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Site last updated
26 June, 2013

Discovery and Exploration
(1493 - 1650)

1493Pope Alexander VI publishes bull Inter cetera divina dividing the New World between Spain and Portugal
1494Treaty of Tordesillas divides the New World between Spain and Portugal    GO !
1515Ponce de Leon first explores Florida
1526Lucas Vásquez de Ayllón attempts to establish a settlement in South Carolina
1526SC - San Miguel de Guadalupe was established by settlers from Hispanolia
1535Cortés founds a base at Bay of La Paz, first CA settlement
1539De Soto explores FL, GA, NC, SC, TN, AL, MS
1540Francisco Vásquez de Coronado explores AZ, NM, CO (to 1542)
1564French attempt to establish a colony in FL (Fort Caroline)
1565Spanish build a fort at St. Augustine (FL)
1570Iroquois League founded (date approx)
1585Raleigh's Roanoke Island Settlement    GO !
1590Roanoke found deserted
1598Colony of New Mexico settled
1598Don Juan de Oñate and Franciscans make first permanent settlement in NM
1606First Virginia Charter    GO !
1607Settlement in Maine by the Plymouth Company (fails)
1610Sante Fe established as capital of New Mexico
1613Eng. colonists in Virginia destroy Fr. settlement at Port Royal, Nova Scotia; prevent Fr. colonisation of Maryland
1614Virginian colonists prevent Fr. settlements in Maine and Nova Scotia
1616Captain John Smith publishes A Description of New England    GO !
1617First shipment of tobacco out of Virginia
1619First representative colonial assembly in America held at Jamestown, VA
1619First English missionaries - 50 Anglicans, sent to Virginia, first slaves from Africa land in Virginia
1620Pilgrim Fathers, leave Plymouth, England, in "Mayflower" and found Plymouth Colony in Mass.    GO !
1622Algonquians attack settlers, result is a fierce new Indian policy
1624Virginia Company charter annulled; Virginia becomes crown colony
1624Dutch W. India Co. settlement in "New Netherlands"
1624"Fort Orange" settlement by Dutch (later becomes Albany, NY)
1626Peter Minuit, director-general of Dutch West India Company's settlement in N. America, buys the entire Island of Manhattan from native Indian chiefs
1626Dutch colony of New Amsterdam founded on Hudson river
1630John Winthrop, Engl. Puritan leader, sails with Plymouth Company's expedition, founds Boston - the "Great Migration"
1632Charles I grants 10 million acres to Lord Baltimore - the land is named "Terra Maria" (Mary-land)    GO !
1633Dutch settle in Connecticut
1636Founding of Providence, Rhode Island
1636Windsor settlement - first settlement in CT
1636Beginning of Pequot War    GO !
1637Boston trial and banishment of Ann Hutchinson at the climax of the Antinomian Controversy
1637Eng. emigration to America restricted by royal proclamation
1637Narragansetts join New Englanders against Pequots
1637NJ -Swedes settle colony on the Delaware river (New Sweden)
163821 September - The Treaty of Hartford ends Pequot War: Surviving Pequot are divided as slaves among Indian allies and English, Pequot forbidden to inhabit former Pequot territory, and the name Pequot is to be expunged
1641General Court of Massachusetts Bay Company codifies 100 laws
1641French settle in Michigan
1642Virginia passes a fugitive slave law
1643Confederation of New England formed     GO !
1644Third Anglo-Indian War (Virginia)
1646End of third Anglo-Indian War
1649Maryland Assembly passes act of toleration, professing belief in the Holy Trinity    GO !
1649Puritan exiles from Virginia settle in Providence, Md.
Related Articles/Works
Daily Life
Native American Cultures
Jamestown
Massachusetts
The First Europeans
New Netherland and Maryland
Colonial-Indian Relations
Second Generation of British Colonies
Settlers, Slaves and Servants
Columbus in Europe
The Discovery of America by Columbus
Spanish Exploration after Columbus
Retreat of Cortes from the City of Mexico
Hernando de Soto
The Discovery of the St. Lawrence
The Massacre of the French Protestants
The Colonies of Sir Walter Raleigh
Early Settlements
Early American Painting
Before Dawn
Columbus, Raleigh and Smith
The Freight of the Mayflower
The Spirit of the Puritans
From Hudson to Stuyvesant
Liberty, Slavery, and Tyranny
The Generall Historie of Virginia, New-England, and the Summer Isles

Documents
Grant to Christopher Columbus
(30 April 1492)
Treaty of Tordesillas
(7 June 1494)
The Constitution of the Iroquois Nations
(1500)
Charter to Sir Walter Raleigh
(25 March 1584)
The First Virginia Charter
(10 April 1606)
The Second Virginia Charter
(23 May 1609)
Third Virginia Charter
(12 March 1612)
Mayflower Compact
(11 November 1620)
The Charter of Maryland
(20 June 1632)
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
(1639)
New England Articles of Confederation
(19 May 1643)
The Maryland Toleration Act
(1649)


Conflicts
Pequot War
A war in 1637 between Connecticut colonists, aided by British soldiers and friendly Indian tribes, and the Pequot Indians under their chief, Sassacus, that resulted in the defeat and dispersion of the Pequot tribe


Notables
Literature     Anne Bradstreet
History     Christopher Columbus
Sir Walter Raleigh
Juan Ponce de León
Hernando de Soto
Francisco Vásquez de Coronado
John Winthrop
Charles I
Captain John Smith
Lucas Vásquez de Ayllón
Hernán Cortés
Don Juan de Oñate
Peter Minuit
George Calvert, 1st Baron Baltimore
William Berkeley
George Calvert
George Calvert, 1st Baron Baltimore
Religion     Ann Hutchinson
Roger Williams
Alexander VI, Pope
Pius III, Pope
Julius II, Pope
Leo X, Pope
Adrian VI, Pope
Clement VII, Pope
Paul III, Pope
Julius III, Pope
Marcellus II, Pope
Paul IV, Pope
Pius IV, Pope
St. Pius V, Pope
Gregory XIII, Pope
Sixtus V, Pope
Urban VII, Pope
Gregory XIV, Pope
Innocent IX, Pope
Clement VIII, Pope
Leo XI, Pope
Paul V, Pope
Gregory XV, Pope
Urban VIII, Pope
Innocent X, Pope (Saint)
Roger Williams


Maps
The Coronado Expedition 1540-1542
New England Coast, 1612
Map of Virginia, 1612
Map of Virginia, 1612
The Summer Isles, 1612
Discoveries of England, Spain & Portugal in the 15th & 16th Centuries