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The Education Of The Negro Prior To 1861
Bibliography
by Woodson, Carter Godwin


There is no helpful bibliography on the early education of the American Negro. A few books treating the recent problems of education in this country give facts about the enlightenment of the colored people before their general emancipation, but the investigator has to depend on promiscuous sources for adequate information of this kind. With the exception of a survey of the "Legal Status of the Colored Population in Respect to Schools and Education in the Different States", published in the Report of the United States Commissioner of Education in 1871, there has been no attempt at a general treatment of this phase of our history. This treatise, however, is too brief to inculcate an appreciation of the extensive efforts to enlighten the ante-bellum Negro.

Considered as a local problem this question has received more attention. A few writers have undertaken to sketch the movement to educate the colored people of certain communities before the Civil War. Their objective point, however, has been rather to treat of later periods. The books mentioned below give some information with respect to the period treated in this monograph.

BOOKS ON EDUCATION

Andrews, C.C. "The history of the New York African Free Schools from their Establishment in 1787 to the Present Time". (New York, 1830.) Embraces a period of more than forty years, also a brief account of the successful labors of the New York Manumission Society, with an appendix containing specimens of original composition, both in prose and verse, by several of the pupils; pieces spoken at public examinations; an interesting dialogue between Doctor Samuel L. Mitchell, of New York, and a little boy of ten years old, and lines illustrative of the Lancastrian system of instruction. Andrews was a white man who was for a long time the head of this colored school system.

Boese, Thomas. "Public Education in the City of New York, Its History, Condition, and Statistics, an Official Report of the Board of Education". (New York, 1869.) While serving as clerk of the Board of Education Boese had an opportunity to learn much about the New York African Free Schools.

Boone, R.G. "A History of Education in Indiana." (New York, 1892.) Contains a brief account of the work of the Abolitionists in behalf of the education of the Negroes of that commonwealth.

BUTLER, N.M. "Education in the United States". A series of monographs. (New York, 1910.)

FOOTE, J.P. "The Schools of Cincinnati and Its Vicinity". (Cincinnati, 1855.) A few pages of this book are devoted to the establishment and the development of colored schools in that city.

GOODWIN, M.B. "History of Schools for the Colored Population in the District of Columbia." (Published in the Report of the United States Commissioner of Education in 1871.) This is the most thorough research hitherto made in this field. The same system has been briefly treated by W.S. Montgomery in his "Historical Sketch of Education for the Colored Race in the District of Columbia", 1807-1907. (Washington, D.C., 1907.) A less detailed account of the same is found in James Storum's ""The Colored Public Schools of Washington,--Their Origin, Growth, and Present Condition." (A.M.E. Church Review", vol. v., p. 279.)

JONES, C.C. "The Religious Instruction of the Negroes in the United States". (Savannah, 1842.) In trying to depict the spiritual condition of the colored people the writer tells also what he thought about their intellectual status.

MERIWETHER, C. "History of Higher Education in South Carolina, with a Sketch of the Free School System". (Washington, 1889.) The author accounts for the early education of the colored people in that commonwealth but gives no details.

MILLER, KELLY. ""The Education of the Negro"." Constitutes Chapter XVI. of the Report of the United States Commissioner of Education for the year 1901. Contains a brief sketch of the early education of the Negro race in this country.

ORR, GUSTAVUS. "The Need of Education in the South". (Atlanta, 1880.) An address delivered before the Department of Superintendence of the National Educational Association in 1879. Mr. Orr referred to the first efforts to educate the Negroes of the South.

PLUMER, W.S. "Thoughts on the Religious Instruction of Negroes". Reference is made here to the early work of the Moravians among the colored people.

RANDALL, SAMUEL SIDWELL. "The Common School System of the State of New York". (New York, 1851.) Comprises the several laws relating to common schools, together with full expositions, instructions, and forms, to which is prefixed an historical sketch of the system. Prepared in pursuance of an act of the legislature, under the direction of the Honorable Christopher Morgan, Superintendent of Common Schools.

STOCKWELL, THOMAS B. "A History of Public Education in Rhode Island from 1636 to 1876". (Providence, 1876.) Compiled by authority of the Board of Education of Providence. Takes into account the various measures enacted to educate the Negroes of that commonwealth.

WICKERSHAM, J.P. "A History of Education in Pennsylvania, Private and Public, Elementary and Higher, from the Time the Swedes Settled on the Delaware to the Present Day". (Lancaster, Pa., 1886.) Considerable space is given to the education of the Negroes.

WRIGHT, R.R., SR. "A Brief Historical Sketch of Negro Education in Georgia". (Savannah, 1894.) The movement during the early period in that State is here disposed of in a few pages.

"A Brief Sketch of the Schools for the Black People and their Descendants, Established by the Society of Friends", etc. (Philadelphia, 1824.)

BOOKS OF TRAVEL BY FOREIGNERS

ABDY, E.S. "Journal of a Residence and Tour in the United States from April, 1833, to October, 1834". Three volumes. (London, 1835.) Abdy was a fellow of Jesus College, Cambridge.

ALLIOT, PAUL. "Réflexions historiques et politigues sur la Louisiane". (Cleveland, 1911.) Good for economic conditions. Valuable for information concerning New Orleans about the beginning of the nineteenth century.

ARFWEDSON, C.D. "The United States and Canada in 1833 and 1834". Two volumes. (London, 1834.) Somewhat helpful.

BREMER, FREDERIKA. "The Homes of the New World; Impressions of America". Translated by M. Howitt. Two volumes. (London, 1853.) The teaching of Negroes in the South is mentioned in several places.

BRISSOT DE WARVILLE, J.P. "New Travels in the United States of America: including the Commerce of America with Europe, particularly with Great Britain and France". Two volumes. (London, 1794.) Gives general impressions, few details.

BUCKINGHAM, J.S. "America, Historical, Statistical, and Descriptive". Two volumes. (New York, 1841.)

---- "Eastern and Western States of America". Three volumes. (London and Paris, 1842.) Contains useful information.

BULLOCK, W. "Sketch of a Journey through the Western States of North America from New Orleans by the Mississippi, Ohio, City of Cincinnati, and Falls of Niagara to New York". (London, 1827.) The author makes mention of the condition of the Negroes.

COKE, THOMAS. "Extracts from the Journals of the Rev. Dr. Coke's Three Visits to America". (London, 1790.) Contains general information.

---- "A Journal of the Reverend Doctor Coke's Fourth Tour on the Continent of America". (London, 1792.) Brings out the interest of this churchman in the elevation of the Negroes.

CUMING, F. "Sketches of a Tour to the Western Country through the States of Kentucky and Ohio; a Voyage down the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers and a Trip through the Mississippi Territory and Part of West Florida, Commenced at Philadelphia in the Winter of 1807 and Concluded in 1809". (Pittsburg, 1810.) Gives a few facts.

FAUX, W. "Venerable Days in America". (London, 1823.) A "journal of a tour in the United States principally undertaken to ascertain by positive evidence, the condition and probable prospects of British emigrants, including accounts of Mr. Kirkbeck's settlement in Illinois and intended to show men and things as they are in America." The Negroes are casually mentioned.

HUMBOLDT, FRIEDRICH HEINRICH ALEXANDER, FREIHERR VON. "The Travels and Researches of Friedrich Heinrich Alexander von Humboldt." (London, 1833.) The author gives a "condensed narrative of his journeys in the equinoctial regions in America and in Asiatic Russia." The work contains also analyses of his important investigations. He throws a little light on the condition of the mixed breeds of the Western Hemisphere.

KEMBLE, FRANCES ANNE. "Journal of a Residence on a Plantation in 1838-1839." (New York, 1863.) This diary is quoted extensively as one of the best sources for Southern conditions before the Civil War.

LAMBERT, JOHN. "Travels through Canada and the United States, in the Years 1806, 1807, and 1808." Two volumes. (London, 1813.) To this journal are added notices and anecdotes of some of the leading characters in the United States. This traveler saw the Negroes.

PONS, FRANÇOIS RAYMOND DE. "Travels in Parts of South America, during the Years 1801, 1802, 1803, and 1804." (London, 1806.) Contains a description of Caracas; an account of the laws, commerce, and natural productions of that country; and a view of the customs and manners of the Spaniards and native Indians. Negroes are mentioned.

PRIEST, WILLIAM. "Travels in the United States Commencing in the Year 1793 and ending in the Year 1797." (London, 1802.) Priest made two voyages across the Atlantic to appear at the theaters of Baltimore, Boston, and Philadelphia. He had something to say about the condition of the Negroes.

