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Index by Period

19th Century
(1800 - 1900)

One of the most striking results of the French and German illumination was the nationalization of philosophy. During the Middle Ages Latin was the language of the scientific world, and even long after most of the manners and customs of the Middle Ages had disappeared it continued to be the language in which philosophical treatises were composed. Contemporaneously with the rise of the deistic controversy in England and the spread of the illumination in France and Germany, Latin was discarded and philosophy began to speak in the vernacular. The result of this change was that philosophy ceased to be cosmopolitan in character, and racial and national traits, which had always been distinguishable, became more strongly marked. Hence we have, during the nineteenth century, German, English, French, Scotch, and Italian philosophy, each possessing its distinctly national characteristics. It will, therefore, be found more convenient from this point onward to follow philosophy in its national development, and to treat the history of philosophy according to nations rather than according to schools and systems. [1]
[1] For the history of the philosophy of the nineteenth century consult, besides the works already referred to on p. 422, Royce, The Spirit of Modern Philosophy (Boston, 1892); Burt, History of Modern Philosophy (2 vols., Chicago, 1892), Griggs's Philosophical Classics, edited by Morris; Series of Modern Philosophers, edited by Sneath; The Library of Philosophy, edited by Muirhead.

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The Nineteenth Century: Germany
The Nineteenth Century: England
The Nineteenth Century: France
Third Period -- From Kant to Our Own Time
German Philosophy: The Kantians, The Romantic Movement, Fichte, Schelling
German Philosophy: The Reaction against Hegel; Herbart, Schopenhauer
French Philosophy
English Philosophy
Italian Philosophy
American Philosophy
Catholic Philosophy in the Nineteenth Century
German Philosophy: Hegel, the Hegelians


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