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Monarchs of the Early British Kingdoms and Scotland

The Kings Of Northumbria

Comprising the Former Kingdoms of Bernicia and Deira

Kings of Bernicia
  • Esa fl. 500
  • Eoppa (c.520)
  • Ida (547-559)
  • Glappa (559-560)
  • Adda (560-568)
  • Aethelric (568-572)
  • Theodric (572-579)
  • Frithuwald (579-585)
  • Hussa (585-593)
  • Aethelfrith (593-616)
  • Edwin, St. (616-633)
  • Eanfrith (633-634)
  • Oswald, St (634-642)
  • Oswiu ( 642-670)
Kings of Deira
  • Aelle (559-589)
  • Aethelric (589-604)
  • Aethelfrith of Bernicia (604-616)
  • Edwin, St (616-633)
  • Osric (633-634)
  • Oswald, St. (634-642)
  • Oswiu (642-644)
  • Oswine St. (644-651)
  • Aethelwald (651-656)
  • Alchfrith (656-664)
  • Oswiu, again (664-670)
  • Aelfwine (670-679)
Kings of Northumbria
  • Oswiu (664-670)
  • Ecgfrith (670-685)
  • Aeldfrith (685-704)
  • Eadwulf (704-705)
  • Osred I (705-716)
  • Coenred (716-718)
  • Osric (718-729)
  • Ceolwulf, St. (729-737)
  • Eadberht (737-758)
  • Oswulf (758-759)
  • Aethelwald Moll (759-765)
  • Ealchred (765-774)
  • Aethelred I (774-779)
  • Aelfwald I (779-789)
  • Osred II (789-790)
  • Aethelred I -again (790-796)
  • Osbald (796)
  • Eardwulf (796-806)
  • Aelfwald II (806-808)
  • Eardwulf -restored (808-810)
  • Eanred (810-841)
  • Aethelred II (841-844)
  • Raedwulf -usurper (844)
  • Aethelred II, again (844-848)
  • Osbeorht (848-863)
  • Aelle II - usurper (863-867)
Sub-Kings under Norse York Rule
  • Ecgberht I (867-872)
  • Ricsige (872-876)
  • Ecgberht II (876-878)
Deira under Norse York Control from 878
High-Reeves of Bamburgh
  • Eadulf (?-913)
  • Ealdred I (913-930)
  • Osulf (930-963)
  • Waltheof (963-970)
  • Uchtred the Bold (995-1016)
  • Eadulf I (1016-1019)
  • Ealdred II (1019-1038)
  • Eadulf II (1038-1041 )

The Kings of Deheubarth

Deheubarth emerged in the early 10th century as a consolidated Kingdom covering Dyfed, Ceredigion and Ystrad Towi.

Kings of Deheubarth
  • Hywel Dda the Good, Rhodri ap Hywel and Edwin ap Hywel (950-954) -joint
  • Owain ap Hywel (950-987)
  • Maredudd ab Owain (987-999)
  • Cynan ap Hywel (999-1005)
  • Edwin ab Einion (1005-1018)
  • Cadell ab Einion (1005-1018)
  • Llywelyn ap Seisyll (1018-1023)
  • Rhydderch ab Iestyn (1023-1033)
  • Hywel ab Edwin (1033-1044)
  • Gruffydd ap Llywelyn (1044-1047)
  • Gruffydd ab Rhydderch (1047-1055)
  • Gruffydd ap Llywelyn - again (1055-1063)
  • Maredudd ab Owain (1063-1072)
  • Rhys ab Owain (1072-1078)
  • Rhys ap Tewdwr (1078-1093)
Under English Rule 1093-1135
Princes of Deheubarth
  • Gruffydd ap Rhys (1135-1137)
  • Anarawd ap Gruffydd (1137-1143)
  • Cadell ap Gruffydd (1143-1153)
  • Maredudd ap Gruffydd (1153-1155)
  • Rhys The Lord Rhys ap Gruffydd (1155-1197)
  • Gruffydd ap Rhys (1197-1201)
After 1201, the descendants of Gruffydd ap Rhys ruled as Lords of the Cantref Mawr only.

