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28 October, 2012
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High Middle Ages
(1050 - 1350)

1053The Norman Robert Guiscard conquers southern Italy and founds Norman empire there
1056Beginning of the democratic Pataria movement in Milan
1059Treaty of Melfi: Robert Guiscard and Richard of Aversa, Prince of Capua, become papal vassals
1061Normans conquer Messina
1071Normans conquer last Byzantine possessions in Italy
1072Normans under Robert Guiscard conquer Palermo
1101Roger II, Count of Sicily
1113Balearic Islands conquered by Pisa
1115Florence becomes free republic
1130Roger II crowned King of Sicily at Palermo
1135Foundation of the Italian line of the House of Este
1144Republican regime established in Rome under Arnold of Brescia
1158Frederick Barbarossa makes Vladislav II King of Bohemia
1162Frederick Barbarossa destroys Milan
1165Byzantium allies with Venice against the Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa
1172The Venice Grand Council restricts the powers of the doges
1174The Emperor Frederick I buys Tuscany, Spoleto, Sardinia, and Corsica from Welf VI
1176The Emperor Frederick I defeated by the Lombard League at Legnano
1177Peace of Venice between Emperor Frederick I and Pope Alexander III
1183Peace of Constance: Lombard League recognised under imperial overlordship
1186Henry VI, son of Frederick Barbarossa, marries Constance, heiress of Sicily, and assumes title of Caesar
1194Henry VI conquers Sicily and is crowned King of Sicily
1197The Emperor Henry VI dies; succeeded by Otto IV
1202Fourth Crusade under Boniface of Montferrat
1204Crusaders take Constantinople and establish Latin Empire
1220Frederick II crowned emperor in Rome, his son Henry being elected Ger. king
1235Rebellion of his son Henry VII suppressed by Frederick II; Henry imprisoned
1256"Hundred Years War" between Venice and Genoa
1258Manfred, illegitimate son of Frederick II, crowned King of Sicily at Palermo
1296Frederick II, King of Sicily
1299Treaties between Venice and the Turks, and France and Germany
1310Council of Ten established in Venice
1347Cola di Rienzi, tribune of the people, rules Rome from April until December
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Religion     Blessed Victor III, Pope
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Nicholas III, Pope
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Nicholas IV, Pope
Blessed Benedict XI, Pope
Honorius II, Pope
Innocent II, Pope
Lucius II, Pope
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Anastasius IV, Pope
Lucius III, Pope
Urban III, Pope
Celestine IV, Pope
Gregory V, Pope
Innocent IV, Pope
Adrian V, Pope
Alexander II, Pope
St. Gregory VII, Pope
Gelasius II, Pope
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Alexander IV, Pope
Boniface VIII, Pope
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Anselm, St
Philosophy     Peter the Lombard
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Germanic Migrations and Conquests, 150-1066
Germanic Migrations and Conquests, 150-1066
Norman Italy
Europe and the Mediterranean Lands about 1097
Europe at the Time of the Crusades
Italy from the Tenth through the Twelfth Century
Europe in 1190
Europe and the Mediterranean Lands about 1190
Europe - The Mediterranean Lands after 1204
The Crusades
Northern Italy at about the End of the Thirteenth Century
Europe - Development of Christianity, 590 to 1300
Expansion of Christianity