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Thomas Carlyle
History of Friedrich II of Prussia - Frederick the Great






BOOK I. BIRTH AND PARENTAGE. 1712.
Chapter I. Proem: Friedrich's History From the Distance We Are At.
Chapter II. Friedrich's Birth.
Chapter III. - Father and Mother: The Hanoverian Connection.
Chapter IV. - Father's Mother.
Chapter V. - King Friedrich I.

BOOK II. - OF BRANDENBURG AND THE HOHENZOLLERNS. 928-1417.
Chapter I. - Brannibor: Henry the Fowler.
Chapter II. - Preussen: Saint Adalbert.
Chapter III. - Markgraves of Brandenburg.
Chapter IV. - Albert the Bear.
Chapter V. - Conrad of Hohenzollern; and Kaiser Barbarossa.
Chapter VI. - The Teutsch ritters or Teutonic Order.
Chapter VII. - Margraviate of Culmbach: Baireuth, Anspach.
Chapter VIII. - Ascanier Markgraves in Brandenburg.
Chapter IX. - Burggraf Friedrich IV.
Chapter X. - Brandenburg Lapses to the Kaiser.
Chapter XI. - Bayarian Kurfursts in Brandenburg.
Chapter XII. - Brandenburg in Kaiser Karl's Time; End of the Bavarian Kurfursts.
Chapter XIII. - Luxemburg Kurfursts in Brandenburg.
Chapter XIV. - Burggraf Friedrich VI.

BOOK III. - THE HOHENZOLLERNS IN BRANDENBURG. 1412-1718
Chapter I. - Kurfurst Friedrich I.
Chapter II. - Matinees du Roi de Prusse.
Chapter III. - Kurfurst Friedrich II.
Chapter IV. - Kurfurst Albert Achilles, and His Successor.
Chapter V. - Of the Baireuth-Anspach Branch.
Chapter VI. - Hochmeister Albert, Third Notable Son of Friedrich.
Chapter VII. - Albert Alcibiades.
Chapter VIII. - Historical Meaning of the Reformation.
Chapter IX. - Kurfurst Joachim I.
Chapter X. - Kurfurst Joachim II.
Chapter XI. - Seventh Kurfurst, Johann George.
Chapter XII. - Of Albert Friedrich, The Second Duke of Preussen.
Chapter XIII. - Ninth Kurfurst, Johann Sigismund.
Chapter XIV. - Symptoms of a Great War Coming.
Chapter XV. - Tenth Kurfurst, George Wilhelm.
Chapter XVI. - Thirty-Years War.
Chapter XVII. - Duchy of Jagerndorf.
Chapter XVIII. - Friedrich Wilhelm, the Great Kurfurst, Eleventh of the Series.
Chapter XIX. - King Friedrich I. Again.
Chapter XX. - Death of King Friedrich I.

BOOK IV. - FRIEDRICH'S APPRENTICESHIP, FIRST STAGE. 1713-1728.
Chapter I. - Childhood: Double Educational Element.
Chapter II. - The German Element.
Chapter III. - Friedrich Wilhelm is King.
Chapter IV. - His Majesty's Ways.
Chapter V. - Friedrich Wilhelm's One War.
Chapter VI. - The Little Drummer.
Chapter VII. - Transit of Czar Peter.
Chapter VIII. - The Crown-Prince is Put to His Schooling.
Chapter IX. - Wusterhausen.
Chapter X. - The Heidelberg Protestants.
Chapter XI. - On the Crown-Prince's Progress in His Schooling.
Chapter XII. - Crown-Prince Falls into Disfavor with Papa.
Chapter XIII. - Results of the Crown-Prince's Schooling.

BOOK V. - DOUBLE-MARRIAGE PROJECT, AND WHAT ELEMENT IT FELL INTO. 1723-1726.
Chapter I. - Double-Marriage is Decided On.
Chapter II. - A Kaiser Hunting Shadows.
Chapter III. - The Seven Crises or European Travail-Throes.
Chapter IV. - Double-Marriage Treaty Cannot Be Signed.
Chapter V. - Crown-Prince Goes into the Potsdam Guards.
Chapter VI. - Ordnance-Master Seckendorf Crosses the Palace Esplanade.
Chapter VII. - Tobacco-Parliament.
Chapter VIII. - Seckendorf's Retort to Her Majesty.