THE KINGS of EAST ANGLIA

East Anglian Rule
  • Wehha
  • Wuffa (571-578)
  • Tyttla (578-593)
  • Raedwald (593-617)
  • Eni (617-618)
  • Eorpwald (618-628)
  • Ricbert (628-631)
  • Sigebert St (631-634)
  • Egric (634-635)
  • Anna (635-654)
  • Aethelhere (654-655)
  • Aethelwold (655-664)
  • Ealdwulf (664-713)
  • Aelfwald (713-749)
  • Hun, Beorna, and Alberht - joint (749-?)
  • Aethelred (c.758-779)
  • Aethelberht, St. (779-794)
Under Mercian Rule 794-796

East Anglian Rule
  • Eadwald (796)
Under Mercian Rule 796-827

East Anglian Rule
  • Aethelstan (827-839)
  • Aethelweard (839-855)
  • Edmund, St. (855-870)
Sub-Kings under Norse Rule
  • Oswald (870-876)
  • Aethelred (876-879)
Norse Rule
  • Guthrum I, alias Aethelstan (879-890)
  • Eric (890-902)
  • Guthrum II (902-918)
Under Rule of Wessex 918 onwards

THE KINGS of ESSEX

Kings of Essex
  • Aescwine (527-587)
  • Sledda (587-604)
  • Saebert (604-616)
  • Saeward and Sexbald, joint (616)
  • Sexred (616-617)
  • Sigeberht I the Little (617-653)
  • Sigeberht II the Blessed (653-660)
  • Swithhelm (660-665)
  • Sighere and Sebbi, joint (665-695)
  • Swaefred and Sigeheard, joint (695-c.715)
  • Offa, joint (709)
  • Swaefbert (c.715-738)
  • Saelred (738-746)
  • Swithred (746-758)
  • Sigeric I (758-798)
  • Sigered (798-812)
Duces of Essex
  • Sigered (812-825)
  • Sigeric II (c.833)

The Kings of Morgannwg

alias Glywysing

Kings of Glywysing
  • Glywys Cernyw (fl. late 5th century)
  • Gwynllyw Farfog the Bearded (?-523)
  • Cadog Ddoeth the Wise (523-528)
  • Meurig ap Caradog (528-535)
  • Erbig ap Meurig (c.535-545)
  • Erb ap Erbig (545-555)
  • Nynnio ap Erb (c.555-595)
  • Llywarch ap Nynnio (c.595-610)
  • Tewdrig ap Llywarch (c.610-620)
  • Meurig ap Tewdrig (620-665)
  • Athrwys ap Meurig (625-655)
  • Ithel ap Arthwys (665-705)
  • Morgan Mwynfawr the Courteous (665-710)
  • Ithel ap Morgan (710-745)
  • Rhodri ap Ithel and Rhys ap Ithel, joint (745-775)
  • Arthfael Hen the Old (775-c.815)
  • Rhys ap Arthfael (c.815-856)
  • Hywel ap Rhys (856-886)
  • Arthfael ap Hywel (886-916)
  • Cadwgan ap Owain (916-950)
Princes of Morgannwg
  • Morgan Hen Fawr the Old & the Great, joint (930-974)
  • Idwallon ap Morgan (974-1005)
  • Rhys ap Owain (1005-1035)
  • Hywel ap Owain, joint (1010-1043)
  • Meurig ap Hywel (1035-1065)
  • Cadwgon ap Meurig, joint (1055-1072)
  • Iestyn ap Gwrgant (1072-1093)