ROCHEFOUCAULD-LIANCOURT, DUC DE. "Travels through the United States of America, the Country of the Iroquois, and Upper Canada in the Years 1795, 1796, and 1797." (London, 1799.) The author discusses the attitude of the people toward the uplift of the Negroes.

SCHOEPF, JOHANN DAVID. "Reise durch der Mittlern und Sudlichen Vereinigten Nordamerikanischen Staaten nach Ost-Florida und den Bahama Inseln unternommen in den Jahren 1783 und 1784." (Cincinnati, 1812.) A translation of this work was published by Alfred J. Morrison at Philadelphia in 1911. Gives general impressions.

SMYTH, J.F.D. "A Tour in the United States". (London, 1848.) This writer incidentally mentions the people of color.

SUTCLIFF, ROBERT. "Travels in Some Parts of North America in the Years 1804, 1805, and 1806". (Philadelphia, 1812.) While traveling in slave territory Sutcliff studied the mental condition of the colored people.

BOOKS OF TRAVEL BY AMERICANS

BROWN, DAVID. "The Planter, or Thirteen Years in the South". (Philadelphia, 1853.) Here we get a Northern white man's view of the heathenism of the Negroes.

BURKE, EMILY. "Reminiscences of Georgia". (Oberlin, Ohio, 1850.) Presents the views of a woman who was interested in the uplift of the Negro race.

EVANS, ESTWICK. "A Pedestrious Tour of Four Thousand Miles through the Western States and Territories during the Winter and Spring of 1818". (Concord, N.H., 1819.) Among the many topics treated is the author's contention that the Negro is capable of the highest mental development.

OLMSTED, FREDERICK LAW. "A Journey in the Seaboard Slave States, with Remarks on their Economy". (New York, 1859.)

---- "A Journey in the Back Country". (London, i860.)

---- "Journeys and Explorations in the Cotton Kingdom". (London, 1861.) Olmsted was a New York farmer. He recorded a few important facts about the education of the Negroes immediately before the Civil War.

PARSONS, E.G. "Inside View of Slavery, or a Tour among the Planters". (Boston, 1855.) The introduction was written by Harriet Beecher Stowe. It was published to aid the antislavery cause, but in describing the condition of Negroes the author gave some educational statistics.

REDPATH, JAMES. "The Roving Editor, or Talks with Slaves in Southern States". (New York 1859.) The slaves are here said to be telling their own story.

SMEDES, MRS. SUSAN (DABNEY). "Memorials of a Southern Planter". (Baltimore, 1887.) The benevolence of those masters who had their slaves taught in spite of public opinion and the law, is well brought out in this volume.

TOWER, REVEREND PHILO. "Slavery Unmasked". (Rochester, 1856.) Valuable chiefly for the author's arraignment of the so-called religious instruction of the Negroes after the reactionary period.

WOOLMAN, JOHN. "Journal of John Woolman, with an Introduction by John G. Whittier". (Boston, 1873.) Woolman traveled so extensively in the colonies that he probably knew more about the mental state of the Negroes than any other Quaker of his time.

LETTERS

JEFFERSON, THOMAS. Letters of Thomas Jefferson to Abbé Grégoire, M.A. Julien, and Benjamin Banneker. In "Jefferson's Works", Memorial Edition, xii. and xv. He comments on Negroes' talents.

MADISON, JAMES. Letter to Prances Wright. "In Madison's Works", vol. iii., p. 396. The training of Negroes is discussed.

MAY, SAMUEL JOSEPH. "The Right of the Colored People to Education". (Brooklyn, 1883.) A collection of public letters addressed to Andrew T. Judson, remonstrating on the unjust procedure relative to Miss Prudence Crandall.

MCDONOGH, JOHN. "A Letter of John McDonogh on African Colonization addressed to the Editor of "The New Orleans Commercial Bulletin"," McDonogh was interested in the betterment of the colored people and did much to promote their mental development.

SHARPE, H. ED. "The Abolition of Negro Apprenticeship". A letter to Lord Brougham. (London, 1838.)

"A Southern Spy, or Curiosities of Negro Slavery in the South. Letters from a Southern to a Northern Gentleman". The comment of a passer-by.

"A Letter to an American Planter from his Friend in London in 1781". The writer discussed the instruction of Negroes.

BIOGRAPHIES

BIRNEY, CATHERINE H. "The Grimké Sisters; Sara and Angelina Grimké, the First American Women Advocates of Abolition and Woman's Rights". (Boston, 1885.) Mentions the part these workers played in the secret education of Negroes in the South.

BIRNEY, WILLIAM. "James G. Birney and His Times". (New York, 1890.) A sketch of an advocate of Negro education.

BOWEN, CLARENCE W. "Arthur and Lewis Tappan". A paper read at the fiftieth anniversary of the New York Anti-Slavery Society, at the Broadway Tabernacle, New York City, October 2, 1883. An honorable mention of two promoters of the colored manual labor schools.

CHILD, LYDIA MARIA. "Isaac T. Hopper: A True Life". (Boston and Cleveland, 1853.)

CONWAY, MONCURE DANIEL. "Benjamin Banneker, the Negro Astronomer". (London, 1864.)

(COOPER, JAMES F.) "Notions of the Americans Picked up by a Traveling Bachelor". (Philadelphia, 1828.) General.

DREW, BENJAMIN. "A North-side View of Slavery. The Refugee: or the Narratives of Fugitive Slaves in Canada". Related by themselves, with an Account of the History and Condition of the Colored Population of Upper Canada. (New York and Boston, 1856.)

GARRISON, FRANCIS AND WENDELL P. "William Lloyd Garrison, 1805-1879. The Story of his Life told by his Children". Four volumes. (Boston and New York, 1894.) Includes a brief account of what he did for the education of the colored people.

HALLOWELL, A.D. "James and Lucretia Mott; Life and Letters". (Boston, 1884.) These were ardent abolitionists who advocated the education of the colored people.

JOHNSON, OLIVER. "William Lloyd Garrison and his Times". (Boston, 1880. New edition, revised and enlarged, Boston, 1881.)

LOSSING, BENSON J. "Life of George Washington, a Biography, Military and Political". Three volumes. (New York, 1860.) Gives the will of George Washington, who provided that at the stipulated time his slaves should be freed and that their children should be taught to read.

MATHER, COTTON. "The Life and Death of the Reverend John Elliot who was the First Preacher of the Gospel to the Indians in America". The third edition carefully corrected. (London, 1694.) Sets forth the attitude of John Elliot toward the teaching of slaves.

MOTT, A. "Biographical Sketches and Interesting Anecdotes of Persons of Color; with a Selection of Pieces of Poetry". (New York, 1826.) Some of these sketches show how ambitious Negroes learned to read and write in spite of opposition.

SIMMONS, W.J. "Men of Mark: Eminent, Progressive, and Rising, with an Introductory Sketch of the Author by Reverend Henry M. Turner". (Cleveland, Ohio, 1891.) Accounts for the adverse circumstances under which many ante-bellum Negroes acquired knowledge.

SNOWDEN, T.B. "The Autobiography of John B. Snowden". (Huntington, W. Va., 1900.)

WIGHTMAN, WILLIAM MAY. "Life of William Capers, one of the Bishops of the Methodist Episcopal Church South; including an Autobiography". (Nashville, Tenn., 1858.) Shows what Capers did for the religious instruction of the colored people.

AUTOBIOGRAPHIES

ASBURY, BISHOP FRANCIS. "The Journal of the Reverend Francis Asbury, Bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church, from August 7, 1781, to December 7, 1815". Three volumes. (New York, 1821.)

COFFIN, LEVI. "Reminiscences of Levi Coffin, reputed President of the Under Ground Railroad". (Second edition, Cincinnati, 1880.) Mentions the teaching of slaves.

DOUGLASS, FREDERICK. "Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, as an American Slave". Written by himself. (Boston, 1845.) Gives several cases of secret Negro schools.

---- "The Life and Times of Frederick Douglass from 1817 to 1882". Written by himself. Illustrated. With an Introduction by the Right Honorable John Bright, M.P. Edited by John Loeb, F.R.G.S., of the "Christian Age", Editor of "Uncle Tom's Story of his Life". (London, 1882.) Contains Douglass's appeal in behalf of vocational training.

FLINT, TIMOTHY. "Recollections of the last Ten Years". A series of letters to the Reverend James Flint of Salem, Massachusetts, by T. Flint, Principal of the Seminary of Rapide, Louisiana. (Boston, 1826.) Mentions the teaching of Negroes.

GENERAL HISTORIES

BANCROFT, GEORGE. "History of the United States". Ten volumes. (Boston, 1857-1864.)