BOOK VI. - DOUBLE-MARRIAGE PROJECT, AND CROWN-PRINCE, GOING ADRIFT UNDER THE STORM-WINDS. 1727-1730.
Chapter I. - Fifth Crisis in the Kaiser's Spectre-Hunt.
Chapter II. - Death of George I.
Chapter III. - Visit to Dresden.
Chapter IV. - Double-Marriage Project is not Dead.
Chapter V. - Congress of Soissons, Sixth Crisis in the Spectre-Hunt.
Chapter VI. - Imminency of War or Duel Between the Britannic and Prussian Majesties.
Chapter VII. - A Marriage: Not the Double-Marriage: Crown-Prince Deep in Trouble.
Chapter VIII. - Crown-Prince Getting Beyond His Depth in Trouble.
Chapter IX. - Double-Marriage Shall Be or Shall Not Be.

BOOK VII. - FEARFUL SHIPWRECK OF THE DOUBLE-MARRIAGE PROJECT. February-November, 1730.
Chapter I. - England Sends the Excellency Hotham to Berlin.
Chapter II. - Language of Birds: Excellency Hotham Proves Unavailing.
Chapter III. - Camp of Radewitz.
Chapter IV. - Excellency Hotham Quits Berlin in Haste.
Chapter V. - Journey to the Reich.
Chapter VI. - Journey Homewards From the Reich; Catastrophe on Journey Homewards
Chapter VII. - Catastrophe, and Majesty, Arrive in Berlin.
Chapter VIII. - Sequel to Crown-Prince and Friends.
Chapter IX. - Court-Martial on Crown-Prince and Consorts.

BOOK VIII. - CROWN-PRINCE RETRIEVED: LIFE AT CUSTRIN. November, 1730-February, 1732.
Chapter I. - Chaplain Muller Waits on the Crown-Prince.
Chapter II. - Crown-Prince to Repent and Not Perish.
Chapter III. - Wilhelmina is to Wed the Prince of Baireuth.
Chapter IV. - Criminal Justice in Preussen and Elsewhere.
Chapter V. - Interview of Majesty and Crown-Prince at Custrin.
Chapter VI. - Wilhelmina's Wedding.

BOOK IX. - LAST STAGE OF FRIEDRICH'S APPRENTICESHIP: LIFE IN RUPPIN. 1732-1736.
Chapter I. - Princess Elizabeth Christina of Brunswick-Bevern.
Chapter II. - Small Incidents at Ruppin.
Chapter III. - The Salzburgers.
Chapter IV. - Prussian Majesty Visits the Kaiser.
Chapter V. - Ghost of the Double-Marriage Rises; To No Purpose.
Chapter VI. - King August Meditating Great Things for Poland.
Chapter VII. - Crown-Prince's Marriage.
Chapter VIII. - King August Dies; and Poland Takes Fire.
Chapter IX. - Kaiser's Shadow-Hunt has Caught Fire.
Chapter X. - Crown-Prince Goes to the Rhine Campaign
Chapter XI. - In Papa's Sick-Room; Prussian Inspections: End of War.

BOOK X. - AT REINSBERG. 1736-1740.
Chapter I. - Mansion of Reinsberg.
Chapter II. - Of Voltaire and the Literary Correspondences.
Chapter III. - Crown-Prince Makes a Morning Call.
Chapter IV. - News of the Day.
Chapter V. - Visit at Loo.
Chapter VI. - Last Year of Reinsberg; Journey to Preussen.
Chapter VII. - Last Year of Reinsberg: Transit of Baltimore and Other Persons and Things.
Chapter VIII. - Death of Friedrich Wilhelm.

BOOK XI. - FRIEDRICH TAKES THE REINS IN HAND. June-December, 1740.
Chapter I. - Phenomena of Friedrich's Accession.
Chapter II. - The Homagings.
Chapter III. - Friedrich Makes an Excursion, Not of Direct Sort Into the Cleve Countries.
Chapter IV. - Voltaire's First Interview with Friedrich.
Chapter V. - Affair of Herstal.
Chapter VI. - Returns by Hanover; Does Not Call on His Royal Uncle There.
Chapter VII. - Withdraws to Reinsberg, Hoping a Peaceable Winter.
Chapter VIII. - The Kaiser's Death.
Chapter IX. - Resolution Formed at Reinsberg in Consequence.

BOOK XII. - FIRST SILESIAN WAR, AWAKENING A GENERAL EUROPEAN ONE, BEGINS. December, 1740-May, 1741.
Chapter I. - Of Schlesien, or Silesia.
Chapter II. - Friedrich Marches on Glogau
Chapter III. - Problem of Glogau
Chapter IV. - Breslau Under Soft Pressure.
Chapter V. - Friedrich Pushes Forward Towards Brieg and Neisse.
Chapter VI. - Neisse is Bombarded.
Chapter VII. - At Versailles, the Most Christian Majesty Changes His Shirt, and Belleisle is Seen with Papers.
Chapter VIII. - Phenomena in Petersburg.
Chapter IX. - Friedrich Returns to Silesia.
Chapter X. - Battle of Mollwitz
Chapter XI. - The Bursting Forth of Bedlams: Belleisle and the Breakers of Pragmatic Sanction.
Chapter XII. - Sorrows of His Britannic Majesty.
Chapter XIII. - Small-War: First Emergence of Ziethen the Hussar General into Notice.