The Kings of Gwynedd

Kings of Gwynedd
  • Cunedda Wledig the Imperator (fl. early 5th century)
  • Einion Yrth the Impetuous (fl. mid 5th century)
  • Cadwallon Lawhir Long-Hand (?-517)
  • Maelgwn Gwynedd (517-549)
  • Rhun Hir the Tall (549-586)
  • Beli ap Rhun (586-599)
  • Iago ap Beli (599-613)
  • Cadfan ab Iago (613-625)
  • Cadwallon ap Cadfan (625-634)
  • Cadafael Cadomedd the Battle-Shirker (634-654)
  • Cadwaladr Fendigaid the Blessed (654-664)
  • Ifwr ap Cadwaladr (c.664)
  • Idwal Iwrch the Roebuck (664-712)
  • Rhodri Molwynog the Bald & Grey (712-754)
  • Cynan Tindaethwy and Hywel ap Rhodri, joint (754-c.795)
  • Caradog ap Meirchion (c.795-798)
  • Cynan Tindaethwy and Hywel ap Rhodri, again (798-825)
  • Merfyn Frych the Freckled (825-844)
  • Rhodri Mawr the Great (844-878)
  • Anarawd ap Rhodri (878-916)
  • Idwal Foel the Bald (916-942)
  • Hywel Dda the Good (942-950)
  • Ieuaf ab Idwal (950-969) joint with Iago ab Idwal (950-979)
  • Hywel ap Ieuaf (979-985)
  • Cadwallon ap Ieuaf (985-986)
  • Maredudd ab Owain (986-999)
  • Cynan ap Hywel (999-1005)
  • Llywelyn ap Seisyll (1005-1023)
  • Rhydderch ab Iestyn (1023-1033)
  • Iago ab Idwal (1033-1039)
  • Gruffydd ap Llywelyn (1039-1063)
  • Bleddyn ap Cynfyn (1063-1075)
  • Trahaearn ap Caradog (1075-1081)
  • Gruffydd ap Cynan (1081-1137)
  • Owain Gwynedd (1130-1170)
Princes of Gwynedd
  • Iowerth Drwyndwn (1170-1174)
  • Dafydd I (1174-1194)
Prince of Aberffraw & Lord of Snowdon
  • Llywelyn Fawr the Great (1194- 1240)
Princes of Gwynedd
  • Dafydd II (1240-1246)
  • Llywelyn the Last (1246-1282)
  • Dafydd III (1282-1283)

The Kings of HWICCE

The Kings of Hwicce were semi-independent monarchs under the rule of Mercia. Those ruling in the late 7th century appear to have been of one dynasty. Nothing is then known until the rule of three brothers some sixty years later.

Kings of HWICCE
  • Eanfrith (?-674) and Eanhere (?-675), joint
  • Osric (675-685)
  • Oshere, joint (679-693)
  • Aethelberht and Aethelweard, joint (693-?)
  • Aethelric and Osred, joint (693-?)
  • Eanberht and Uhtred, joint (fl.759)
  • Ealdred (fl.759 & 778)

The Kings of the Isles

The Norse Kingdom of Man and the Isles

The Kings of the Isles
  • Somerled (1158-1164)
  • Dugald (1164-c.1192) and Ragnald (1164-c.1210), joint
  • Donald I (c.1210-1230)
  • Uspak (1230)
  • Dugald Screech (1230-1235) and Duncan (1230-1248), joint
  • Ewen Mac Dougall (1248-1249)
  • Dugald Mac Ruari (1249-1266)
Lords of the Isles under Scottish Rule
  • Angus Mor the Elder (1266-1296)
  • Alexander I (1126-1299)
  • Angus Og the Younger (1299-1330)
  • John I (1330-1387)
  • Donald II (1387-1423)
  • Alexander II (1423-1449)
  • John II (1449-1493)
  • Scottish Rule (1493-1545)
  • Donald Dubh the Black (1545)
The Lordship of the Isles finally merged with the Scottish Crown in 1545. The title is currently held by the heir to the British throne.

THE KINGS of KENT

Kentish Rule
  • Hengest (c.455-488)
  • Aesc alias Oeric Oisc (488-512)
  • Octa (512-540)
  • Eormenric (540-560)
  • Aethelbert I (560-616)
  • Eadbald (616-640)
  • Earconbert (640-664)
  • Ecgbert I (664-673)
  • Hlothere (673-685)
  • Eadric (685-686)
  • Mul (686-687)
Interregnum 687-688
  • Oswine (688-690)
  • Wihtraed (690-725)
  • Ælfric (725-)
  • Eadbert I (725-)
  • Aethelbert II (725-762)
  • Eanmund (762-764)
Sub-Kings under Mercian Rule
  • Heabert (764-765)
  • Ecgbert II (765-772)
Under Direct Mercian Rule 772-776

Sub-Kings under Mercian Rule
  • Ecgbert II, again (776-785)
  • Ealhmund, joint (784-785)
  • Ecgbert II, again (784-785)
Under Direct Mercian Rule 785-796

