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28 October, 2012
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Foreign Domination
(1494 - 1861)

1494Charles VIII begins invasion of Italy, enters Florence, deposes Piero de'Medici, and enters Rome; Pope Alexander VI takes refuge in Castel Sant' Angelo
1494Ferdianand I of Naples dies
1495Charles VIII enters Naples, is crowned King of Naples, then retreats toward northern Italy
1495Pope Alexander VI forms Holy League which aims at expelling Charles VIII from Italy; its forces defeated at Battle of Fornovo, the Holy League ends; Charles VIII returns to France
1495Peace between France and the allies, with Lodovico Sforza as agent, foreshadows idea of balance of power in European politics
1496Ferdinand II of Naples dies; succeeded as king by Frederick III
1499Partition of Milan: Lodovico Sforza flees, French take Milan; Louis XIII enters the city
1499War between Turks and Venice
1501French enter Rome; the Pope declares Louis XII King of Naples
1503Venice abandons Lepanto and signs peace treaty with Turks
1504Treaty of Lyons - divides Italy between France (north) and Spain (south)
1504Treaty of Blois - gives France control of Milan
1508The League of Cambrai formed by Margaret of Austria, the Cardinal of Rouen, and Ferdinand of Aragon for purpose of despoiling Venice
1509Pope Julius II joins League of Cambrai and excommunicates Venetian Republic; France declares war on Venice
1511Pope Julius II forms Holy League with Venice and Aragon to drive the French out of Italy
1525Germans and Spanish defeat French and Swiss at Pavia: Charles V becomes master of Italy
1527The Sack of Rome
1530Charles V crowned Holy Roman Emperor and King of Italy by Pope Clement VII at Bologna; last imperial coronation by a pope
1540Treaty between Venice and Turkey signed at Constantinople
1570Turks declare war on Venice
1573Peace of Constantinople ends war between Turks and Venice
1582Venetian Constitution amended; authority of Council of Ten restricted
1616War between Venice and Austria
1618Peace of Madrid ratified, ending war between Venice and Austria
1620Massacre of Protestants in the Valtelline
1626Duchy of Urbino bequeathed to the Pope by last of the Della Rovere family
1627Vincent II, Duke of Mantua, last of the Gonzagas, dies; Charles, Duke of Nevers, claims succession
1631Pope Urban VIII annexes Urbino
1645Turk.-Venetian war over Crete
1648Naples restored to Span. rule
1648Peace of Westphalia ends Thirty Years' War; is condemned by Pope Innocent X (bull Zelo Domus Dei)
1669Venetians lose Crete, their last colonial possession, to the Turks
1673After preliminary peace between Brandenburg and France the "Great Elector" promises, in Treaty of Vossen, not to support any enemies of Louis XIV
1684The Emperor, Poland and Venice conclude Holy League of Linz against Turks
1725Treaty of Vienna guarantees the Pragmatic Sanction
1737Last of the Medici, the Grand Duke of Tuscany, dies; Francis, Duke of Lorraine, husband of Maria Theresa, receives Tuscany; Stanislas of Poland acquires Lorraine
174818 October - Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle ends King George's War, restoring the status quo ante in the colonies; general recognition of Pragmatic Sanction and of Francis I as Holy Roman Emperor
1792France declares war on Austria, Prussia, and Sardinia
1795Napoleon appointed commander-in-chief, Italy
1797Napoleon proclaims Venetian Constitution, founds Ligurian Republic in Genoa
1798French capture Rome: proclaim Roman Republic; Pope Pius VI leaves the city for Valence
1798King Ferdinand IV of Naples declares war on France and enters Rome
1802Napoleon becomes President of Italian Republic
1805Napoleon crowned as King of Italy in Milan
1806Joseph Bonaparte named King of Naples
1808Joseph Bonaparte becomes king of Spain, Joachim Murat becomes King of Naples
1809Napoleon annexes Papal States; Pope Pius VII taken prisoner
1815Joachim Murat, King of Naples executed after attempt to regain Naples
1821Revolution in Piedmont: Victor Emmanuel abdicates, names his brother Charles Felix successor
1825Ferdinand IV of Naples dies; succeeded by Francis I
1832Giuseppe Mazzini, Italian patriot, founds the organisation "Giovine Italia" (Italian Youth), with the aim of achieving national independence
1848Revolutions in Venice, Berlin, Milan and Parma
1848Sardinia declares war on Austria
1848Revolt in Rome; Pius IX flees to Gaeta
1849Rome proclaimed a republic under Guiseppe Mazzini
1849Charles Albert of Sardinia abdicates in favour of his son Victor Emmanuel II
1849Peace of Milan ends war
1857Garibaldi forms Italian National Association for unification of the country
1859Treaty of Alliance between Sardinia and France
1859King Ferdinand of the Two Sicilies dies; succeeded by Francis II
1860Northern Italy was joined to the Kingdom of Sardinia
1860Garibaldi and his 1,000 redshirts ("i Mille") take Palermo and Naples
1860Garibaldi proclaims Victor Emmanuel II King of Italy
1861The King of Naples surrenders, Italy proclaimed a kingdom by Parliament, with Victor Emmanuel II as king
Related Articles/Works
Daily Life


