
1526Anglo-Scot. peace signed
1529Treaty of Cambrai between Francis I and Charles V ("Ladies Peace"), joined by England
1531Henry VIII recognised as Supreme Head of the Church in England
1533Henry VIII secretly marries Anne Boleyn
1534Final rift between England and Rome - Church of England is officially formed
1535Eng. clergy abjure authority of the pope
1535Sir Thomas More tried for treason and executed after refusing the oath of the king's supremacy
1536Queen Anne Boleyn sent to the Tower of London and executed
1536Henry VIII marries Jane Seymour, his third wife
1536Act of Parliament declares the authority of the pope void in England
1537The Pilgrimage of Grace and similar risings are put down; Robert Aske is sentenced to death for treason and executed
1540Henry VIII marries Anne of Cleves; marriage annulled by the convocation of Canterbury and York; Henry marries Catherine Howard, his fifth wife
1541Henry VIII assumes titles of King of Ireland and Head of the Irish Church
1541Queen Catherine Howard sent to the Tower on suspicion of immoral conduct
1542Queen Catherine Howard executed
1542Mary, Queen of Scots, ascends the throne
1543Henry VIII marries Catherine Parr, his sixth queen, who survives him
1547Henry VIII of England dies; succeeded by his and Jane Seymour's son Edward VI
1553Lady Jane Grey proclaimed Queen of England; deposed nine days later
1553Mary I, daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon, becomes Queen of England
1554Lady Jane Grey executed
1554Princess Elizabeth sent to the Tower for suspected participation in rebellion against Mary I
1555England returns to Roman Catholicism under Queen Mary; protestants are persecuted and more than 300 are burned at the stake
1558Queen Mary I of England dies; succeeded by Elizabeth I
1558French retake Calais
1559Coronation of Queen Elizabeth I
1559King Henry II of France killed in a tournament; succeeded by his son Francis II, whose wife Mary, Queen of Scots, assumes title Queen of England
1562Shane O'Neill rebels in Ireland
1563Anglican church established in England
1564Peace of Troyes ends war between England and France
1567Queen Mary forced to abdicate; makes her stepbrother, the Earl of Moray, regent
1570Sir Francis Drake sails to the West Indies
1575Freedom from arrest granted by Eng. Parliament for its members and their servants
1581James VI of Scotland signs Second Confession of Faith
1582Raid of Ruthven: James VI kidnapped by Protestant nobles
1583James VI of Scotland escapes from hands of Ruthven raiders after 10 months
1585Henry III of France and Elizabeth I of England decline sovereignty of the Netherlands; but Elizabeth takes the Netherlands under her protection
1586Mary, Queen of Scots, tried for treason at Fotheringay; sentence is pronounced against her; Elizabeth confirms it
1587Mary, Queen of Scots, executed at Fotheringay
1588The Spanish Armada is defeated by the much smaller English fleet under the command of Sir Walter Drake, Lord Howard of Effingham, and Sir John Hawkins
1589House of Commons first appoints a Standing Committee for Privileges
1596Pacification of Ireland
1597Second Span. Armada leaves for England; scattered by storms
1601Earl of Essex leads revolt against Elizabeth I; is tried for treason and executed
1601Elizabeth I, in her "Golden Speech" to Parliament, surveys achievements of her reign
1603Queen Elizabeth I of England dies; suceeded by her cousin James VI of Scotland as James I of England and Ireland
1603Amnesty in Ireland
1604Peace between England and Spain
1604England and France sign commercial treaty
1605Guy Fawkes arrested in cellars of Parliament, accused of trying to blow up House of Lords during James I's state opening of Parliament (The Gunpowder Plot)
1606King James I's proclamation for a national flag
1607Union of England and Scotland rejected by Eng. Parliament
1607Virginia founded as the first colony in the New World
1610Prince Henry, eldest son of King James I, created Prince of Wales
1611Dissolution of Parliament by James I
1613Eng. colonists in Virginia destroy Fr. settlement at Port Royal, Nova Scotia; prevent Fr. colonisation of Maryland
1614James I's second Parliament - "The Addled Parliament" - meets and refuses to discuss finance; dissolved
1614Virginian colonists prevent Fr. settlements in Maine and Nova Scotia
1616Sir Walter Raleigh released from Tower to lead expedition to Guiana in search of El Dorado
1616James I begins to sell peerages to improve serious financial position
1618Defenestration in Prague, when the Regents Jaroslav von Martinitz and William Slawata are thrown down from windows in Hradcany Palace by the rebels; beginning of Thirty Years' War
1618Sir Walter Raleigh returns to England and is executed
1620Pilgrim Fathers, leave Plymouth, England, in "Mayflower" and found Plymouth Colony in Mass.    GO !
