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History of Philosophy
by Turner, William (S.T.D.)


History of Philosophy by William Turner, S.T.D. Ginn and Company

Boston - New York - Chicago - London
Atlanta - Dallas - Columbus - San Francisco

ENTERED AT STATIONERS' HALL
COPYRIGHT, 1903, BY
WILLIAM TURNER
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
327.12

The Athenaeum Press
GINN AND COMPANY
PROPRIETORS. BOSTON. USA.

PREFACE

The purpose of the writer in compiling this text-book has been so to set forth the succession of schools and systems of philosophy as to accord to Scholasticism a presentation in some degree adequate to its importance in the history of speculative thought.

Of the text-books that are at present available for use in the lecture room, some dismiss the Scholastic period with a paragraph; others, while dealing with it more sympathetically, treat it from the point of view of German transcendentalism. The result is that even works which succeed in doing justice to the schoolmen are practically useless to students who are more familiar with the terminology of Scholasticism than with that of Hegelianism.

The scope of the work has determined not only the general arrangement of the volume, but also the selection of material and of bibliographical references. Under the title "Sources," the student will find mention of the most recent publications and of one or two standard works which have heen selected as being most easy of access. Bibliography is rapidly becoming a distinct branch of study in the different departments of philosophy. Dr. Rand's Bibliography of Philosophy, which is to be published as the third volume of Baldwin's Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, will doubtless meet the demand as far as completeness is concerned, and will render unnecessary the attempt to furnish complete lists of sources in a text-book such as this is intended to be. It is, therefore, with a view to inculcate a proper idea of historical method rather than to supply a complete bibliography that a paragraph entitled "Sources" is prefixed to each chapter.

Similarly, it is for the purpose of impressing on the student the importance of estimating the value of systems and schools of philosophy that, at the end of each chapter, suggestions for criticism are offered under the title "Historical Position." No one is more keenly alive than the author himself to the absurdity of regarding such criticisms as possessing more than a relative value. If they sometimes convey to the reader a sense of intended finality, allowance will perhaps be made for the impossibility of finding, within the limits of a text-book, space for a more ample discussion of questions which are far from being finally and incontrovertibly settled.

The plan of the work precludes much claim to originality. Use has been made of primary sources wherever it was possible to do so. In dealing with Scholastic philosophy, especially, recourse has been had to the works of the schoolmen, experience having abundantly shown the danger of relying on secondary authorities for this period. The frequent mention, both in the text and in the notes, of Zeller's Philosophie der Griechen, of Stöckl's Lehrbuch der Geschichte der Philosophie, of the Geschichte der Philosophie des Mittelalters by the same author, of De Wulf's Histoire de la philosophie médiévale, of González' Historia de la filosofia, and of Falckenberg's and Höffding's histories of modern philosophy, indicates the principal secondary sources which have been used, but does not represent the full extent of the writer's indebtedness to those works. In revising the manuscript and in reading the proofs use has been made of the Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology edited by Professor J. M. Baldwin.

The writer wishes to acknowledge his indebtedness to the Rev. J. M. Prendergast, S.J., of Holy Cross College, Worcester, to the Rev. J. M. Reardon of the St. Paul Seminary, and to the Rev. T. E. Judge for many helpful suggestions in the course of their revision of some of the proofs. He is, moreover, indebted in a special manner to the Rev. H. Moynihan, S.T.D., of the St. Paul Seminary, for careful and scholarly reading of all the proofs, and to Professor Frank Thilly, Ph.D., of the University of Missouri, whose valuable criticisms and suggestions have been the more appreciated because they come from one whose view point is so different from that of the writer. He gratefully . acknowledges also the care and accuracy of the proof readers of the Athenaeum Press.

WILLIAM TURNER.
ST. PAUL, April 7, 1903.

Introduction
Ancient Philosophy
Oriental Philosophy
Babylonia and Assyria
Egypt
China
India
Ancient Philosophy - Persia
Ancient Philosophy - Retrospect
Greek and Greco-Roman Philosophy
Pre-Socratic Philosophy
Earlier Ionian School
The Pythagorean School
The Eleatic School
Later Ionian Philosophers
The Atomists
The Sophists
Socrates and the Socratic Schools
Socrates
The Imperfectly Socratic Schools
Plato
The Platonic Schools
Aristotle
The Peripatetic School
Post-Aristotelian Philosophy
The Stoics
The Epicureans
The Sceptics
The Eclectics
THe Scientific Movement
Philosophy of the Romans
Greco-Oriental Philosophy
Greco-Jewish Philosophy
Neo-Pythagoreanism and Neo-Platonism
Philosophy of the Christian Era
Patristic Philosophy
Heretical Systems
Ante-Nicene Fathers
Post-Nicene Fathers
Scholastic Philosophy
First Period of Scholasticism: Erigena to Roscelin (800-1050)
First Masters of the Schools
John Scotus Erigena
Gerbert
The School of Auxerre
Second Period of Scholasticism
Predecessors of Roscelin
Roscelin
St. Anselm
William of Champeaux, the Indifferentists, etc.
Abelard
The School of Chartres
Eclectics
The Mystic School
The Pantheistic School
Byzantine, Arabian, and Jewish Philosophy
Byzantine Philosophy During the Middle Ages
Arabian Philosophy During the Middle Ages
Jewish Philosophy During the Middle Ages
Influence of Arabian and Jewish Philosophy on Scholasticism
Third Period of Scholasticism: Alexander of Hales to Ockam (1200-1300)
Predecessors of St.Thomas
St. Thomas of Aquin
Thomists and Anti-Thomists
Henry of Ghent
John Duns Scotus
Averroism in the Schools
Fourth Period of Scholasticism: Birth of Ockam to taking of Constantinople (1300-1453)
Predecessors of Ockam
William of Ockam
The Mystic School
Nicholas of Autrecourt
Retrospect [of the Close of Scholastic Philosophy]
Character of Scholastic Philosophy
Modern Philosophy
First Period -- Transition from Scholastic to Modern Philosophy
Scholastics of the Transition Period
The Humanists
Italian Philosophy of Nature
The Scientific Movement
Protestant Mysticism
Systems of Political Philosophy
Second Period -- From Descartes to Kant
Descartes
Cartesianism
Spinoza
English Empiricism
The Deistic Controversy
British Moralists
French Empiricism
The Idealistic Movement
Pan-Phenomenalism -- Hume
German Illumination -- Transition to Kant
Age of Enlightenment - Retrospect
Third Period -- From Kant to Our Own Time
German Philosophy: Kant
German Philosophy: The Kantians, The Romantic Movement, Fichte, Schelling
German Philosophy: Hegel, the Hegelians
German Philosophy: The Reaction against Hegel; Herbart, Schopenhauer
The Scottish School
French Philosophy
English Philosophy
Italian Philosophy
American Philosophy
Catholic Philosophy in the Nineteenth Century
Contemporary Philosophy
Conclusion
Personae

Terms Defined

Referenced Works