HART, A.B., Editor. "American History told by Contemporaries". Four volumes. (New York, 1898.)

---- "The American Nation; A history, etc". Twenty-seven volumes. (New York, 1904-1908.) The volumes which have a bearing on the subject treated in this monograph are Bourne's "Spain in America", Edward Channing's "Jeffersonian System", F.J. Turner's "Rise of the New West", and Hart's "Slavery and Abolition".

HERRERA Y TORDESILLAS, ANTONIO DE. "Historia General de los hechos de los Castellanos en las islas i tierra firme del mar oceano. Escrito por Antonio herrera coronista mayor de Sr. M. de las Indias y si coronista de Castilla. En Quatro decadas desde el año de 1492 hasta el de 1554. Decada primera del rey Nuro Señor". (En Madrid en la Imprenta real de Nicolas Rodriguez Franco, año 1726-1727.)

MCMASTER, JOHN B. "History of the United States". Six volumes. (New York, 1900.)

RHODES, J.F. "History of the United States from the Compromise of 1850 to the Final Restoration of Home Rule in the South". (New York and London, Macmillan & Company, 1892-1906.)

VON HOLST, HERMAN. "The Constitutional and Political History of the United States of America". (Seven volumes. Chicago, 1877.)

STATE HISTORIES

ASHE, S.A. "History of North Carolina". (Greensboro, 1908.)

BANCROFT, HUBERT HOWE. "History of Arizona and New Mexico, 1530-1888". (San Francisco, 1890.)

BEARSE, AUSTIN. "Reminiscences of Fugitive Slave Days in Boston". (Boston, 1880.)

BETTLE, EDWARD. "Notices of Negro Slavery as Connected with Pennsylvania." Read before the Historical Society of

Pennsylvania, 8th Mo., 7th, 1826. "Memoirs of Historical Society of Pennsylvania".

BRACKETT, JEFFREY R. "The Negro in Maryland". Johns Hopkins University Studies. (Baltimore, 1889.)

COLLINS, LEWIS. "Historical Sketches of Kentucky". (Maysville, Ky., and Cincinnati, Ohio, 1847.)

JONES, CHARLES COLCOCK, JR. "History of Georgia". (Boston, 1883.)

MCCRADY, EDWARD. "The History of South Carolina under the Royal Government, 1719-1776", by Edward McCrady, a Member of the Bar of South Carolina and President of the Historical Society of South Carolina, Author of "A History of South Carolina under the Proprietary Government". (New York and London, 1899.)

STEINER, B.C. "History of Slavery in Connecticut". (Johns Hopkins University Studies, 1893.)

STUVÉ, BERNARD, and Alexander Davidson. "A Complete History of Illinois from 1673 to 1783". (Springfield, 1874.)

TREMAIN, MARY M.A. "Slavery in the District of Columbia". (University of Nebraska Seminary Papers, April, 1892.)

"History of Brown County, Ohio". (Chicago, 1883.)

""Slavery in Illinois, 1818-1824." (Massachusetts Historical Society Collections", volume x.)

CHURCH HISTORIES

BANGS, NATHAN. "A History of the Methodist Episcopal Church". Four volumes. (New York, 1845.)

BENEDICT, DAVID. "A General History of the Baptist Denomination in America and in Other Parts of the World". (Boston, 1813.)

---- "Fifty Years among the Baptists". (New York, 1860.)

DALCHO, FREDERICK. "An Historical Account of the Protestant Episcopal Church in South Carolina, from the First Settlement of the Province to the War of the Revolution"; with notices of the present State of the Church in each Parish: and some Accounts of the early Civil History of Carolina never before published. To which are added: the Laws relating to Religious Worship, the Journal and Rules of the Convention of South Carolina; the Constitution and Canons of the Protestant Episcopal Church and the Course of Ecclesiastical Studies. (Charleston, 1820.)

DAVIDSON, REV. ROBERT. "History of the Presbyterian Church in the State of Kentucky; with a Preliminary Sketch of the Churches in the Valley of Virginia." (New York, Pittsburgh, and Lexington, Kentucky, 1847.)

HAMILTON, JOHN T. "A History of the Church Known as the Moravian Church, or the Unitas Fratrum, or the Unity of Brethren during the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries." (Bethlehem, Pa., 1900.)

HAWKS, FRANCIS L. "Ecclesiastical History of the United States." (New York, 1836.)

JAMES, CHARLES P. "Documentary History of the Struggle for Religious Liberty in Virginia." (Lynchburg, Va., 1900.)

MATLACK, LUCIUS. "The History of American Slavery and Methodism from 1780 to 1849: and History of the Wesleyan Methodist Connection of America. In Two Parts with an Appendix." (New York, 1849.)

MCTYEIRE, HOLLAND N. "A History of Methodism; comprising a View of the Rise of the Revival of Spiritual Religion in the First Half of the Eighteenth Century, and the Principal Agents by whom it was promoted in Europe and America, with some Account of the Doctrine and Polity of Episcopal Methodism in the United States and the Means and Manner of its Extension down to 1884." (Nashville, Tenn., 1884.) McTyeire was one of the bishops of the Methodist Episcopal Church South.

REICHEL, L.T. "The Early History of the Church of the United Brethren (Unitas Fratrum) commonly Called Moravians in North America, from 1734 to 1748." (Nazareth, Pa., 1888.)

RUSH, CHRISTOPHER. "A Short Account of the African Methodist Episcopal Church in America." Written by the aid of George Collins. Also a view of the Church Order or Government from Scripture and from some of the best Authors relative to Episcopacy. (New York, 1843.)

SEMPLE, R.B. "History of the Rise and Progress of the Baptists in Virginia." (Richmond, 1810.)

SERMONS, ORATIONS, ADDRESSES

BACON, THOMAS. "Sermons Addressed to Masters and Servants." Published in 1743. Republished with other tracts by Rev. William Meade. (Winchester, Va., 1805.)

BOUCHER, JONATHAN. "American Education." This address is found in the author's volume entitled "A View of the Causes and Consequences of the American Revolution"; in thirteen discourses, preached in North America between the years 1763 and 1775: with an historical preface. (London, 1797.)

BUCHANAN, GEORGE. "An Oration upon the Moral and Political Evil of Slavery". Delivered at a Public Meeting of the Maryland Society for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery, and Relief of Free Negroes and others unlawfully held in Bondage. Baltimore, July 4, 1791. (Baltimore, 1793.)

CATTO, WILLIAM T. "A Semicentenary Discourse Delivered in the First African Presbyterian Church, Philadelphia, on the 4th Sabbath of May, 1857": with a History of the Church from its first organization; including a brief Notice of Reverend John Gloucester, its First Pastor. Also an appendix containing sketches of all the Colored Churches in Philadelphia. (Philadelphia, 1857.) The author was then pastor of this church.

DANA, JAMES. "The African Slave Trade". A Discourse delivered in the City of New Haven, September 9, 1790, before the Connecticut Society for the Promotion of Freedom. (New Haven, 1790.) Dr. Dana was at that time the pastor of the First Congregational Church of New Haven.

FAWCETT, BENJAMIN. "A Compassionate Address to the Christian Negroes in Virginia, and other British Colonies in North America". With an appendix containing some account of the rise and progress of Christianity among that poor people. (The second edition, Salop, printed by F. Edwards and F. Cotton.)

GARRISON, WILLIAM LLOYD. "An Address Delivered before the Free People of Color in Philadelphia, New York, and other Cities during the Month of June, 1831". (Boston, 1831.)

GRIFFIN, EDWARD DORR. "A Plea for Africa". A Sermon preached October 26, 1817, in the First Presbyterian Church in the City of New York before the Synod of New York and New Jersey at the Request of the Board of Directors of the African School established by the Synod. (New York, 1817.) The aim was to arouse interest in this school.

JONES, CHARLES COLCOCK. "The Religious Instruction of Negroes". A Sermon delivered before the Association of the Planters in Liberty and McIntosh Counties, Georgia. (Princeton, N.J., 1832.) Jones was then engaged in the work which he was discussing.

MAYO, A.D. "Address on Negro Education." ("Springfield Republican", July 9, 1897; and the "New England Magazine", October, 1898.)

RUSH, BENJAMIN. "An Address to the Inhabitants of the British Settlements in America upon Slave Keeping". The second edition with observations on a pamphlet entitled "Slavery not Forbidden by the Scripture or a Defense of the West Indian Planters by a Pennsylvanian". (Philadelphia, 1773.) The Negroes' need of education is pointed out.