Kentish Rule
  • Eadbert Praen (796-798)
Mercian Sub-King
  • Cuthred (798-807)
Under Direct Mercian Rule 807-823

Mercian Sub-King
  • Baldred (823-824)
Wessex Sub-Kings
  • Aethelwulf (824-839)
  • Aethelstan (839-851)
  • Aethelbert (851-860)
Kent merged with the Kingdom of Wessex in 860. Evidence of numerous joint Kings in Kent suggests that, from the reign of King Aethelbert I, a seperate sub-kingdom may have existed based on the
Diocese of Rochester:
  • Eadbald (c.560-616)
  • Aethelwald (c.616-640)
  • Eormenred (c.640-673)
  • Eadric (673-686)
  • Sighere of Essex (c.686-688)
  • Swaefheard of Essex (688-694)
  • Aethelbert (694-725)
  • Eadbert I (725-748)
  • Eadbert II and Eardwulf, joint (748-762)
  • Sigered (762-764)

Kings of Lindsey

  • Geot
  • Godulf
  • Finn
  • Friothulf
  • Frealaf
  • Woden
  • Winta
  • Cretta
  • Cueldgils
  • Caedbaed
  • Bubba
  • Beda
  • Biscop
  • Eanferth
  • Eatta
  • Aldfrith (fl. probably late 7th or early 8th century)

Kings of Magonset

Little is known of the Kings of Magonset. They were Sub-Kings of Mercia, possibly being a younger branch of the Mercian Royal House.
  • Merewalh fl. (c.650-c.670)
  • Merchelm
  • Mildfrith (? - c.740)

The English Kings of Man

The Norse Kingdom of Man and the Isles

Kings of Man
  • William I de Montacute (1333-1344)
  • William II de Montacute (1344-1392)
  • William Le Scrop (1392-1399)
  • Henry Percy (1399-1405)
  • John I Stanley (1405-1414)
  • John II Stanley (1414-1437)
  • Thomas I Stanley (1437-1459)
  • Thomas II Stanley (1459-1504)
Lords of Man
  • Thomas III Stanley (1504-1521)
  • Edward Stanley (1521-1572)
  • Henry Stanley (1572-1593)
  • Ferdinando Stanley (1593-1594)
Direct English Rule 1594-1610

Lords of Man
  • William I Stanley (1610-1612)
  • Elizabeth Stanley (1612-1627)
  • James I Stanley (1627-1651)
Direct English Rule 1651-1660

Lords of Man
  • Charles Stanley (1660-1672)
  • William II Stanley (1672-1702)
  • James II Stanley (1702-1736)
  • James Murray (1736-1764)
  • John Murray (1764-1765)
In 1765, the Kingdom of Man was sold to the British Crown, with which it merged as a British Protectorate

Norse Kings of Man and the Isles

alias Sudreys

Hiberno-Norse Lords of the Hebrides
  • Godfred mac Fergus (c.836-853)
Sub-Kings under Norse Dublin Rule
  • Caitill Find
  • Tryggvi (c.870-c.880)
  • Asbjorn Skerjablesi (c.880-899)
Disputed between the Norse Dublin and York Rule 899-914

Direct Norse York Rule 914-921

Sub-Kings under Norse Kings of Dublin & York
  • Gibhleachan (921-937)
  • Mac Ragnall (937-942)
Sub-Kings under Norse Dublin Rule
  • Magnus I (972-978)
  • Godfred I (978-989)
Sub-Kings under Orcadian Rule
  • Harald I (989-999)
  • Godfred II (999-c.1000)
  • Ragnald I Godfredson (c.1000-1005)
  • Kenneth Godfredson (1005-c.1014)
Sub-Kings under Norse Dublin Rule
  • Swein Kennethson (c.1014-1034)
  • Harald II Svarte the Black (c.1034-1052)
  • Margad Rganallson (1052-1061)
  • Murchaid mac Diarmait (1061-1070)
  • Fingal Gofredson (1070-1079)
Norse Kings of Man & the Isles
  • Godfred IV Crovan (1079-1095)
  • Magnus II Barfod Barelegs (1095-1102)
  • Lagman (1102-1104)
  • Sigurd (1104-1130)
  • Domnall mac Teige (1114-1115)
  • Murchadh O'Brian (1115-1137)
  • Olaf I Bitling the Red (1137-1153)
  • Godfred V the Black (1153-1158)
  • Somerled (1158-1164)
In 1164 the Isles broke away from Man and became an independent Kingdom