Music     Claudio Monteverdi
Girolamo Frescobaldi
Giacomo Carissimi
Antonio Stradivarius
Domenico Gabrielli
Arcangelo Corelli
Giuseppe Torelli
Alessandro Scarlatti
Tomaso Albinoni
Antonio Vivaldi
Domenico Scarlatti
Giuseppe Tartini
Luigi Boccherini
Antonio Salieri
Nicolò Paganini
Gaetano Domenico Maria Donizetti
Vincenzo Bellini
Giaocchino Antonio Rossini
Giuseppe Verdi
Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina
Art     Raffaello Sanzio (Raphael)
Andrea 'del Sarto' Agnola
Jacopo Carucci ( da Pontormo)
Bennuto Cellini
Bennuto Cellini
Girolamo Francesco Mazolla (Parmigianino)
Agnolo di Cosimo di Mariano (Bronzino)
Andrea di Pietro della Gondola (Palladio)
Giorgio Vasari
Jacopo Robusti (Tintoretto)
Paolo Caliari (Veronese)
Lavinia Fontana
Annibale Carracci
Michelangelo Merisi (Caravaggio)
Artemisia Gentileschi
Philip Pearlstein
Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini
Luca Giordano
Alessandro Magnasco
Giovanni Antonio Pellegrini
Rosalba Carriera
Giovanni Batista Piazetta
Giovanni Battista Pittoni
Giambattista Tiepolo
Giovanni Antonio Canal
Pietro Longhi
Francesco Zuccarelli
Corrado Giaquinto
Pompeo Girolamo Batoni
Francesco Guardi
Giovanni Battista Piranesi
Bernardo Bellotto
Baron François Gérard
Bartolommeo di Pagola del Fartorino (Fra)
Giorgio Barbarelli (Giorgione)
Luca Signorelli
Donato Bramante
Alessandro di Mariano Filipepi (Botticelli)
Pietro di Cristoforo Vannucci (Perugino)
Leonardo da Vinci
Michelangelo de Buonarotti
Francesco Hayez
Giovanni Bellini
Piero di Cosimo
Gaudenzio Ferrari
Palma Jacopo (Vecchio)
Tiziano Vecelli (Titian)
Antonio Allegri Correggio
Literature     Ludovico Ariosto
History     Giovanni da Verrazano
Catherine de'Medici
Marie d'Medici
Charles IV
Maria Anna
Christopher Columbus
Lucrezia Borgia
Religion     Pius III, Pope
Julius II, Pope
Girolamo Savonarola
Julius III, Pope
Pius IV, Pope
Pius IV, Pope
Marcellus II, Pope
Gregory XIII, Pope
St. Pius V, Pope
Innocent IX, Pope
Sixtus V, Pope
Urban VII, Pope
Gregory XIV, Pope
Leo XI, Pope
Clement VIII, Pope
Paul V, Pope
Gregory XV, Pope
Urban VIII, Pope
Innocent X, Pope (Saint)
Clement X, Pope
Alexander VII, Pope
Clement IX, Pope
Alexander VIII, Pope
Blessed Innocent XI, Pope
Innocent XII, Pope
Clement XI, Pope
Benedict XIII, Pope
Clement XII, Pope
Innocent XIII, Pope
Benedict XIV, Pope
Clement XIII, Pope
Clement XIV, Pope
Pius VI, Pope
Pius VII, Pope
Leo XII, Pope
Pius VIII, Pope
Gregory XVI, Pope
Gregory XVI, Pope
Pius IX, Pope
Paul III, Pope
Leo X, Pope
Leo X , Pope
Paul IV, Pope
Clement VII, Pope
Philosophy     Galileo Galilei
Tommaso Campanella
Giordano Bruno
Lucilio Vanini
Antonio Rosmini-Serbati
Vincenzo Gioberti
Niccolo Machiavelli

Western Europe in the Time of Charles V - 1525
Western Europe at the Accession of Elizabeth - 1558
Europe Medieaval Commerce
Germany at the Commencement of the 30 Year's War - 1618
Western Europe - May 1702
Western Europe - Treaties of Utrecht & Rastadt 1713-1714
Europe 1730
Central Europe 1789
North Italy & Switzerland 1796-1805
Central & Western Europe - April 1st 1812
Central & Western Europe 1815
South Eastern Europe 1856 - After the Crimean War