SECKER, THOMAS, Archbishop of Canterbury. "A Sermon Preached before the Incorporated Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts"; at their Anniversary Meeting in the Parish Church of St. Mary-le-Bow, on Friday, February 20, 1741. (London 1741.) In this discourse Secker set forth his plan of teaching the Negroes to elevate themselves.

SIDNEY, JOSEPH. "An Oration Commemorative of the Abolition of the Slave Trade in the United States Delivered before the Wilberforce Philanthropic Association in the City of New York on January 2, 1809". (New York, 1809.) The speaker did not forget the duty of all men to uplift those unfortunates who had already been degraded.

SMITH, THOMAS P. "An Address before the Colored Citizens of Boston in Opposition to the Abolition of Colored Schools, 1849". (Boston, 1850.)

WARBURTON, WILLIAM, Bishop of Gloucester. "A Sermon Preached before the Incorporated Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts"; at their Anniversary Meeting in the Parish Church of St. Mary-le-Bow on Friday, February 21, 1766. (London, 1766.) The speaker urged his hearers to enlighten the Indians and Negroes.

REPORTS ON THE EDUCATION OF THE COLORED PEOPLE

"Report of the Proceedings at the Formation of the African Education Society"; instituted at Washington, December 28, 1829. With an Address to the Public by the Board of Managers. (Washington, 1830.)

"Report of the Minority of the Committee of the Primary School Board on the Caste Schools of the City of Boston." With some remarks on the City Solicitor's Opinion, by Wendell Phillips. (Boston, 1846.)

"Report of a Special Committee of the Grammar School Board of Boston, Massachusetts." Abolition of the Smith Colored School. (Boston, 1849.)

"Report of the Primary School Committee, Boston, Massachusetts." Abolition of the Colored Schools. (Boston, 1846.)

"Report of the Minority of the Committee upon the Petition of J.T. Hilton and other Colored Citizens of Boston, Praying for the Abolition of the Smith Colored School." (Boston, 1849.)

"Opinion of Honorable Richard Fletcher as to whether Colored Children can be Lawfully Excluded from Free Public Schools." (Boston, 1846.)

"Special Report of the Commissioner of Education on the Improvement of the Public Schools in the District of Columbia", containing M.B. Goodwin's "History of Schools for the Colored Population in the District of Columbia." (Washington, 1871.)

"Thirty-Seventh Annual Report of the New York Public School Society, 1842." (New York, 1842.)

STATISTICS

CLARKE, J.F. "Present Condition of the Free Colored People of the United States." (New York and Boston, the American Antislavery Society, 1859.) Published also in the March number of the "Christian Examiner".

"Condition of the Free People of Color in Ohio." With interesting anecdotes. (Boston, 1839.)

"Institute for Colored Youth." (Philadelphia, 1860-1865.) Contains a list of the officers and students.

"Report of the Condition of the Colored People of Cincinnati, 1835." (Cincinnati, 1835.)

"Report of a Committee of the Pennsylvania Society of Abolition on Present Condition of the Colored People, etc.", 1838. (Philadelphia, 1838.)

"Statistical Inquiry into the Condition of the People of Color of the City and Districts of Philadelphia." (Philadelphia, 1849.) "Statistics of the Colored People of Philadelphia in 1859", compiled by Benj. C. Bacon. (Philadelphia, 1859.)

"Statistical Abstract of the United States, 1898." Prepared by the Bureau of Statistics. (Washington, D.C., 1899.)

"Statistical View of the Population of the United States, A", 1790-1830. (Published by the Department of State in 1835.)

"The Present State and Condition of the Free People of Color of the city of Philadelphia and adjoining districts as exhibited by the Report of a Committee of the Pennsylvania Society for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery." Read First Month (January), 5th, 1838. (Philadelphia, 1838.)

"Trades of the Colored People." (Philadelphia, 1838.)

United States Censuses of 1790, 1800, 1810, 1820, 1830, 1840, 1850, and 1860.

VARLE, CHARLES. "A Complete View of Baltimore"; with a Statistical Sketch of all the Commercial, Mercantile, Manufacturing, Literary, Scientific Institutions and Establishments in the same Vicinity ... derived from personal Observation and Research. (Baltimore, 1833.)

CHURCH REPORTS

"A Brief Statement of the Rise and Progress of the Testimony of Friends against Slavery and the Slave Trade." Published by direction of the Yearly Meeting held in Philadelphia in the Fourth Month, 1843. Shows the action taken by various Friends to educate the Negroes.

"A Collection of the Acts, Deliverances, and Testimonies of the Supreme Judicatory of the Presbyterian Church, from its Origin in America to the Present Time." By Samuel J. Baird. (Philadelphia, 1856.)

"Acts and Proceedings of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America in the Year 1800." (Philadelphia, 1800.) The question of instructing the Negroes came up in this meeting.

PASCOE, C.F. "Classified Digest of the Records of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, 1701-1892, with much Supplementary Information." (London, 1893.) A good source for the accounts of the efforts of this organization among Negroes.

"Minutes of the Methodist Conference, 1785." Found in Rev. Charles Elliott's "History of the Great Secession from the Methodist Episcopal Church", etc. This conference discussed the education of the colored people.

REPORTS OF THE AMERICAN CONVENTION, 1794-1831

American Convention of Abolition Societies. "Minutes of the Proceedings of a Convention of Delegates from the Abolition Societies established in different Parts of the United States, assembled at Philadelphia on the first Day of January, one thousand seven hundred and ninety-four, and continued by Adjournments, until the seventh Day of the same Month, inclusive." (Philadelphia, 1794.)

--"Minutes of the Proceedings of the Second Convention of Delegates from the Abolition Societies established in different Parts of the United States, assembled at Philadelphia on the seventh Day of January, one thousand seven hundred and ninety-five, and continued by Adjournments until the fourteenth Day of the same Month, inclusive." (Philadelphia, 1795.)

--"Minutes of the Proceedings of the Third Convention of Delegates from the Abolition Societies established in different Parts of the United States, assembled at Philadelphia on the first Day of January, one thousand seven hundred and ninety-six, and continued, by Adjournments, until the seventh Day of the same Month, inclusive." (Philadelphia, 1796.)

--"Address to Free Africans and other Free People of Colour in the United States." (1796.)

--"Minutes of the Proceedings of the Fourth Convention of Delegates from the Abolition Societies established in different Parts of the United States, assembled at Philadelphia on the third Day of May, one thousand seven hundred and ninety-seven, and continued by Adjournments, until the ninth Day of the same Month, inclusive." (Philadelphia, 1797.)

--"Minutes of the Proceedings of the Fifth Convention of Delegates from the Abolition Societies established in different Parts of the United States, assembled at Philadelphia on the first Day of June, one thousand seven hundred and ninety-eight, and continued, by Adjournments, until the sixth Day of the same Month, inclusive." (Philadelphia, 1798.)

American Convention of Abolition Societies. "Minutes of the Proceedings of the Sixth Convention of Delegates from the Abolition Societies established in different parts of the United States, assembled at Philadelphia, on the fourth Day of June, one thousand eight hundred, and continued by Adjournments, until the sixth Day of the same Month, inclusive." (Philadelphia, 1800.)

--"Minutes of the Proceedings of the Seventh Convention of Delegates from the Abolition Societies established in different parts of the United States, assembled at Philadelphia on the third Day of June, one thousand eight hundred and one, and continued by Adjournments until the sixth Day of the same Month, inclusive." (Philadelphia, 1801.)

--"Minutes of the Proceedings of the Eighth Convention of Delegates from the Abolition Societies established in different parts of the United States, assembled at Philadelphia, on the tenth Day of January, one thousand eight hundred and three, and continued by Adjournments until the fourteenth Day of the same Month, inclusive." (Philadelphia, 1803.)

--"Minutes of the Proceedings of the Ninth American Convention for promoting the Abolition of Slavery and improving the Condition of the African Race; assembled at Philadelphia on the ninth Day of January, one thousand eight hundred and four, and continued by Adjournments until the thirteenth Day of the same Month, inclusive." (Philadelphia, 1804.)

--"Address of the American Convention for promoting the Abolition of Slavery and improving the Condition of the African Race, assembled at Philadelphia, in January, 1804, to the People of the United States." (Philadelphia, 1804.)

--"Minutes of the Proceedings of the Tenth American Convention for promoting the Abolition of Slavery and improving the Condition of the African Race; assembled at Philadelphia on the fourteenth Day of January, one thousand eight hundred and five, and continued by Adjournments until the seventeenth Day of the same Month, inclusive." (Philadelphia, 1805.)

--"Minutes of the Proceedings of the Eleventh American Convention for promoting the Abolition of Slavery and improving the Condition of the African Race; assembled at Philadelphia, on the thirteenth Day of January, one thousand eight hundred and six, and continued by Adjournments until the fifteenth Day of the same Month, inclusive." (Philadelphia, 1806.)