Norse Kings of Man
  • Godfred V the Black, again (1164)
  • Ragnald (1164)
  • Godfred V the Black, again (1164-1187)
  • Ragnald (1187-1229)
  • Olaf II Odhar the Black (1229-1237)
  • Harald (1237-1248)
  • Ragnald (1248-1249)
  • Harald (1249-1250)
  • Ivarr (1250-1252)
  • Magnus III (1252-1265)
Scottish Rule 1265-1275

Norse King of Man
  • Godfred Magnuson (1275)
Scottish Rule 1275-1290

English Rule 1290-1293

Scottish Rule 1293-1296

English Rule 1296-1313

Scottish Rule 1313

Disputed Rule 1313-1333

In 1333, King Edward III of England established his own dynasty of English 'Kings of Man'.

THE KINGS of MERCIA

The Mercia HeartlandMercian Rule
  • Creoda (c.585-593)
  • Pybba (593-606)
  • Ceorl (606-626)
  • Penda (626-655)
Northumbrian Rule 655-658 with Mercian sub-king of Middle Anglia
  • Peada (655-656)
Mercian Rule
  • Wulfhere (658-675)
  • Aethelred I (675-704)
  • Coenred (704-709)
  • Coelred (709-716)
  • Coelwald (716)
  • Aethelbald (716-757)
  • Beornred (757)
The Kingdom of Mercia
  • Offa 757-796
  • Ecgfrith (796)
  • Coenwulf (796-821)
  • Cenelm (821)
  • Ceolwulf I (821-823)
  • Beornwulf (823-825)
  • Ludecan (825-827)
  • Wiglaf (827-828)
Under Wessex Rule 828-830

Mercian Rule
  • Wiglaf, again (830-840)
  • Wigstan, St. (840)
  • Beorhtwulf (840-852)
  • Burghred (852-874)
Sub-Kings under Norse Rule
  • Ceolwulf II (874-879)
Mercian Rule
  • Aethelred II (879-884)
Lord/Ladies of the Mercians under Wessex Overlordship
  • Aethelred II 884-911, as above)
  • Aethelflaed, joint (c.888- 918)
  • Aelfwynn (918-919)
Mercia merged with the Kingdom of Wessex in 919

THE KINGS of the PICTS

Kingdom of the Picts
  • Talorg son of Aniel (448-452)
  • Nechton Morbet son of Erip (452-476)
  • Drust Gurthinmoch (476-506)
  • Galanan Erilich (506-518)
  • Drust son of Fudrus, join (518-523)
  • Drust son of Girom (518-528)
  • Garthnac son of Girom (528-535)
  • Cailtran son of Girom (535-536)
  • Talorg son of Muircholaich (536-547)
  • Drust son of Munait (547-548)
  • Galam Cennaleph (548-553)
  • Bruide son of Mailcon (553-584)
  • Gartnait son of Domelch (584-595)
  • Nechtan nepos Werb (595-615)
  • Cinioch son of Lutrin (615-634)
  • Gartnait son of Fochel (634-639)
  • Bruide son of Fochel (639-644)
  • Talorg son of Fochel (644-656)
  • Talorgen son of Enfret (656-660)
  • Gartnait son of Domnall (660-666)
  • Drest son of Domnall (666-673)
  • Bruide son of Bili (673-694)
  • Taran son of Entifidich (694-698)
  • Bruide son of Derelei (698-709)
  • Nechtan son of Derelei (709-c.720)
  • Carnach son of Ferach (c.720-722)
  • Angus son of Fergus (c.722-723)
  • Nectan son of Derelei, again (723-724)
  • Angus son of Bruide (724)
  • Alpin son of Angus [or Eochaid], joint (724-729)
  • Drust son of Talorgen (724-729)
  • Angus son of Fergus (729-759)
  • Bruide son of Fergus [or Angus] (759-761)
  • Ciniod son of Feredach (761-773)
  • Alpin son of Ferach [or Angus] (773-777)
  • Drust son of Talorgen (777-778)
  • Talorgen son of Drust (778-782)
  • Talorgen son of Angus (782-785)
  • Canaul son of Tarl'a (785-790)
  • Constantine son of Fergus (790-820)
  • Angus son of Fergus (820-834)
  • Drust son of Constantine, joint (834-837)
  • Talorgen son of Fothoil (837)
  • Eogan son of Angus (837-839)
  • Ferach son of Bargoch (839-842)
  • Bruide son of Ferach (842)
  • Ciniod son of Ferach (842-843)
  • Bruide son of Fochel (843-845)
  • Drust son of Ferach (845-847)
  • Ciniod son of Alpin [alias Kenneth I mac Alpin of Scots] (847-858)
Kenneth mac Alpin successfully united the Kingdom of the Picts with that of the Scots.