BOOK XIII - FIRST SILESIAN WAR, LEAVING THE GENERAL EUROPEAN ONE ABLAZE ALL ROUND, GETS ENDED. May, 1741-July, 1742.
Chapter I. - Britannic Majesty as Paladin of the Pragmatic.
Chapter II. - Camp of Strehlen.
Chapter III. - Grand Review at Strehlen: Neipperg Takes Aim at Breslau, but Another Hits It.
Chapter IV. - Friedrich Takes the Field Again, Intent on Having Neisse.
Chapter V. - Klein-Schnellendorf: Friedrich Gets Neisse, in a Fashion.
Chapter VI. - New Mayor of Landshut Makes an Installation Speech.
Chapter VII. - Friedrich Purposes to Mend the Klein-Schnellendorf Failure: Fortunes of the Belleisle Armament.
Chapter VIII. - Friedrich Starts for Moravia, on a New Scheme He Has.
Chapter IX. - Wilhelmina Goes to See the Gayeties at Frankfurt.
Chapter X. - Friedrich Does His Moravian Expedition Which Proves a Mere Moravian Foray.
Chapter XI. - Nussler in Neisse, with the Old Dessauer and Walrave.
Chapter XII. - Prince Karl Does Come On.
Chapter XIII. - Battle of Chotusitz.
Chapter XIV. - Peace of Breslau

BOOK XIV. - THE SURROUNDING EUROPEAN WAR DOES NOT END. August, 1742-July, 1744.
Chapter I. - Friedrich Resumes His Peaceable Pursuits.
Chapter II. - Austrian Affairs are on the Mounting Hand.
Chapter III. - Carnival Phenomena in War-Time.
Chapter IV. - Austrian Affairs Mount to a Dangerous Height.
Chapter V. - Britannic Majesty Fights His Battle of Dettingen; and Becomes Supreme Jove of Germany, in a Manner.
Chapter VI. - Voltaire Visits Friedrich for the Fourth Time.
Chapter VII. - Friedrich Makes Treaty with France; and Silently Gets Ready.
Chapter VIII. - Perfect Peace at Berlin, War All Round.

BOOK XV. - SECOND SILESIAN WAR, IMPORTANT EPISODE IN THE GENERAL EUROPEAN ONE. 15th Aug. 1744-25th Dec. 1745.
Chapter I. - Preliminary: How the Moment Arrived.
Chapter II. - Friedrich Marches Upon Prag, Captures Prag.
Chapter III. - Friedrich, Diligent in His Bohemian Conquests, Unexpectedly Comes Upon Prince Karl, With no French Attending Him.
Chapter IV. - Friedrich Reduced to Straits; Cannot Maintain His Moldau Conquests Against Price Karl.
Chapter V. - Friedrich, Under Difficulties, Prepares for a New Campaign.
Chapter VI. - Valori Goes on an Electioneering Mission to Dresden.
Chapter VII. - Friedrich in Silesia; Unusually Busy.
Chapter VIII. - The Martial Boy and His English versus the Laws of Nature.
Chapter IX. - The Austrian-Saxon Army Invades Silesia, Across the Mountains.
Chapter X. - Battle of Hohenfriedberg.
Chapter XI. - Camp of Chlum: Friedrich Cannot Achieve Peace.
Chapter XII. - Battle of Sohr.
Chapter XIII. - Saxony and Austria Make a Surprising Last Attempt.
Chapter XIV. - Battle of Kesselsdorf.
Chapter XV. - Peace of Dresden: Friedrich Does March Home.

BOOK XVI. - THE TEN YEARS OF PEACE. 1746-1756.
Chapter I. - Sans-Souci
Chapter II. - Peep at Voltaire and His Divine Emilie (by Candlelight) in the Tide of Events.
Chapter III. - European War Falls Done: Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
Chapter IV. - Cocceji Finishes the Law-Reform; Friedrich is Printing His Poesies.
Chapter V. - Strangers of Note Come to Berlin, in 1750.
Chapter VI. - Berlin Carrousel, and Voltaire Visible There.
Chapter VII. - M. De Voltaire has a Painful Jew-Lawsuit.
Chapter VIII. - Ost-Friesland and the Shipping Interests.
Chapter IX. - Second Act of the Voltaire Visit.
Chapter X. - Demon Newswriter, of 1752.
Chapter XI. - Third Act and Catastrophe of the Voltaire Visit.
Chapter XII. - Of the Afterpiece, Which Proved Still More Tragical.
Chapter XIII. - Romish-King Question; English-Privateer Question.
Chapter XIV. - There is Like to be Another War Ahead
Chapter XV. - Anti-Prussian War-Symptoms: Friedrich Visible for a Moment

