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Governors of Roman Britain
This is a partial list of Governors of Roman Britain. As Britannia, Roman Britain was a consular province, which means its governors need to be appointed consul by Rome before they could govern it. While this rank could be obtained either as a suffect or ordinares, a number of governors were consul ordinares, and also appear in the List of Early Imperial Roman Consuls. Later governors could be of the lower, equestrian rank.
Not all the governors are recorded by Roman historians and many are only loosely known from epigraphic evidence or from sources such as the Vindolanda letters. Beyond the recall of Gnaeus Julius Agricola the dates of service of those who can be named can only be inferred. Others are still entirely anonymous and by the time of the division of Britain into separate provinces, the record is very patchy. Claudian Governors
  • Aulus Plautius 43 - 47
  • Ostorius Scapula 47 - 52
  • Aulus Didius Gallus 52 - 57
  • Quintus Veranius 57 - 57
  • Gaius Suetonius Paulinus 58 - 62
  • Publius Petronius Turpilianus 62 - 63
  • Marcus Trebellius Maximus 63 - 69

Flavian Governors
  • Marcus Vettius Bolanus 69 - 71
  • Quintus Petillius Cerialis 71 - 74
  • Sextus Julius Frontinus 74 - 78 also a military writer
  • Gnaeus Julius Agricola 78 - 84 conqueror of Scotland
  • Sallustius Lucullus (uncertain) 84 - c. 89
  • Unknown c. 89 - c. 96
  • Publius Metilius Nepos (uncertain) c. 96 - c. 97

Trajanic Governors
  • Tiberius Avidius Quietus c. 97 - c. 101
  • Lucius Neratius Marcellus c. 101 - c. 103
  • Unknown c. 103 - 115
  • Marcus Appius Bradua (uncertain) 115 - 118

Hadrianic Governors
  • Quintus Pompeius Falco 118 - 122
  • Aulus Platorius Nepos 122 - c. 125
  • Trebius Germanus (uncertain) c. 127
  • Sextus Julius Severus c. 131 - c. 133
  • Publius Mummius Sisenna (uncertain) c. 133 - c. 135 or later

Antonine Governors
  • Quintus Lollius Urbicus c. 138 - c. 144
  • Gnaeus Papirius Aelianus c. 145 - c. 147
  • Unknown c. 147 - c. 158
  • Gnaeus Julius Verus c. 158
  • Longinus c. 158- 161
  • Marcus Statius Priscus c. 161 - c. 162
  • Sextus Calpurnius Agricola c. 163 - c. 166
  • Unknown c. 166 - 175
  • Quintus Antistius Adventus c. 175 - c. 178
  • Caerellius Priscus (uncertain) c. 178 - c. 181
  • Ulpius Marcellus c. 181 - c. 185
  • Publius Helvius Pertinax c. 185 - c. 187, later Roman Emperor
  • Unknown c. 187 - c. 191
  • Decimus Clodius Albinus c. 191 - c. 197 Imperial usurper

Severan Governors
  • Virius Lupus 197 - c. 201
  • Marcus Antius Crescens Calpurnianus c. 202 (Acting governor)
  • Gaius Valerius Pudens c. 202 - c. 205
  • Lucius Alfenus Senecio c. 205 - c. 207
Some sources list a further governor, a second Ulpius Marcellus. He was interpreted as a son of the first Ulpius Marcellus, serving. c. 211. This is based on a misdated inscription and it is now accepted that it refers to the earlier Ulpius Marcellus only.

The two sons of emperor Septimius Severus, Caracalla and Publius Septimius Geta, administered the province to some degree during and immediately after their father's campaigns there which took place between 208 and 211.


Division into Britannia Superior and Inferior

This list assumes the final division occurred c. 213 or a year or two before.

Britannia Superior
  • Tiberius Julius Pollienus Auspex in period c. 223 - 226
  • Caius Junius Faustinus Postumianus
  • Rufinus
  • Marcus Martiannius Pulcher
  • Titus Desticius Juba in period 253 - 255
Britannia Inferior
  • Gaius Julius Marcus by 213
  • Marcus Antonius Gordianus by 216
  • Modius Julius by 219
  • Tiberius Claudius Paulinus c. 220
  • Marius Valerianus 221 - 222/223
  • Claudius Xenephon 223
  • Maximus by 225
  • Claudius Apellinus in period 222 - 235
  • Calvisius Rufus in period 222 - 235
  • Valerius Crescens Fulvianus in period 222 - 235
  • Tuccianus by 237
  • Maecilius Fuscus in period 238 - 244
  • Egnatius Lucilianus in period 238 - 244
  • Nonius Philippus by 242
  • Octavius Sabinus in period 260 - 269 (under the Gallic Empire)

Diocese of the Britains

Following the reabsorption of Britain into the Roman Empire, the island was further repartitioned by Diocletian, this time into four separate provinces, Maxima Caesariensis in the southeast, with its capital at London, Flavia Caesariensis in the east, with its capital at Lincoln, Britannia Secunda in the north, with its capital at York, and Britannia Prima in the west (including present day Wales), with its capital at Cirencester. A fifth province called Valentia also briefly existed, probably in the far north. Each had a governor of equestrian rank (a praeses) and they were overseen by a vicarius. Later in the fourth century, the governor of Maxima Caesariensis had to be of consular rank. The following names are the few which have survived from this era, covering the almost 100 years until c. 408, when the Roman cilvilian administration was expelled by the native population.

Vicarii
  • Pacatianus c. 319
  • Flavius Martinus c. 353
  • Alypius, soon after Martinus
  • Civilis 368
  • Victorinus probably in period 395 - 406
  • Chrysanthus probably in period 395 - 406
Governors
  • Aurelius Arpagius (possibly Britannia Secunda) in period 296 - 305
  • Flavius Sanctus mid fourth century
  • Lucius Septimus (Britannia Prima) date unknown.

Other rulers in Roman Britain
    Usurpers and British-based rulers of the Western Empire
    • In c. 278 an unknown governor rebelled but was quickly defeated.
    • Carausius, British-based usurper emperor 286 - 293
    • Allectus, Carausius' successor 293 - 296
    • Magnentius rebel emperor of much of Western Europe 350 353
    • Another Carausius, dubbed by historians Carausius II may have attempted usurpation sometime between 354 and 358
    • Magnus Maximus recognised as emperor of the west by Theodosius I 383 388
    • Marcus, proclaimed emperor by the Army of Britain, 406
    • Gratian, British-based emperor, 407
    • Constantine III, a British soldier who became emperor of the West.
    Military leaders
    • Dux Britanniarum
    • Comes Britanniarum
    • Count of the Saxon Shore
    References
    • Frere, S, Britannia, Routledge, London, 1987
    • Salway, P, Roman Britain, OUP, Oxford, 1986

    Contributed by Wikipedia
    1 February 2006

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