- Glossary definition: Italian War of 1521
Italian War of 1521
(1521 - 1526)

(Sometimes known as the Four Years' War) Part of the Italian Wars. Fought from 1521 to 1526, the war pitted Francis I of France and the Republic of Venice against the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, Henry VIII of England, and the Papal States. The conflict arose from animosity over the election of Charles as Emperor in 151920 and from Pope Leo X's need to ally with Charles against Martin Luther.