BOOK XVII - THE SEVEN-YEARS WAR: FIRST CAMPAIGN. 1756-1757.
Chapter I. - What Friedrich Had Read in the Menzel Documents.
Chapter II. - English Diplomacies Abroad, in Prospect of a French War.
Chapter III. - French-English War Breaks Out.
Chapter IV. - Friedrich Puts a Question at Vienna, Twice Over.
Chapter V. - Friedrich Blockades the Saxons in Pirna Country.
Chapter VI. - Battle of Lobositz.
Chapter VII. - The Saxons Get Out of Pirna on Dismal Terms.
Chapter VIII. - Winter in Dresden.

BOOK XVIII. - SEVEN-YEARS WAR RISES TO A HEIGHT. 1757-1759.
Chapter I. - The Campaign Opens.
Chapter II. - Battle of Prag.
Chapter III. - Prag Cannot be Got at Once.
Chapter IV. - Battle of Kolin.
Chapter V. - Friedrich at Leitmeritz, His World of Enemies Coming On.
Chapter VI. - Death of Winterfeld.
Chapter VII. - Friedrich in Thuringen, His World of Enemies All Come.

BOOK XVIII (CONTINUED) - SEVEN-YEARS WAR RISES TO A HEIGHT. 1757-1759.
Chapter VIII. - Battle of Rossbach.
Chapter IX. - Friedrich Marches for Silesia.
Chapter X. - Battle of Leuthen.
Chapter XI. - Winter in Breslau: Third Campaign Opens.
Chapter XII. - Siege of Olmutz.
Chapter XIII. - Battle of Zorndorf.
Chapter XIV. - Battle of Hochkirch.

BOOK XIX. - FRIEDRICH LIKE TO BE OVERWHELMED IN THE SEVEN-YEARS WAR. 1759-1760.
Chapter I. - Preliminaries to a Fourth Campaign.
Chapter II. - General Dohna; Dictator Wedell: Battle of Zullichau.
Chapter III. - Friedrich in Person Attempts the Russian Problem; Not With Success.
Chapter IV. - Battle of Kunersdorf.
Chapter V. - Saxony Without Defence: Schmettau Surrenders Dresden.
Chapter VI. - Prince Henri Makes a March of Fifty Hours; the Russians Cannot Find Lodging in Silesia.
Chapter VII. - Friedrich Reappears On The Field, And In Seven Days After Comes The Catastrophe Of Maxen.
Chapter VIII. - Miscellanea In Winter-Quarters, 1759-1760.
Chapter IX. - Preliminaries To A Fifth Campaign.

BOOK XX. - FRIEDRICH IS NOT TO BE OVERWHELMED: THE SEVEN-YEARS WAR GRADUALLY ENDS. 25th April, 1760-15th February, 1763.
Chapter I. - Fifth Campaign Opens.
Chapter II. - Friedrich Besieges Dresden.
Chapter III. - Battle of Liegnitz.
Chapter IV. - Daun in Wrestle With Friedrich in the Silesian Hills.
Chapter V. - Battle of Torgau.
Chapter VI. - Winter-Quarters 1760-1761.
Chapter VII. - Sixth Campaign Opens: Camp Of Bunzelwitz.
Chapter VIII. - Loudon Pounces Upon Schweidnitz One Night (Last Of September, 1761).
Chapter IX. - Traitor Warkotsch.
Chapter X. - Friedrich In Breslau; Has News From Petersburg.
Chapter XI. - Seventh Campaign Opens.
Chapter XII. - Siege Of Schweidnitz: Seventh Campaign Ends.
Chapter XIII. - Peace Of Hubertsburg.

BOOK XXI. - AFTERNOON AND EVENING OF FRIEDRICH'S LIFE. 1763-1786.
Chapter I. - Prefatory.
Chapter II. - Repairing of a Ruined Prussia.
Chapter III. - Troubles in Poland.
Chapter IV. - Partition of Poland.
Chapter V. - A Chapter of Miscellanies.
Chapter VI. - The Bavarian War.
Chapter VII. - Miller Arnold's Lawsuit.
Chapter VIII. - The Furstenbund: Friedrich's Last Years.
Chapter IX. - Friedrich's Last Illness and Death.
APPENDIX.
Personae

Terms Defined

Referenced Works