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Site last updated
26 June, 2013
The History Of England - A Study In Political Evolution
Chronological Table
by Pollard, A. F.


B.C. 55. Julius Caesar's first invasion of Britain.
A.D. 43-110. Roman occupation of Britain.
410-577. Period of Anglo-Saxon colonization and conquest.
597-664. Conversion of the Anglo-Saxons to Christianity.
617-685. Northumbrian supremacy.
685-825. Mercian supremacy.
8O2-839. Ecgberht establishes West Saxon supremacy.
855. Danes first winter in England.
878. Peace of Wedmore between Alfred and the Danes.
900 (?). Death of Alfred.
9OO (?)-975. Edward the Elder, Athelstan, and Edgar. Reconquest of the
      Danelaw.
978-1013. Ethelred the Unready. Return of the Danes.
1016. Edmund Ironside.
1016-1035. Canute.
1042.-1060. Edward the Confessor and the growth of Norman Influence.
1066. Harold and the Battle of Hastings. WILLIAM I.
1066-1071. The Norman Conquest. Submergence of the Anglo-Saxons.
1085-1086. Domesday Book. The Salisbury Oath.
1087-1100. WILLIAM II.
1100-1135. HENRY I and the beginnings of an administrative system. The
      Exchequer and Curia Regis.
1135-1154. STEPHEN and Matilda. The period of baronial independence,
     i.e. anarchy.
1154-1189. HENRY II restores order, curbs the military power of the
      barons by scutage (1159), the Assize of Arms (1181), and the
      substitution of sworn inquest for the ordeal and trial by battle,
      and their jurisdiction by the development of the royal court of
      justice through assizes of Clarendon, Northampton, etc. Teaches
      the people to rely on their judgment. Restrains the sheriffs, and
      attempts to limit ecclesiastical jurisdiction by the
      constitutions of Clarendon (1164). Quarrel with Becket.
1189-1199. RICHARD I. Crusade and wars In France.
1199-1210. JOHN'S tyranny. Loss of Normandy (1204). Quarrel with the
      church and baronage. Tries to retrieve his position by spirited
      foreign policy. Defeated at Bouvines (1214) and forced to sign
      Magna Carta (1215).
1216-1272. HENRY III. Beginnings of national government under De Burgh.
      Naval victory (1217). Alien domination of Henry's favourites
      provokes baronial resistance. Growth of native wealth and
      influence, and of an English party in the Barons' War (1258-
      1265). Simon De Montfort. Townsfolk summoned to Parliament.
1272-1307. EDWARD I, the first English king since the Norman Conquest.
      Emergence of the English people, their language, national
      weapons, towns, commerce. The Model Parliament(1275, 1295).
      Confirmation of the charters(1297). National resistance to the
      Papacy, and  national enterprises against Wales and Scotland.
1307-1327. EDWARD II. The relapse of Monarchy. Baronage becoming
      peerage. Thomas of Lancaster.
1327-1377. EDWARD III. Growth of nationalism in religion, politics,
      literature, trade, and war. The Commons take the constitutional
      lead abandoned by the peers. Lollardy and hostility to the
      Papacy. Decay of manorial system: emancipation of villeins:
      growth of  industry and towns.
1377-1399. RICHARD II, Revolt of the peasants and artisans (1381).
      Tries to emancipate himself from the control of the peers, and is
      deposed.
1399-1413. HENRY IV and the Lancastrian dynasty. Revolt of the Percies
      (1403). Henry's troubles with over-mighty subjects.
1413-1422. HENRY V seeks escape from domestic troubles in foreign war.
1415. Battle of Agincourt. Treaty of Troyes (1420).
1422. HENRY VI. Rivalry between Beaufort and Gloucester leads to growth
      of Lancastrian and Yorkist factions, and these with local anarchy
      produce the Wars of the Roses (1455-1485).
1461. EDWARD IV secures the throne, and in 1471 defeats both the
      Lancastrians and Warwick the King-maker.
