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Site last updated
28 October, 2012
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(1453 - 1598)

1453End of Hundred years' War between England and France
1456The trial of Joan of Arc annulled
1461Charles VII of France dies; succeeded by Louis XI
1467Philip II of Burgundy dies; succeeded by Charles the Bold
1482Peace of Arras between Louis XI and Hapsburgs
1483Louis XI of France dies; succeeded by Charles VIII
1492Charles VIII takes control of affairs in France
1492Peace of Etaples: France expels Warbeck and pays England an indemnity of £159,000
1493The first Bundschuh (peasants' revolt) in Alsace and south-west Germany
1494Charles VIII begins invasion of Italy, enters Florence, deposes Piero de'Medici, and enters Rome; Pope Alexander VI takes refuge in Castel Sant' Angelo
1495Charles VIII enters Naples, is crowned King of Naples, then retreats toward northern Italy
1495Pope Alexander VI forms Holy League which aims at expelling Charles VIII from Italy; its forces defeated at Battle of Fornovo, the Holy League ends; Charles VIII returns to France
1495Peace between France and the allies, with Lodovico Sforza as agent, foreshadows idea of balance of power in European politics
1498Charles VIII of France dies; succeeded by his cousin, Louis XII, Duke of Orleans
1499Partition of Milan: Lodovico Sforza flees, French take Milan; Louis XIII enters the city
1501French enter Rome; the Pope declares Louis XII King of Naples
1501Peace of Trent between France and Emperor Maximilian I
1504Treaty of Lyons - divides Italy between France (north) and Spain (south)
1504Treaty of Blois - gives France control of Milan
1508The League of Cambrai formed by Margaret of Austria, the Cardinal of Rouen, and Ferdinand of Aragon for purpose of despoiling Venice
1509Pope Julius II joins League of Cambrai and excommunicates Venetian Republic; France declares war on Venice
1511Pope Julius II forms Holy League with Venice and Aragon to drive the French out of Italy
1513Treaty of Mechlin: Maximilian I, Henry VIII, the pope, and Ferdinand of Aragon agree to invade France
1514Anglo-Fr. truce
1515Louis XII of France dies; succeeded by his nephew Francis I
1515Anglo-Fr. peace treaty signed
1516Concordat of Bologna between Pope Leo X and Francis I; France secures internal independence in ecclesiastical appointments
1516Treaty of Freiburg; perpetual peace between France and the Swiss
1518Peace of London between England, France, Emperor Maximilian I, the pope, and Spain
1525Germans and Spanish defeat French and Swiss at Pavia: Charles V becomes master of Italy
1525Peace signed between England and France
1529Treaty of Cambrai between Francis I and Charles V ("Ladies Peace"), joined by England
1547Francis I of France dies; succeeded by his son Henry II
1558French retake Calais
1559King Henry II of France killed in a tournament; succeeded by his son Francis II, whose wife Mary, Queen of Scots, assumes title Queen of England
1560King Francis II of France dies; succeeded by Charles IX with Catherine de'Medici, his mother, as regent
1561Edict of Orleans suspends persecution of Huguenots
1562The Wars of Religion begin
1563Charles IX of France (at 13) is declared of age
1564Peace of Troyes ends war between England and France
1568Treaty of Longjumeau ends second War of Religion in France
1570Peace of St. Germain-en-Laye ends third civil war in France; Huguenots gain amnesty
1571Reconciliation between Charles IX of France and Huguenots
1572Massacre of Protestants on St. Bartholomew's Eve in Paris
1572Fourth War of Religion begins in France
1573Henry, Duke of Anjou, elected King of Poland; returns to France to succeed his brother Charles IX
1573Fourth Fr. War of Religion ends; Huguenots granted an amnesty
1574Charles IX of France dies; succeeded by his brother Henry III, King of Poland
1574Fifth French War of Religion
1575King Henry III of France crowned at Rheims
1577Henry of Navarre recognised head of Huguenot party
1577Sixth Fr. War of Religion breaks out
1577Peace of Bergerac ends sixth War of Religion
1580Seventh Fr. War of Religion breaks out
1585Henry III of France and Elizabeth I of England decline sovereignty of the Netherlands; but Elizabeth takes the Netherlands under her protection
1588Henry, Duke of Guise, and his brother Louis, Cardinal of Guise, assassinated by order of Henry III; another brother, the Duke of Mayenne, becomes leader of Catholic League
1589Henry III, King of France, last of the house of Valois, assassinated; on his deathbed he recognises Henry, King of Navarre, as his successor, who, as Henry IV, is the first Burbon to become King of France
1590Catholic League proclaims Cardinal de Bourbon King Charles X of France in Jan; he dies in May
1591Henry IV of France excommunicated by Pope Gregory XIV
1593Henry IV becomes a Roman Catholic, hearing Mass at St. Denis: "Paris is well worth a mass"
1594Henry IV, having been crowned King of France at Chartres, enters Paris
1595Henry IV declares war on Spain
1595Pope Clement VIII absolves Henry IV, recognising him as King of France
1596Decrees of Folembray end war of Catholic League in France
1597Philip II opens peace talks with Henry IV
1598Treaty of Ponts de Cé ends civil war in France
1598Peace of Vervins: Philip II resigns claim to Fr. crown; country united under Henry IV as single sovereign
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Daily Life