--"Minutes of the Proceedings of a Special Meeting of the Fifteenth American Convention for promoting the Abolition of Slavery and improving the Condition of the African Race; assembled at Philadelphia on the tenth Day of December, 1818, and continued by Adjournments until the fifteenth Day of the same Month, inclusive." (Philadelphia, 1818.)

--"Constitution of the American Convention for promoting the Abolition of Slavery, and improving the Condition of the African Race. Adopted on the eleventh Day of December, 1818, to take effect on the fifth Day of October, 1819." (Philadelphia, 1819.)

--"Minutes of the Eighteenth Session of the American Convention for promoting the Abolition of Slavery, and improving the Condition of the African Race. Convened at Philadelphia, on the seventh Day of October, 1823." (Philadelphia, 1823.)

--"To the Clergy and Pastors throughout the United States." (Dated Philadelphia, September 18, 1826.)

--"Minutes of the Adjourned Session of the Twentieth Biennial American Convention for promoting the Abolition of Slavery. Held at Baltimore, November 28." (Philadelphia, 1828.)

REPORTS OF ANTI-SLAVERY SOCIETIES

"The Annual Report of the American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Societies, presented at New York, May 6, 1847, with the Addresses and Resolutions." (New York, 1847.)

"The Annual Report of the American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Societies, with the Addresses and Resolutions." (New York, 1851.)

"The First Annual Report of the American Anti-Slavery Society, with the Speeches Delivered at the Anniversary Meeting held in Chatham Street Chapel in the City of New York, on the sixth Day of May by Adjournment on the eighth, in the Rev. Dr. Lansing's Church, and the Minutes of the Society for Business." (New York, 1834.)

"The Second Annual Report of the American Anti-Slavery Society, held in the City of New York, on the twelfth of May, 1835, and the Minutes and Proceedings of the Society for Business." (New York, 1835.)

"The Third Annual Report of the American Anti-Slavery Society, with the Speeches delivered at the Anniversary Meeting held in the City of New York on May the tenth, 1836, and Minutes of the Meetings of the Society for Business." (New York, 1836.)

"The Fourth Annual Report of the American Anti-Slavery Society, with the Speeches delivered at the Anniversary Meeting held in the City of New York on the ninth of May, 1837." (New York, 1837.)

"The Fifth Annual Report of the American Anti-Slavery Society, with the Speeches delivered at the Anniversary Meeting and the Minutes and Proceedings of the Society for Business." (New York, 1838.)

"The Sixth Annual Report of the American Anti-Slavery Society, with the Speeches delivered at the Anniversary Meeting held in the City of New York, on the seventh Day of May, 1839, and the Minutes of the Meetings of the Society for Business, held on the evenings of the three following days." (New York, 1839.)

"The Annual Report of the American Anti-Slavery Society by the Executive Committee for the year ending May 1, 1859." (New York, 1860.)

"The Third Annual Report of the Managers of the New England Anti-Slavery Society presented June 2, 1835". (Boston, 1835.)

"Annual Reports of the Massachusetts (or New England) Anti-Slavery Society, 1831-end".

"Reports of the National Anti-Slavery Convention, 1833-end".

REPORTS OF COLONIZATION SOCIETIES

"Reports of the American Colonization Society, 1818-1832".

"Report of the New York Colonization Society, October 1, 1823". (New York, 1823.)

"The Seventh Annual Report of the Colonization Society of the City of New York". (New York, 1839.)

"Proceedings of the New York State Colonization Society, 1831". (Albany, 1831.)

"The Eighteenth Annual Report of the Colonization Society of the State of New York". (New York, 1850.)

REPORTS OF CONVENTIONS OF FREE NEGROES

"Minutes and Proceedings of the First Annual Convention of the People of Color. Held by Adjournment in the City of Philadelphia, from the sixth to the eleventh of June, inclusive", 1831.

(Philadelphia, 1831.)

"Minutes and Proceedings of the Second Annual Convention for the Improvement of the Free People of Color in these United States. Held by Adjournments in the City of Philadelphia, from the 4th to the 13th of June, inclusive, 1832",(Philadelphia, 1832.)

"Minutes and Proceedings of the Third Annual Convention for the Improvement of the Free People of Color in these United States. Held by Adjournments in the city of Philadelphia, in 1833. (New York, 1833.)" These proceedings were published also in the New York Commercial Advertiser, April 27, 1833.

"Minutes and Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Convention for the Improvement of the Free People of Color in the United States. held by Adjournments in the Asbury Church, New York, from the 2d to the 12th of June, 1834." (New York, 1834.)

"Proceedings of the Convention of the Colored Freedmen of Ohio at Cincinnati, January 14, 1852." (Cincinnati, Ohio, 1852.)

MISCELLANEOUS BOOKS AND PAMPHLETS

ADAMS, ALICE DANA. "The Neglected Period of Anti-Slavery in America." Radcliffe College Monographs No. 14. (Boston and London, 1908.) Contains some valuable facts about the education of the Negroes during the first three decades of the nineteenth century.

ADAMS, JOHN. "The Works of John Adams, Second President of the United States"; with a Life of the Author, Notes, and Illustrations by his Grandson, Charles Francis Adams. Ten volumes. Volume x., shows the attitude of James Otis toward the Negroes.

ADAMS, NEHEMIAH. "A South-Side View of Slavery; or Three Months at the South in 1854." (Boston, 1854.) The position of the South on the education of the colored people is well set forth.

AGRICOLA (pseudonym). "An Impartial View of the Real State of the Black Population in the United States." (Philadelphia, 1824.)

ALBERT, O.V. "The House of Bondage"; or Charlotte Brooks and other Slaves Original and Life-like as they appeared in their Plantation and City Slave Life; together with pen Pictures of the peculiar Institution, with Sights and Insights into their new Relations as Freedmen, Freemen, and Citizens, with an Introduction by Reverend Bishop Willard Mallalieu. (New York and Cincinnati, 1890.)

ALEXANDER, A. "A History of Colonization on the Western Continent of Africa." (Philadelphia, 1846.) Treats of education in "An Account of the Endeavors used by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, to instruct Negroes in the City of New York, together with two of Bishop Gibson's Letters on that subject, being an Extract from Dr. Humphrey's Historical Account of the Incorporated Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts from its Foundation in the Year 1728." (London, 1730.)

"An Address to the People of North Carolina on the Evils of Slavery, by the Friends of Liberty and Equality, 1830." (Greensborough, 1830.)

"An Address to the Presbyterians of Kentucky proposing a Plan for the Instruction and Emancipation of their Slaves by a Committee of the Synod of Kentucky." (Newburyport, 1836.)

ANDERSON, MATTHEW."Presbylerianism--Its Relation to the Negro." (Philadelphia, 1897.)

ANDREWS, E.E. "Slavery and the Domestic Slave Trade in the United States." In a series of letters addressed to the Executive Committee of the American Union for the Relief and Improvement of the Colored Race. (Boston, 1836.)

BALDWIN, EBENEZER. "Observations on the Physical and Moral Qualities of our Colored Population with Remarks on the Subject of Emancipation and Colonization." (New Haven, 1834.)

BASSETT, J.S. "Slavery and Servitude in the Colony of North Carolina." (Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science. Fourteenth Series, iv.-v. Baltimore, 1896.)

---- "Slavery in the State of North Carolina." (Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science. Series XVII., Nos. 7-8. Baltimore, 1899.)

---- "Anti-Slavery Leaders of North Carolina." (Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science. Series XVI., No. 6. Baltimore, 1898.)

BAXTER, RICHARD. "Practical Works." Twenty-three volumes. (London, 1830.)

BENEZET, ANTHONY. "A Caution to Great Britain and Her Colonies in a Short Representation of the calamitous state of the enslaved Negro in the British Dominions." (Philadelphia, 1784.)

---- "The Case of our Fellow-Creatures, the Oppressed Africans, respectfully recommended to the serious Consideration of the Legislature of Great Britain, by the People called Quakers." (London, 1783.)

---- "Observations on the enslaving, importing, and purchasing of Negroes; with some advice thereon, extracted from the Epistle of the Yearly-Meeting of the People called Quakers, held at London in the Year 1748." (Germantown, 1760.)

---- "The Potent Enemies of America laid open: being some Account of the baneful Effects attending the Use of distilled spirituous Liquors, and the Slavery of the Negroes." (Philadelphia.)

---- "A Short Account of that Part of Africa, inhabited by the Negroes. With respect to the Fertility of the Country; the good Disposition of many of the Natives, and the Manner by which the Slave Trade is carried on." (Philadelphia, 1792.)