Kings of Powys

Kings of Powys
  • Gwrtheyrn (High-King Vortigern)
  • Cadeyern Fendigaid c.430–447
  • Cadell Ddyrnllwg Gleaming-Hilt (fl. c.460)
  • Rhyddfedd Frychthe Freckled (fl. c.480)
  • Cyngen Glodrydd the Renowned (fl. c.500)
  • Pasgen ap Cyngen (fl. c.530)
  • Morgan ap Pasgen (fl. c.540)
  • Brochfael Ysgythrog of the Tusks (fl. c.550)
  • Cynan Garwyn White-Shanks (?-610)
  • Selyf Sarffgadau Battle-Serpent (610-613)
  • Manwgan ap Selyf (613)
  • Eiludd Powys (613-?)
  • Beli ap Eiludd (fl. c.655)
  • Gwylog ap Beli (fl. c.695-725)
  • Elisedd ap Gwylog (fl. 725-c.755)
  • Brochfael ap Elisedd (c.755-773)
  • Cadell Powys (773-808)
  • Cyngen ap Cadell (808-854)
  • Rhodri Mawr the Great (854-878)
  • Merfyn ap Rhodri (878-900)
  • Llywelyn ap Merfyn (900-942)
  • Hywel Dda the Good (942-950)
  • Owain ap Hywel (950-986)
  • Maredudd ab Owain (986-999)
  • Llywelyn ap Seisyll (999-1023)
  • Rhydderch ab Iestyn (1023-1033)
  • Iago ab Idwal (1033-1039)
  • Gruffydd ap Llywelyn (1039-1063)
  • Bleddyn ap Cynfyn (1063-1075)
Princes of Powys
  • Maredudd ap Bleddyn (1075-1132)
  • Madog ap Maredudd (1132-1160)
In 1160 Powys was divided into the Kingdoms of Powys Wenwynwyn (Southern Powys) and Powys Fadog (Northern Powys).

Princes of Southern Powys
  • Owain Cyfeiliog (1160-1195)
Princes of Powys Wenwynwyn
  • Gwenwynwyn ab Owain (1195-1216)
Princes of Northern Powys
  • Gruffydd Maelor I (1160-1191)
Princes of Powys Fadog
  • Madog ap Gruffydd (1191-1236)
  • Gruffydd Maelor II (1236-1269)
The Principality of Wales was resurrected and united under the Rule of the heir of Powys Fadog in the 15th century.

Prince of Wales
  • Owain Glyndwr (1404-1409)