The Italian War of 1521
(Sometimes known as the Four Years' War) Part of the Italian Wars. Fought from 1521 to 1526, the war pitted Francis I of France and the Republic of Venice against the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, Henry VIII of England, and the Papal States. The conflict arose from animosity over the election of Charles as Emperor in 1519–20 and from Pope Leo X's need to ally with Charles against Martin Luther.
The Italian War of 1535
War between Charles V and Francis I of France that began with the death of Francesco Maria Sforza, the duke of Milan. When Charles' son Phillip inherited the duchy, Francis invaded Italy, capturing Turin, but failed to take Milan. In response, Charles invaded Provence, advancing to Aix-en-Provence, but withdrew to Spain rather than attacking the heavily fortified Avignon. The Truce of Nice ended the war, leaving Turin in French hands but effecting no significant change in the map of Italy.
The Italian War of 1542
Francis I of France, allying himself with Suleiman I of the Ottoman Empire, launched a final invasion of Italy. A Franco-Ottoman fleet captured the city of Nice in August 1543, and laid siege to the citadel. The defenders were relieved within a month. The French, under François, Count d'Enghien, defeated an Imperial army at the Battle of Ceresole in 1544, but the French failed to penetrate further into Lombardy. Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, and Henry VIII of England then proceeded to invade northern France, seizing Boulogne and Soissons. A lack of cooperation between the Spanish and English armies, coupled with increasingly aggressive Ottoman attacks, led Charles to abandon these conquests, restoring the status quo once again.
The Second Italian War
(Sometimes known as Louis XII's Italian War or the War over Naples) The second of the Italian Wars; it was fought primarily by Louis XII of France and Ferdinand I of Spain, with the participation of several Italian powers. In the aftermath of the First Italian War, Louis was determined to press his claim on the thrones of Milan and Naples.
The War of the League of Cognac
Fought between the Habsburg dominions of Charles V—primarily Spain and the Holy Roman Empire—and the League of Cognac, an alliance including France, Pope Clement VII, the Republic of Venice, England, the Duchy of Milan, and Florence.
War of the League of Cambrai
The War of the League of Cambrai (1508–16), sometimes known as the War of the Holy League, was a major conflict in the Italian Wars. The principal participants of the war were France, the Papal States, and the Republic of Venice; they were joined, at various times, by nearly every significant power in Western Europe, including Spain, the Holy Roman Empire, the Kingdom of England, the Kingdom of Scotland, the Duchy of Milan, Florence, the Duchy of Ferrara, and the Swiss.

Literature     Michel Eyquem de Montaigne
Pierre de Ronsard
François Rabelais
History     Charles IX
Charles VIII
Charles VII (the Victorious)
Francis II
Henry III
Francis I
Henry II
Louis XII
Jacques Cartier
Louis XI (the Prudent)
Henry IV
Philosophy     Remi of Auxerre, Saint

France and England, 1455-1494
France and England, 1455-1494
France at the Accession of Louis XI, 1461
Germany during the Fifteenth Century
Germany and Northern Italy
England and France, 1455-1494
Western Europe in the Time of Charles V - 1525
Western Europe at the Accession of Elizabeth - 1558
Europe Medieaval Commerce