---- "Short Observations on Slavery, Introductory to Some Extracts from the Writings of the Abbé Raynal, on the Important Subject."

---- "Some Historical Account of Guinea, its Situation, Produce, and the General Disposition of its Inhabitants. With an Inquiry into the Rise and Progress of the Slave Trade, its Nature and Lamentable Effects." (London, 1788.)

BIRNEY, JAMES G. "The American Churches, the Bulwarks of American Slavery, by an American." (Newburyport, 1842.)

BIRNEY, WILLIAM. "James G. Birney and his Times. The Genesis of the Republican Party, with Some Account of the Abolition Movements in the South before 1828." (New York, 1890.)

BOURNE, WILLIAM O. "History of the Public School Society of the City of New York, with Portraits of the Presidents of the Society." (New York, 1870.)

BRACKETT, JEFFERY R."The Negro in Maryland. A Study of the Institution of Slavery." (Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University, 1889).

BRANAGAN, THOMAS. "A Preliminary Essay on the Oppression of the Exiled Sons of Africa, Consisting of Animadversions on the Impolicy and Barbarity of the Deleterious Commerce and Subsequent Slavery of the Human Species". (Philadelphia: Printed for the Author by John W. Scott, 1804.)

BRANAGAN, T. "Serious Remonstrances Addressed to the Citizens of the Northern States and their Representatives, being an Appeal to their Natural Feelings and Common Sense; Consisting of Speculations and Animadversions, on the Recent Revival of the Slave Trade in the American Republic". (Philadelphia, 1805.)

BROWN, W.W. "My Southern Home". (Boston, 1882.)

CHILD, LYDIA MARIA. "An Appeal in Favor of that Class of Americans Called Africans". (Boston: Allen & Ticknor, 1833, and New York: J.S. Taylor, 1836.)

CHANNING, WILLIAM E. "Slavery". (Boston: J. Munroe & Co., 1835.)

---- "Remarks on the Slavery Question". (Boston: J. Munroe & Co., 1839.)

COBB, T.R.R. "An Historical Sketch of Slavery". (Philadelphia: T. & J.W. Johnson, 1858.)

---- "An Inquiry into the Law of Negro Slavery in the United States of America. To which is Prefixed an Historical Sketch of Slavery by Thomas R.R. Cobb of Georgia". (Philadelphia and Savannah, 1858.)

COFFIN, JOSHUA. "An Account of Some of the Principal Slave Insurrections and Others which have Occurred or been attempted in the United States and Elsewhere during the Last Two Centuries. With Various Remarks. Collected from Various Sources". (New York, 1860.)

CONWAY, MONCURE DANIEL. "Testimonies Concerning Slavery". (London: Chapman & Hall, 1865.) The author was a native of Virginia.

CULP, D.W. "Twentieth Century Negro Literature, or a Cyclopedia of Thought, Vital Topics Relating to the American Negro by One Hundred of America's Greatest Negroes". (Toronto, Naperville, Ill., and Atlanta, Ga., 1902.)

DE BOW, J.D.B. "Industrial Resources of the Southern and Western States". (New Orleans, 1852-1853.)

DELANY, M.R. "The Condition of the Colored People in United States". (Boston, 1852.)

DRESSER, AMOS. "The Narrative of Amos Dresser with Stone's Letters from Natchez--an Obituary Notice of the Writer and Two Letters from Tallahassee Relating to the Treatment of Slaves". (New York, 1836.)

DREWERY, WILLIAM SIDNEY. "Slave Insurrections in Virginia, 1830-1865." (Washington, 1900.)

DUBOIS, W.E.B. "The Philadelphia Negro." (Philadelphia, 1896.)

---- "The Suppression of the African Slave Trade to the United States of America, 1638-1870." Harvard Historical Studies, Vol. i. (New York, London, and Bombay, 1896.)

---- Atlanta University Publications, "The Negro Common School." (Atlanta, 1901.)

---- "The College-Bred Negro." (Atlanta, 1900.)

---- "The Negro Church." (Atlanta, 1903.)

---- and Dill, A.G. "The College-Bred Negro American." (Atlanta, 1910.)

---- "The Common School and the Negro American." (Atlanta, 1911.)

---- "The Negro American Artisan." (Atlanta, 1912.)

ELLIOTT, REV. CHARLES. "History of the Great Secession from the Methodist Episcopal Church, etc."

"Exposition of the Object and Plan of the American Union for the Relief and Improvement of the Colored Race." (Boston, 1835.)

FEE, JOHN G. "Anti-Slavery Manual." (Maysville, 1848.)

FISH, C.R. "Guide to the Materials for American History in Roman and Other Italian Archives." (Washington, D.C., Carnegie Institution, 1911.)

FRANKLIN, BENJAMIN. "The Writings of Benjamin Franklin Collected and Edited with a Life and Introduction by Albert Henry Smyth." (New York, 1905-1907.)

FROST, W.G. "Appalachian America." In vol. i. of "The Americana" (New York, 1912.)

GARNETT, H.H. "The Past and Present Condition and the Destiny of the Colored Race." (Troy, 1848.)

GOODLOE, D.R. "The Southern Platform." (Boston, 1858.)

GRÉGOIRE, BISHOP. "De la Littêrature des Nègres." (Paris, 1808.) Translated and published by D.B. Warden at Brooklyn, in 1810.

HARRISON, SAMUEL ALEXANDER. "Wenlock Christison, and the Early Friends in Talbot County, Maryland." A Paper read before the Maryland Historical Society, March 9, 1874. (Baltimore, 1878.)

HENSON, JOSIAH. "The Life of Josiah Henson." (Boston, 1849.)

HICKOK, CHARLES THOMAS. "The Negro in Ohio", 1802-1870. (Cleveland, 1896.)

HODGKIN, THOMAS A. "Inquiry into the Merits of the American Colonization Society and Reply to the Charges Brought against it, with an Account of the British African Colonization Society". (London, 1833.)

HOLLAND, EDWIN C. "Refutation of Calumnies Circulated against the Southern and Western States". (Charleston, 1822.)

HOWE, SAMUEL G. "The Refugees from Slavery in Canada West. Report to the Freedmen's Inquiry Committee". (Boston, 1864.)

INGLE, EDWARD. "The Negro in the District of Columbia". (Johns Hopkins Studies in Historical and Political Sciences, vol. xi., Baltimore, 1893.)

JAY, JOHN. "The Correspondence and Public Papers of John Jay, First Chief Justice of the United States and President of the Continental Congress, Member of the Commission to Negotiate the Treaty of Independence, Envoy to Great Britain, Governor of New York, etc"., 1782-1793. (New York and London, 1891.) Edited by Henry P. Johnson, Professor of History in the College of the City of New York.

JAY, WILLIAM. "An Inquiry into the Character and Tendencies of the American Colonization and American Anti-Slavery Societies". Second edition. (New York, 1835.)

JEFFERSON, THOMAS. The Writings of Thomas Jefferson. Memorial Edition. Autobiography, Notes on Virginia, Parliamentary Manual, Official Papers, Messages and Addresses, and Other Writings Official and Private, etc. (Washington, 1903.)

Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science. H.B. Adams, Editor. (Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Press.)

JONES, C.C. "A Catechism of Scripture, Doctrine, and Practice". (Philadelphia, 1852.)

KIRK, EDWARD E. "Educated Labor, etc". (New York, 1868.)

LANGSTON, JOHN M. "From the Virginia Plantation to the National Capital; or, The First and Only Negro Representative in Congress from the Old Dominion". (Hartford, 1894.)

"L'Esclavage dans les États Confédérés par un missionaire". Deuxième édition. (Paris, 1865.)

LOCKE, M.S. "Anti-Slavery in America, from the Introduction of African Slaves to the Prohibition of the Slave Trade", 1619-1808. Radcliffe College Monographs, No. 11. (Boston, 1901.)

LONG, J.D. "Pictures of Slavery in Church and State, Including Personal Reminiscences, Biographical Sketches, Anecdotes, etc., with Appendix Containing the Views of John Wesley and Richard Watson on Slavery". (Philadelphia, 1857.)

LOWERY, WOODBURY. "The Spanish Settlements within the Present Limits of the United States. Florida", 1562-1574. (New York and London, 1905.)

MADISON, JAMES. "Letters and Other Writings of James Madison Published by Order of Congress". Four volumes. (Philadelphia, 1865.)

MALLARY, R.O. "Maybank: Some Memoirs of a Southern Christian Household; Family Life of C.C. Jones".