1483. RICHARD III.
1485. HENRY VII and the House of Tudor.
1487. Organization of the Star Chamber to repress disorder and over-
      mighty subjects. Diaz doubles the Cape of Good Hope.
1492. Columbus discovers West Indies.
1496-1497. Cabot discovers Newfoundland and Labrador.
1509. HENRY VIII.
1512-1529. Wolsey.
1529-1536. The Reformation Parliament. The submission of the Clergy,
      Acts of Annates, Appeals (1532-1533) and Supremacy (1534).
1536. Suppression of the Monasteries and Pilgrimage for Grace.
1539. Act of Six Articles.
1547-1553. EDWARD VI and the Protestant Reformation.
1549. First Act of Uniformity and Book of Common Prayer. Kett's
      rebellion.
1552. Second Act of Uniformity and Book of Common Prayer.
1553-1558. MARY and the Roman Catholic reaction. Spanish control in
      England.
1558. ELIZABETH.
1559. The Elizabethan settlement of religion.
1560. Elizabeth assists the Scots to expel the French.
1568-1569. Flight of Mary Queen of Scots into England, and rebellion of
      the northern earls.
1570. Papal excommunication and deposition of Elizabeth.
1571. Ridolfi's plot.
1572. Execution of Norfolk and extinction of English dukedoms.
      Beginning of the Dutch Republic. Massacre of St. Bartholomew.
1577-1580. Drake sails round the world.
1587. Execution of Mary Queen of Scots.
1588. Spanish Armada.
1599-1601. Conquest of Ireland.
1600. Foundation of East India Company.
1603. JAMES VI of Scotland and I of England.
1607. Foundation of Virginia.
1608. Plantation of Ulster.
1620. Sailing of the Mayflower.
1623. Re-creation of dukedoms. Massacre of Amboyna.
1625. CHARLES I.
1628. Petition of Right.
1629. First British capture of Quebec.
1629-1640. The "Eleven Years' Tyranny."
1638-1639. National Covenant. Bishops' war in Scotland.
1640. The Long Parliament.
1642. First Civil War.
1648. Second Civil War.
1649. THE COMMONWEALTH. Abolition of monarchy and the House of Lords.
1650-1651. Navigation Acts and Dutch War.
1653. THE PROTECTORATE. First Cromwellian constitution.
1657. Second Cromwellian constitution.
1658. Cromwell's death.
1660. The Restoration. CHARLES II.
1662. The last Act of Uniformity.
1664. War with the Dutch: conquest of New Netherlands
1667. Fall of Clarendon. The Cabal administration.
1670. Treaty of Dover.
1672. Declaration of Indulgence.
1673. Danby. The Test Act.
1678. Titus Gates' Plot.
1679. Habeas Corpus Act.
1681. Charles II's triumph over the Whigs.
1685. JAMES II. Monmouth's and Argyll's rebellions.
1688. The Revolution. WILLIAM III and MARY.
1689. Bill of Rights. Toleration Act.
1690. Battle of the Boyne.
1694. Bank of England established.
1696. The Whig Junto.
1701. Act of Settlement.
1702. ANNE. War with France.
1704. Capture of Gibraltar. England becomes a Mediterranean power.
1707. Act of Union with Scotland.
1708. Capture of Minorca.
1708-1710. Whig ministry.
1710-1714. Tory ministry.
1713. Peace of Utrecht.
1714. GEORGE I and the Hanoverian dynasty.
1721-1742. Walpole's administration. Evolution of the Cabinet and Prime
      Minister. Growth of imports and exports,
1727. GEORGE II.
1739. War with Spain.
1741-1748. War of the Austrian Succession. Clive in India.
1756-1763. Seven Years' War.
1757. Battle of Plassey.
1759. Capture of Quebec.
1760. GEORGE III.
1764-1779. Inventions by Arkwright, Hargreaves, and Crompton. Beginning
      of the Industrial Revolution.