Kings of Scots

Scotland's Beginnings: The Kingdom of Dalriada

Kings of Dalriada
  • Fergus Mor (c.500-501)
  • Domangart mac Fergus (501-507)
  • Comgall mac Domangart (507-538)
  • Gabhran mac Domangart (538-558)
  • Conall mac Comgall (558-574)
  • Aedan mac Gabhran (574-608)
  • Eochaid Buide (608-629)
  • Connad Cerr (629)
  • Domnal Brecc the Freckled (629-642)
  • Ferchar mac Connad (642-650)
  • Dunchad mac Conaing, joint (650-654)
  • Conall Crandomna (650-660)
  • Domangart mac Domnal (660-673)
  • Maelduin mac Conall (673-688)
  • Domnall Donn (688-695)
  • Ferchar Fota (695-697)
  • Eochaid Crook-Nose (697)
  • Ainbcellach mac Ferchar (697-698)
  • Fiannamail mac Conall (698-700)
  • Selbach mac Ferchar (700-723)
  • Dungal mac Selbach (723-726)
  • Eochaid mac Eochaid (726-733)
  • Alpin mac Eochaid (733)
  • Muiredach mac Ainbcellach (733-736)
  • Eogan mac Muiredach (736-739)
  • Aed Find the White (739-778)
  • Fergus mac Eochaid (778-781)
  • Eochaid the Venemous (781)
  • Constantine mac Fergus (781-820)
  • Oengus mac Fergus (820-834)
  • Drust mac Constantine (834-837)
  • Eoganan mac Oengus (837-839)
  • Alpin mac Eochaid (839-841)
Kings of Alba
  • Kenneth I mac Alpin (841-859)
  • Donald I (859-863)
  • Constantine I (863-977)
  • Aed Whitefoot (877-878)
  • Eochaid, joint (878-889)
  • Giric (878-889)
  • Donald II Dasachtach (889-900)
  • Constantine II (900-943)
  • Malcolm I (943-954)
  • Indulf (954-962)
  • Dubh (962-967)
  • Culen (967-971)
  • Kenneth II (971-995)
  • Constantine III (995-997)
  • Kenneth III (997-1005)
  • Malcolm II (1005-1034)
The Kingdom of Scots at its fullest extent

Kings of Scots
  • Duncan I the Gracious (1034-1040)
  • Macbeth (1040-1057)
  • Lulach the Simple (1057-1058)
  • Malcolm III Canmore Bighead (1058-1093)
  • Donald III (1093-1094)
  • Duncan II (1094)
  • Donald II, joint (1094-1097)
  • Edmund (1094-1097)
  • Edgar (1097-1107)
  • Alexander I the Fierce (1107-1124)
  • David I the Saint (1124-1153)
  • Malcolm IV the Maiden (1153-1165)
  • William I the Lion (1165-1214)
  • Alexander II (1214-1249)
  • Alexander III (1249-1286)
  • Margaret the Maid of Norway (1286-1290)
  • Interregnum (1290-1292)
  • John Balliol (1292-1296)
  • Interregnum (1296-1306)
  • Robert I the Bruce (1306-1329)
  • David II (1329-1332)
  • Edward Balliol (1332-1338)
  • David II, again (1338-1371)
  • Robert II (1371-1390)
  • Robert III (1390-1406)
  • James I (1406-1437)
  • James II (1437-1460)
  • James III (1460-1488)
  • James IV (1488-1513)
  • James V (1513-1542)
  • Mary Queen of Scots (1542-1567)
  • James VI (1567-1625)
  • Charles I (1625-1649)
  • Charles II (1649-1685)
  • James VII (1685-1689)
  • Mary II (1689-1694)
  • William II (1689-1702)
  • Anne (1702-1707)
The Scottish Crown was formally merged with that of England by the Act of Union in 1707.

Kings of South Gyrwe

South Gyrwe was one of the many tiny Sub-Kingdoms of the Mercian Fenlands. The name of only one King is known.
  • Tondberht (?-664)

Kings of Strathclyde

British Kings of Strathclyde
  • Ceretic fl. (c.450)
  • Cinuit fl. (c.480)
  • Dumnagual Hen the Old (fl. c.510)
  • Clinoch (fl. c.540)
  • Tutagual (fl. c.559-580)
  • Rhydderch Hael the Generous (580-612)
  • Constantine (612-c.617)
  • Neithon (c.617-621)
  • Bili (621-633)
  • Owain (633-645)
  • Gwriad (645-658)
  • Dumnagual (658-694)
  • Bili (694-722)
  • Teudebur (722-752)
  • Dumnagual (752-760)
  • Owain (760-c.780)
  • Rudderch (c.780-c.798)
  • Cynan (c.798-816)
  • Artgal (816-872)
  • Run (872-878)
  • Eochaid (878-889)
Direct Scottish Rule 889-908

Sub-Kings under Scottish Rule
  • Donald mac Aed (908-925)
  • Eoghain Caesarius mac Donald (925-937)
  • Donald mac Aed (937-943)
  • Two Sons of Donald (943-946)
  • Indulf mac Constantine (946-954)
  • Dub mac Malcolm (954-962)
  • Donald mac Eoghain (962-975)
  • Malcolm mac Donald (975-997)
  • Eoghain the Bald mac Donald (997-1018)
  • Duncan)
  • Malcolm Canmore Bighead mac Duncan (1034-1058)
In 1058 Strathclyde was merged into the Kingdom of the Scots.

