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David Hume
A Natural History of Religion

With an Introduction by John M. Robertson

(London: A. and H. Bradlaugh Bonner, 1889)

As every enquiry which regards religion is of the utmost importance, there are two questions in particular which challenge our principal attention, to wit, that concerning its foundation in reason, and that concerning its origin in human nature. Happily, the first question, which is the most important, admits of the most obvious, at least the clearest solution. The whole frame of nature bespeaks an intelligent author; and no rational enquirer can, after serious reflexion, suspend his belief a moment with regard to the primary principles of genuine Theism and Religion. But the other question, concerning the origin of religion in human nature, is exposed to some more difficulty. The belief of invisible, intelligent power has been very generally diffused over the human race, in all places and in all ages; but it has neither perhaps been so universal as to admit of no exceptions, nor has it been, in any degree, uniform in the ideas which it has suggested. Some nations have been discovered, who entertained no sentiments of Religion, if travellers and historians may be credited; and no two nations, and scarce any two men, have ever agreed precisely in the same sentiments. It would appear, therefore, that this preconception springs not from an original instinct or primary impression of nature, such as gives rise to self-love, affection between the sexes, love of progeny, gratitude, resentment; since every instinct of this kind has been found absolutely universal in all nations and ages, and has always a precise determinate object, which it inflexibly pursues. The first religious principles must be secondary; such as may easily be perverted by various accidents and causes, and whose operation too, in some cases, may by an extraordinary concurrence of circumstances be altogether prevented. What those principles are, which give rise to the original belief, and what those accidents and causes are, which direct its operation, is the subject of our present enquiry.

That Polytheism was the primary Religion of Men
Origin of Polytheism
Polytheism continued
Deities not considered as Creators or Formers of the World
Various Forms of Polytheism: Allegory, Hero-Worship
Origin of Theism from Polytheism
Confirmation of this Doctrine
Flux and Reflux of Polytheism and Theism
Comparison of these Religions with regard to Persecution and Toleration
With regard to Courage or Abasement
With regard to Reason or Absurdity
With regard to Doubt or Conviction
Impious conceptions of the divine nature in popular religions of both kinds
Bad influence of popular religions on morality
General Corollary

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