1765. Grenville's Stamp Act.
1770. Lord North Prime Minister. Captain Cook surveys Australia and New
      Zealand.
1774. The Quebec Act.
1776. Declaration of American Independence. Adam Smith's Wealth of
      Nations.
1778-1779. France and Spain join the Americans.
1780. The "Armed Neutrality." Warren Hastings saves India.
1781. Fall of Yorktown.
1782. Volunteer movement In Ireland. Irish parliamentary independence.
1783. American Independence granted.
1784. Pitt Prime Minister: his India Bill.
1788. Convict settlement in Australia.
1789. French Revolution.
1791. The Canadian Constitutional Act.
1794. The "Glorious First of June."
1795-1796. Conquest of the Cape and of Ceylon.
1797. Battles of St. Vincent and Camperdown.
1798. Battle of the Nile. Irish rebellion.
1799. Wellesley in India. Capture of Seringapatam. Partition of Mysore
      and the Carnatic.
1800. Union of Great Britain and Ireland. Seizure of Malta.
1801. Battle of Copenhagen.
1802. Peace of Amiens.
1803. Battles of Assye and Argaum. Defeat of the Mahrattas.
1805. Battle of Trafalgar.
1806. Second capture of the Cape.
1808-1814. Peninsular War.
1810. Capture of Mauritius.
1812-1814. War with the United States.
1814. Corn Laws passed.
1815. Battle of Waterloo.
1820. GEORGE IV.
1825. Huskisson's Tariff Reform.
1827. Battle of Navarino.
1828. Corn Laws revised.
1828-1829. Repeal of Test Act. Roman Catholic Emancipation.
1830. WILLIAM IV. Whigs return to power.
1832. First Reform Act. Representative Government established in
      Newfoundland.
1834-1835. Reform of the Poor Law and Municipal corporations.
1837. QUEEN VICTORIA. Mackenzie and Papineau's rebellions in Canada.
      Great Boer "trek."
1840. Annexation of New Zealand.
1841-1846. Peel's Free Trade policy.
1842. Representative government in Australia.
1846. Corn Laws repealed.
1848. Responsible self-government In Canada, New Brunswick, and Nova
      Scotia.
1849. Repeal of the Navigation Acts.
1852. Responsible government developed In Australia and New Zealand.
1853. Representative government in Cape Colony.
1854-1856. Crimean War.
1855. Responsible government in Newfoundland. 1856. Representative
      government in Natal.
1857. Indian Mutiny.
1858. Transference of India to the Crown.
1867. Disraeli's Reform Act. Federation of the Dominion of Canada.
1869. Disestablishment of the Irish Church. Opening of the Suez Canal.
1870. Compulsory education.
1872. Abolition of purchase in the army by executive action.
      Responsible government in Cape Colony.
1876. Queen proclaimed Empress of India.
1876-1877. Russo-Turkish War. Dual control established in Egypt.
      Annexation of the Transvaal.
1881. Transvaal granted independence.
1882. British administration of Egypt begins.
1885. Fall of Khartoum. Gladstone's Reform Act. Annexation of Burma.
1887. Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria, and Italy.
1889. Establishment of County Councils.
1890. Free Education. Franco-Russian entente. Responsible
      government in Western Australia.
1893. Responsible government in Natal.
1894. Establishment of district and parish councils.
1895. Jameson Raid.
1896-1898. Reconquest of the Sudan.
1899-1903. The Great Boer War.
1900. Establishment of the Australian Commonwealth.
1901. EDWARD VII.
1904. Russo-Japanese War.
1905. Anglo-Japanese alliance.
1906-1907. Responsible government granted to the Transvaal and Orange
      River Colonies.
1909. The Union of South Africa.
1910. GEORGE V.
1911. Asquith's Parliament Act. Capital of India transferred from
      Calcutta to Delhi. Beginnings of National Insurance.


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