THE KINGS of SURREY

The name of Surrey actually means "South-Kingdom," that is south of the Thames. It has been suggested that either Middlesex or a Kingdom based on Buckinghamshire may have been the opposing "North-Kingdom" or Norrey. The name of only one of these Mercian Sub-Kings is known.
  • Frithuwold (fl. 673)

THE KINGS of SUSSEX

The Kings of Sussex remain obscure and few of their names are known. Some were independent; some were sub-Kings under the rule of Mercia or Wessex; others, it has been suggested, were only regional rulers, the Kingdom being divided into at least two divisions as it remains today.

Kings of Sussex
  • Aella (477-514)
  • Cissa (514-?)
  • Aethelwalh (?-685)
  • Berhtun, joint (685-686)
  • Andhun (685-?)
  • Caedwalla (686-688)
Kings in Sussex
  • Wattus (?-692)
  • Nothelm (692-c.714)
  • Athelstan (c.714-c.720)
  • Nunna, possibly the same as Nothelm (c.720-725)
  • Athelbert (725-c.750)
  • Osmund (758-772)
Dukes in Sussex
  • Ealdwulf, joint (765-c.791)
  • Elfwald (c.772)
  • Oswald (c.772)
  • Oslac (c.772)

THE KINGS of WESSEX

Wessex Rule
  • Cerdic (519-534)
  • Cynric (534-560)
  • Ceawlin (560-591)
  • Ceol (591-97)
  • Ceolwulf (597-611)
  • Cynegils (611-643)
  • Cenwalh (643-645)
Under Mercian Rule 645-648

Wessex Rule
  • Cenwalh, again (648-672)
  • Seaxburh, Queen of Cenwalh (672-674)
  • Cenfus (674)
  • Aescwine (674-676)
  • Centwine (676-685)
  • Caedwalla (685-688)
  • Ine (688-726)
  • Aethelheard (726-740)
  • Cuthred (740-756)
  • Sigeberht (756-757)
  • Cynewulf (757-786)
  • Beorhtric (786-802)
Wessex Rule claimants to the title, 'King of the English'
    Egbert (802-839)
  • Aethelwulf (839-858)
  • Aethelbald (858-860)
  • Aethelbert (860-865)
  • Aethelred I (865-871)
  • Alfred the Great (871-884)
In 884, King Alfred the Great's claim to be King of the English became a reality with the reduction of the Kingdoms of both Mercia and Bernicia to mere Lordships.

Norse Kings of York

Norse Kings of York
  • Halfdan I Ragnarson (876-877)
Nominal Bernician Rule 877-883

Norse Kings of York
  • Guthfrith I Hardicnutson (883-895)
  • Sigfrid (895-900)
  • Cnut (900-902)
  • Ethelwald (902)
  • Halfdan II (902-910)
  • Eowils Ragnarson, joint (902-910)
  • Ragnall I Ivarrson (910-920)
  • Sigtrygg Caech the Squinty (920-927)
Norse Claimants under Wessex Rule
  • Guthfrith II Ivarrson (927-934)
  • Olaf I Guthfrithsson (934-939)
Norse Kings of York
  • Olaf I Guthfrithsson, again (939-941)
  • Olaf II Cuaran the Sandal (941-943)
  • Ragnall II Guthfrithsson (943-944)
Wessex Rule 944-947

Norse Kings of York
  • Erik Bloodaxe (947-948)
  • Olaf II Cuaran the Sandal, again (949-952)
  • Erik Bloodaxe, again (952-954)
The Kingdom of York was regained by the English in 954.

Contributed by Gifford, Katya
8 October 2005

Personae

Terms Defined

Referenced Works