MAY, S.J. "Some Recollections of our Anti-Slavery Conflict".

MCLEOD, ALEXANDER. "Negro Slavery Unjustifiable. A Discourse by the Late Alexander McLeod, 1802, with an Appendix". (New York, 1863.)

MEADE, BISHOP WILLIAM. "Old Churches, Ministers, and Families, of Virginia". (Philadelphia, 1897.)

MONROE, JAMES. "The Writings of James Monroe, Including a Collection of his Public and Private Papers and Correspondence now for the First Time Printed, Edited by S.M. Hamilton". (Boston, 1900.)

MOORE, GEORGE H. "Notes on the History of Slavery in Massachusetts by George H. Moore, Librarian of the New York Historical Society and Corresponding Member of the Massachusetts Historical Society". (New York, 1866.)

MORGAN, THOMAS J. "The Negro in America". (Philadelphia, 1898.)

NEEDLES, EDWARD. "Ten Years' Progress, or a Comparison of the State and Condition of the Colored People in the City and County of Philadelphia from 1837 to 1847". (Philadelphia, 1849.)

OTHELLO (PSEUDONYM). "Essays on Negro Slavery." Published in "The American Museum" in 1788. Othello was a free Negro.

OVINGTON, M.W. "Half-a-Man". (New York, 1911.) Treats of the Negro in the State of New York. A few pages are devoted to the education of the colored people.

PARRISH, JOHN. "Remarks on the Slavery of the Black People; Addressed to the Citizens of the United States, Particularly to those who are in Legislative or Executive Stations in the General or State Governments; and also to Such Individuals as Hold them in Bondage". (Philadelphia, 1806.)

PLUMER, W.S. "Thoughts on the Religious Instruction of the Negroes of this Country". (Savannah, 1848.)

Plymouth Colony, New. "Records of the Colony of New Plymouth in New England". Printed by Order of the Legislature of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Edited by Nathaniel B. Shurtleff, Member of the Massachusetts Historical Society, and Fellow of the Antiquarians of London. (Boston, 1855.)

PORTEUS, BISHOP BEILBY. "The Works of the Rev. Beilby Porteus, D.D., Late Bishop of London, with his Life by the Rev. Robert Hodgson, A.M., F.R.S., Rector of St. George's, Hanover Square, and One of the Chaplains in ordinary to His Majesty". A new edition in six volumes. (London, 1816.)

POWER, REV. JOHN H. "Review of the Lectures of William A. Smith, D.D., on the Philosophy and Practice of Slavery as Exhibited in the Institution of Domestic Slavery in the United States, with the Duties of Masters to Slaves in a Series of Letters addressed to the Author". (Cincinnati, 1859.)

Quaker Pamphlet.

RICE, DAVID. "Slavery Inconsistent with Justice and Good Policy: Proved by a Speech Delivered in the Convention Held at Danville, Kentucky". (Philadelphia, 1792, and London, 1793.)

SCOBER, J. "Negro Apprenticeship in the Colonies". (London, 1837.)

SECKER, THOMAS. "The Works of the Right Reverend Thomas Seeker, Archbishop of Canterbury with a Review of his Life and Character by B. Porteus". (New edition in six volumes, London, 1811.)

SIEBERT, WILBUR H. "The Underground Railroad from Slavery to Freedom, by W.H. Siebert, Associate Professor of History in the Ohio State University, with an Introduction by A.B. Hart". (New York, 1898.)

SMITH, WILLIAM A. "Lectures on the Philosophy and Practice of Slavery as Exhibited in the Institution of Domestic Slavery in the United States, with the Duties of Masters to Slaves". (Nashville, Tenn., 1856.) Doctor Smith was the President and Professor of Moral and Intellectual Philosophy of Randolph-Macon College.

"Slavery and the Internal Slave Trade in the United States of America, being Inquiries to Questions Transmitted by the Committee of the British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society for the Abolition of Slavery and the Slave Trade throughout the World. Presented to the General Anti-Slavery Convention Held in London, June, 1840, by the Executive Committee of the American Anti-Slavery Society." (London, 1841.)

"The Enormity of the Slave Trade and the Duty of Seeking the Moral and Spiritual Elevation of the Colored Race." (New York.) This work includes speeches of Wilberforce and other documents.

"The Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents, Travels, and Explorations of the Jesuit Missionaries in New France, 1610-1791. The Original French, Latin, and Italian Texts with English Translations and Notes; Illustrated by Portraits, Maps, and Facsimiles. Edited by Reuben Gold Thwaites, Secretary of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin." (Cleveland, 1896.)

"The South Vindicated from the Treason and Fanaticism of the Northern Abolitionists." (Philadelphia, 1836.)

THOMPSON, GEORGE. "Speech at the Meeting for the Extinction of Negro Apprenticeship." (London, 1838.)

---- "The Free Church Alliance with Manstealers. Send Back the Money. Great Anti-Slavery Meeting in the City Hall, Glasgow, Containing the Speeches Delivered by Messrs. Wright, Douglass, and Buffum, from America, and by George Thompson of London, with a Summary Account of a Series of Meetings Held in Edinburgh by the Abovenamed Gentlemen." (Glasgow, 1846.)

TORREY, JESSE, JR. "A Portraiture of Domestic Slavery in the United States, with Reflections on the Practicability of Restoring the Moral Rights of the Slave, without Impairing the Legal Privileges of the Possessor, and a Project of a Colonial Asylum for Free Persons of Color, Including Memoirs of Facts on the Interior Traffic in Slaves, and on Kidnapping, Illustrated with Engravings by Jesse Torrey, Jr., Physician, Author of a Series of Essays on Morals and the Diffusion of Knowledge." (Philadelphia, 1817.)

---- "American Infernal Slave Trade; with Reflections on the Project for forming a Colony of Blacks in Africa". (London, 1822.)

TOWER, PHILO. "Slavery Unmasked: Being a Truthful Narrative of Three Years' Residence and Journeying in Eleven Southern States; to which is Added "The Invasion of Kansas," Including the Last Chapter of her Wrongs". (Rochester, 1856.)

TURNER, E.R. "The Negro in Pennsylvania". (Washington, 1911.)

"Tyrannical Libertymen: a Discourse upon Negro Slavery in the United States; Composed at---- in New Hampshire; on the Late Federal Thanksgiving Day". (Hanover, N.H., 1795.)

VAN EVRIE, JOHN H. "Negroes and Negro Slavery", by J.H. Van Evrie, M.D. "Introductory Chapter: Causes of Popular Delusion on the Subject". (Washington, 1853.)

---- "White Supremacy and Negro Subordination; or, Negroes a Subordinate Race, and So-called Slavery its Normal Condition. With an Appendix Showing the Past and Present Condition of the Countries South of us". (New York, 1868.)

WALKER, DAVID. "Walker's Appeal in Four Articles, together with a Preamble, to the Colored Citizens of the World, but in Particular and very Expressly to those of the United States of America. Written in Boston, State of Massachusetts, September" 28, 1820. Second edition. (Boston, 1830.) Walker was a Negro who hoped to arouse his race to self-assertion.

WASHINGTON, B.T. "The Story of the Negro". Two volumes (New York, 1909.)

WASHINGTON, GEORGE. "The Writings of George Washington, being his Correspondence, Addresses, Messages, and other Papers, Official and Private, Selected and Published from the Original Manuscripts with the Life of the Author, Notes and Illustrations, by Jared Sparks". (Boston, 1835.)

WEEKS, STEPHEN B. "Southern Quakers and Slavery. A Study in Institutional History". (Baltimore, The Johns Hopkins Press, 1896.)

---- "The Anti-Slavery Sentiment in the South; with Unpublished Letters from John Stuart Mill and Mrs. Stowe". (Southern History Association Publications. Volume ii., No. 2, Washington, D. C, April, 1898.)

WESLEY, JOHN. "Thoughts upon Slavery. In the Potent Enemies of America Laid Open.... London, printed: Reprinted in Philadelphia with Notes, and Sold by Joseph Cruikshank". 1774.

WIGHAM, ELIZA. "The Anti-Slavery Cause in America and its Martyrs". (London, 1863.)

WILLIAMS, GEORGE W. "History of the Negro Race in the United States from 1619-1880. Negroes as Slaves, as Soldiers, and as Citizens: together with a Preliminary Consideration of the Unity of the Human Family, an Historical Sketch of Africa and an Account of the Negro Governments of Sierra Leone and Liberia". (New York, 1883.)

WOOLMAN, JOHN. "The Works of John Woolman. In two parts. Part I: a Journal of the Life, Gospel-Labors, and Christian Experiences of that Faithful Minister of Christ, John Woolman, Late of Mount Holly, in the Province of New Jersey". (London, 1775.)