1621Francis Bacon, charged in Parliament with corruption, is fined £40,000, imprisoned, and declared incapable of holding office; pardoned by the King
1622James I dissolves Eng. Parliament
1624James I's last Parliament; monopolies declared illegal
1624England declares war on Spain
1624Virginia Company charter annulled; Virginia becomes crown colony
1625James I of England (James VI of Scotland) dies; succeeded by Charles I of England and Scotland
1626Knighthoods for all Englishmen with property over £40 year, to help king's revenue
1628Third Parliament of Charles I meets; Oliver Cromwell enters it as Member for Huntingdon
1629Charles I dissolves Parliament; it does not meet again until 1640
1629Peace of Susa ends war between England and France
1630John Winthrop, Engl. Puritan leader, sails with Plymouth Company's expedition, founds Boston - the "Great Migration"
1630Treaty of Madrid ends Anglo-Fr. war
1633Charles I crowned King of Scotland in Edinburgh
1633Charles I revives forest eyre to raise money by fines
1637William Prynne, Puritan parliamentarian condemned, with Henry Burton and John Bastwick, for seditious writing, to be pilloried and mutilated
1637Eng. emigration to America restricted by royal proclamation
1639First Bishops' War in Scotland; episcopacy abolished in Scotland
1640Short Parliament (April-May) and Long Parliament (November-1653) in England
1640Second Bishops' War
1641Massacre of the Ulster Protestants; Catholic rebellion in Ireland
1641General Court of Massachusetts Bay Company codifies 100 laws
1642Charles I marches to Westminster to arrest five members of the Commons; attempt fails; he flees with his family to Hampton Court
1642Eng. Civil War begins
1643Unsuccessful peace talks between the Cavaliers and Roundheads at Oxford
1646Engl. Civil War ends with surrender of Oxford to Roundheads; Parliamentary commissioners present Charles I with the Newcastle Propositions
1649Charles I tried and beheaded; Prince of Wales takes title Charles II and is proclaimed king by the Scots in Edinburgh
1649England declared a Commonwealth (The Interregnum)
1650Charles II lands in Scotland
1651Charles II crowned King of Scots; flees to France after his defeat by Cromwell at Worcester
1651Eng. Navigation Act, gives Eng. ships monopoly of foreign trade    GO !
1652Eng. Parliament passes Act of Pardon and Oblivion to reconcile Royalists
1652Start of first Anglo-Dutch war
1653Oliver Cromwell becomes "Lord Protector" of England
1654Treaty of Westminster ends first Anglo-Dutch war; Dutch recognise Navigation Act
1654Treaty of Commerce between England and Sweden
1655Cromwell dissolves Parliament and divides England into 11 districts
1656Second Protectorate Parliament
1657Oliver Cromwell rejects offer of title "king"
1657Creation of a new House of Lords increases Cromwell's power
1658Oliver Cromwell dies; succeeded as Lord Protector by his son Richard
1659Richard Cromwell resigns
1660Parliament invites Charles II to return to England (The Restoration)
1661Coronation of Charles II
1661"Cavalier Parliament" meets
1664Start of second Anglo-Dutch war
1666France and Dutch declare war on England
1667Secret treaty between Louis XIV and Charles II against Spain
1667Peace of Breda between the Dutch, France and England
1667Treaty of Breda ends second Anglo-Dutch war
1668Alliance of the Hague signed by English and Dutch
1668Brit. East India Company obtains control of Bombay
1670Treaty of Dover between England and France
1672Declaration of Indulgence issued by Charles II (withdrawn in 1673)
1672Britain declares war on the Dutch
1672Start of third Anglo-Dutch war
1673Test Act excludes Roman Catholics from office in England
1675Charles II of England receives 500,000 crowns from Louis XIV and is able to prorogue Eng. Parliament for 15 months
1678"Popish Plot" in England revealed; trials of many leading Roman Catholics
1678Roman Catholics in England excluded from both Houses of Parliament
1678End of third Anglo-Dutch war
1679Habeas Corpus Amendment Act in England
1680Start of fourth Anglo-Dutch war
1683Rye House Plot to assassinate Charles II discovered
1684Bermudas become crown colony
1684End of fourth Anglo-Dutch war
1685Charles II of England dies; succeeded by his brother James II
1686Roman Catholics readmitted to Eng. army
1687James II issues Declaration of Indulgence for liberty of conscience
1687Papal nuncio received by James II
1688Seven Eng. lords invite William of Orange to England (the "Glorious Revolution")
1689Parliament confirms abdication of James II
1689Declaration of Rights in England, William and Mary proclaimed King and Queen for life (also in Scotland)
1689Louis XIV declares war on Great Britain
1690Act of Grace passed in England
1691Treaty of Limerick ends Irish rebellion
1692Massacre of Clan Macdonald at Glencoe
1694Triennial Bill providing for new Parliamentary election every third year
1694Mary dies and William (III) is sole ruler
1696Eng. Habeas Corpus Act suspended
1697In Treaty of Ryswick: France recognises William III as King of England
1701Act of Settlement in Britain. This settlement establishes the Hanoverian Monarchy
1701James II of England dies; Louis XIV recognises James Edward as King James III
1702William III dies, succeeded by Queen Anne    GO !
17024 November - Queen Anne's War begins when the French and their Indian allies attack some New England settlements in the frontier    GO !
1703Treaty of Methuen signed by Britain and Portugal
1704Scotland's Act for the Security of the Kingdom
1705Alien Act
1707Act of Union, Scotland and England become one country
1709Peace negotiations at The Hague
1712Peace congress opens at Utrecht
171311 April - The Treaty of Utrecht ends Queen Anne's War
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