---- "Same. Part Second. Containing his Last Epistle and other Writings". (London, 1775.)

---- "Some Considerations on the Keeping of Negroes. Recommended to the Professors of Christianity of every Denomination". (Philadelphia, 1754.)

---- "Considerations on Keeping Negroes; Recommended to the Professors of Christianity of every Denomination. Part Second". (Philadelphia, 1762.)

WRIGHT, R.R., JR. "The Negro in Pennsylvania". (Philadelphia, 1912.)

MAGAZINES

"The Abolitionist, or Record of the New England Anti-Slavery Society". Edited by a committee. Appeared in January, 1833.

"The African Methodist Episcopal Church Review". Valuable for the following articles:

"The Colored Public Schools of Washington," by James Storum, vol. v., p. 279.

"The Negro as an Inventor," by R.R. Wright, vol. ii., p. 397. "Negro Poets," vol. iv., p. 236.

"The Negro in Journalism," vols. vi., 309, and xx., 137.

"The African Repository". Published by the American Colonization Society from 1826 to 1832. A very good source for the development of Negro education both in this country and Liberia. Some of its most valuable articles are: "Learn Trades or Starve," by Frederick Douglass, vol. xxix., pp. 136 and 137. Taken from Frederick Douglass's Paper.

"Education of the Colored People," by a highly respectable gentleman of the South, vol. xxx., pp. 194,195, and 196.

"Elevation of the Colored Race," a memorial circulated in North Carolina, vol. xxxi., pp. 117 and 118.

"A Lawyer for Liberia," a sketch of Garrison Draper, vol. xxxiv., pp. 26 and 27.

Numerous articles on the religious instruction of the Negroes occur throughout the foregoing volumes. Information about the actual literary training of the colored people is given as news items.

"The American Museum", or "Repository of Ancient and Modern Fugitive Pieces, etc., Prose and Poetical". Vols. i.-iv. (First and second editions, Philadelphia, 1788. Third edition, Philadelphia, 1790.) Contains some interesting essays on the intellectual status of the Negroes, etc., contributed by "Othello," a free Negro.

"The Colonizationist and Journal of Freedom". The author has been able to find only the volume which contains the numbers for the year 1834.

"The Crisis". A record of the darker races published by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.

"The Maryland Journal of Colonization". Published as the official organ of the Maryland Colonization Society. Among its important articles are: "The Capacities of the Negro Race," vol. iii., p. 367; and "The Educational Facilities of Liberia," vol. vii., p. 223.

"The Non-Slaveholder". Two volumes of this publication are now found in the Library of Congress.

"The School Journal".

"The Southern Workman". Volume xxxvii. contains Dr. R.R. Wright's valuable dissertation on "Negro Rural Communities in Indiana."

NEWSPAPERS

District of Columbia. "The Daily National Intelligencer".

Louisiana "The New Orleans Commercial Bulletin."

Maryland. "The Maryland Journal and Baltimore Advertiser." "The Maryland Gazette." "Dunlop's Maryland Gazette" or "The Baltimore Advertiser."

Massachusetts. "The Liberator."

New York. "The New York Daily Advertiser." "The New York Tribune."

North Carolina. "The State Gazette of North Carolina." "The Newbern Gazette."

Pennsylvania. "The Philadelphia Gazette."

South Carolina. "The City Gazette and Commercial Daily Advertiser." "The State Gazette of South Carolina." "The Charleston Courier." "The South Carolina Weekly Advertiser." "The Carolina Gazette." "The Columbian Herald."

Virginia. "The Richmond Enquirer." "The Norfolk and Portsmouth Herald." "The Virginia Herald." (Fredericksburg.) "The Norfolk and Portsmouth Chronicle."

LAWS, DIGESTS, CHARTERS, CONSTITUTIONS, AND REPORTS

GENERAL

Code Noir ou Recueil d'édits, déclarations et arrêts concernant la Discipline et le commerce des esclaves Nègres des isles françaises de l'Amérique (in Recueils de réglemens, édits, déclarations et arrêts, concernant le commerce, l'administration de la justice et la police des colonies françaises de l'Amérique, et les engagés avec le Code Noir, et l'addition audit code). (Paris, 1745.)

GOODELL, WILLIAM. "The American Slave Code in Theory and Practice: Its Distinctive Features Shown by its Statutes, Judicial Decisions, and Illustrative Facts." (New York, 1853.)

PETERS, RICHARD. "Condensed Reports of Cases Argued and Adjudged in the Supreme Court of the United States." Six volumes. (Philadelphia, 1830-1834.)

THORPE, F.N. "Federal and State Constitution, Colonial Charters, and Other Organic Laws of the States, Territories, and Colonies now or heretofore Forming the United States of America. Compiled and Edited under an Act of Congress, June 30, 1906." (Washington, 1909.)

STATE

Alabama. "Acts of the General Assembly Passed by the State of Alabama." CLAY, C.C. "Digest of the Laws of the State of Alabama to 1843." (Tuscaloosa, 1843.)

Connecticut. "Public Acts Passed by the General Assembly of Connecticut."

Delaware. "Laws of the State of Delaware Passed by the General Assembly."

District of Columbia. BURCH, SAMUEL. "A Digest of the Laws of the Corporation of the City of Washington, with an Appendix of the Laws of the United States Relating to the District of Columbia." (Washington, 1823.)

Florida. "Acts of the Legislative Council of the Territory of Florida." "Acts and Resolutions of the General Assembly of the State of Florida."

Georgia. "Laws of the State of Georgia." COBB, HOWELL. "A Digest of the Statutes of Georgia in General Use to 1846." (New York, 1846.) DAWSON, WILLIAM. "A Compilation of the Laws of the State of Georgia to 1831." (Milledgeville, 1831.) PRINCE, O.H. "A Digest of the Laws of the State of Georgia to 1837." (Athens, 1837.)

Illinois. "Laws of the State of Illinois Passed by the General Assembly." STARR, M., and RUSSELL H. CURTIS. "Annotated Statutes of Illinois in Force, January 1, 1885."

Indiana. "Laws of a General Nature Passed by the State of Indiana."

Kentucky. "Acts of the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Kentucky."

Louisiana. "Acts Passed by the Legislature of the State of Louisiana." BULLARD, HENRY A., and THOMAS CURRY. "A New Digest of the Statute Laws of the State of Louisiana to 1842." (New Orleans, 1842.)

Maryland. "Laws Made and Passed by the General Assembly of the State of Maryland."

Massachusetts. "Acts and Resolves Passed by the General Court of Massachusetts." QUINCY, JOSIAH, JR. "Reports of Cases, Superior Court of Judicature of the Province of Massachusetts Bay, 1761-1772." (Boston, 1865.)

Mississippi. "Laws of the State of Mississippi Passed at the Regular Sessions of the Legislature." POINDEXTER, GEORGE. "Revised Code of the Laws of Mississippi." (Natchez, 1824.) HUTCHINSON, A. "Code of Mississippi." (Jackson, 1848.)

Missouri. "Acts of the General Assembly of the State of Missouri."

New Jersey. "Acts of the General Assembly of the State of New Jersey."

New York. "Laws of the State of New York."

Ohio. "Acts of a General Nature Passed by the General Assembly of the State of Ohio." "Acts of a Local Nature Passed by the General Assembly of the State of Ohio."

Pennsylvania. "Laws of the General Assembly of the State of Pennsylvania." BRIGHTLY, FRANK F. "A Digest of the Laws of Pennsylvania." STROUD, G.M. "Purdon's Digest of the Laws of Pennsylvania from 1700 to 1851." (Philadelphia, 1852.)

Rhode Island. "Acts and Resolves Passed by the General Assembly of the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations."

South Carolina. "Acts and Resolutions of the General Assembly of the State of South Carolina." BREVARD, JOSEPH. "An Alphabetical Digest of the Public Statute Laws of South Carolina from 1692 to 1813." Three volumes. (Charleston, 1814.)

Tennessee. "Acts of the General Assembly of the State of Tennessee."

Virginia. "Acts of the General Assembly of Virginia." HENING, W.W. "Statutes at Large: A Collection of all the Laws of Virginia from the First Session of the Legislature in the Year 1816." (Richmond, 1819 to 1823.) Published pursuant to an act of the General Assembly of Virginia, passed on the 5th of February, 1808. The work was extended by S. Shepherd who published three additional volumes in 1836. Chief source of historical material for the history of Virginia. TATE, Joseph. "A Digest of the Laws of Virginia." (Richmond, 1841.)

Personae

Terms Defined

Referenced Works