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Woodrow Wilson As I Know Him
Appendix "A"
by Tumulty, Joseph P.


Cablegram

The White House, Washington,
  10 December, 1918.

THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES,
  Paris, France.

Stories that you have agreed to sinking of German ships have caused great
deal of unfavourable comment here.

TUMULTY.

       *       *       *       *       *

Cablegram

The White House, Washington,
  16 December, 1918.

THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES,
  C/O American Embassy, Paris, France.

Most popular note in this country in your speech are the words Quote We
must rebuke acts of terror and spoliation and make men everywhere aware
that they cannot be ventured upon without certainty of just punishment
End Quote.

TUMULTY.

       *       *       *       *       *

Cablegram

The White House, Washington,
  21 December, 1918.

THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES,
  Paris.

If it is America's intention to back up the Allies in sinking German
ships, the idea is so vague in this country that there ought to be a great
deal of elucidation if the President intends to take this stand. Hope the
President will be more definite than he has been in speeches in reference
to League of Nations and freedom of the seas. His enemies here and abroad
hope that he will particularize so that they can attack him. People of the
world are with him on general principles. They care little for details.

TUMULTY.

        *       *       *       *       *

 Cablegram

The White House, Washington,
  22 December, 1918.

THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES,
  American Embassy, Paris.

Springfield Republican editorially gives expression to fear that
President may be made captive by Allied Imperialism and says Quote The
conditions and atmosphere which now envelop him may be calculated to fill
his mind with doubts as to the wisdom of his previous views and to expose
him to the peril of vacillation, compromise, and virtual surrender of
vital principles End quote. Country deeply pleased by impression Mrs.
Wilson has made abroad.

TUMULTY.

       *       *       *       *       *

Cablegram

The White House, Washington,
  24 December, 1918

THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES,
  Care Of American Embassy, Paris, France.

Stories appearing here stating in effect that you intend to appeal to
people of Europe bound to do great deal of harm. My affectionate Christmas
Greetings to Mrs. Wilson and you.

TUMULTY.

       *       *       *       *       *

Cablegram

The White House, Washington,
  31 December, 1918.

THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES,
  Paris, France.

Clemenceau's speech, wherein he advocated a world settlement based upon
the old balance of power ideas, demonstrates necessity for and wisdom of
your trip, and has set stage for final issue between balance of power and
League of Nations. If America fails now, socialism rules the world and if
international fair-play under democracy cannot curb nationalistic
ambitions, there is nothing left but socialism upon which Russia and
Germany have already embarked. You can do nothing more serviceable than
without seeming to disagree with Clemenceau, drive home in your speeches
differences between two ideals, one, the balance of power means
continuance of war; other, concert of nations means universal peace. One
has meant great standing armies with larger armaments and burdensome
taxation, consequent unrest and bolshevism. If the statesmanship at
Versailles cannot settle these things in the spirit of justice, bolshevism
will settle them in a spirit of injustice. The world is ready for the
issue. Clemenceau has given you great chance; this country and whole world
will sustain you. Country ready to back you up when you ask for its
support. Everything fine here.

TUMULTY.

        *       *       *       *       *

Cablegram

The White House, Washington,
  6 January, 1919.

THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES,
  Paris.

Hope you will consider the suggestion for your return trip. Your personal
contact with peoples of Europe has done much to help your programme. Our
people will be with your programme, but it (the programme) must be
personally conducted. If you return here without reception or ovation,
public opinion on other side liable to misunderstand. The time of your
return (in my opinion) is the hour for you to strike in favour of League
of Nations. Lodge and leading Republicans constantly attacking, excepting
Taft, who is daily warning them of political dangers of their opposition
to your programme. Could you not consider stopping upon your return at
Port of Boston instead of New York. The announcement of your stopping at
Boston would make ovation inevitable throughout New England and would
centre attack on Lodge. You have not been to New England in six years. It
would be a gracious act and would help much. It would strengthen League of
Nations movement in House and Senate and encourage our friends in Senate
and House and throughout country. Our people just as emotional as people
of Europe. If you return without reception, Lodge and others will construe
it as weakness. If the people of our country could have seen you as people
of Europe, our situation would be much improved, especially result of last
November would have been different. My suggestion would be speech at
Faneuil Hall, Boston; speech in Providence, New Haven, New York and
reception upon return to Washington, to be participated in by returning
soldiers.

TUMULTY.

       *       *       *       *       *

Cablegram

The White House, Washington,
  6 January, 1919.

THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES,
  Paris.

The attitude of the whole country toward trip has changed. Feeling
universal that you have carried yourself magnificently through critical
situations, with prestige and influence greatly enhanced here and abroad.
The criticisms of the cloak-room statesmen have lost their force. I
realize difficulties still to be met, but have no doubt of result. Trip
admitted here by everybody to be wonderful success. Last week with perils
of visit to Vatican most critical. The whole psychology favours the
success of your trip. The peoples of Europe and the United States with you
for League of Nations and against settlements based upon balance of power.
Opinion here is that cards are stacked against you. My own opinion your
influence so great in Europe that European leaders cannot stand in your
way. Now is the critical moment and there must be no wasting away of your
influence in unnecessary delay of conference. Hearts of the peoples of the
world for League of Nations and they are indifferent to its actual terms.
They are against militarism and for any reasonable plan to effectuate
peace.

TUMULTY.

       *       *       *       *       *

Cablegram

The White House, Washington,
  13 January 1919.

THE PRESIDENT,
  Paris.

In past two weeks the trend of newspaper dispatches from Paris has
indicated a misunderstanding of your general attitude towards problems
pending at peace conference. One newspaper cablegram says today that
France, Italy and Great Britain have agreed to subordinate your league of
nations programme to the need for counteracting bolshevism and collecting
damages from Germany. Another a few days ago reported that Clemenceau had
made headway with his insistence upon maintenance of balance of power.
Still another outlined victory of Great Britain in her opposition to
freedom of seas, stating that you had abandoned your position in response
to arguments of France, supporting Great Britain. Similar stories would
give impression that you were yielding, although we are aware that some of
the suggestions for compromise are probably your own. Situation could
easily be remedied if you would occasionally call in the three press
association correspondents who crossed on George Washington with you,
merely giving them an understanding of the developments as they occur and
asking them not to use information as coming from you, but merely for
their own guidance. It would show wisdom of various compromises as well as
circumstances of such compromises. Proposal of Lloyd George that the
Russian Bolshevik be invited to send peace delegates to Paris produced
very unfavourable impression everywhere. It is denounced here as amazing.

TUMULTY.

       *       *       *       *       *

Cablegram

The White House, Washington,
  16 January 1919.

REAR ADMIRAL CARY T. GRAYSON,
  Care of President Wilson, Paris.

American newspapers filled with stories this morning of critical character
about rule of secrecy adopted for Peace Conference, claiming that the
first of the fourteen points has been violated. In my opinion, if
President has consented to this, it will be fatal. The matter is so
important to the people of the world that he could have afforded to go any
length even to leaving the conference than to submit to this ruling. His
attitude in this matter will lose a great deal of the confidence and
support of the people of the world which he has had up to this time.

TUMULTY.

       *        *        *        *        *

Cablegram--Paris.

Received at White House, Washington,
  January 16, 1919.

TUMULTY,
  White House, Washington.

Your cable about misunderstandings concerning my attitude toward problems
created by the newspaper cablegrams concerns a matter which I admit I do
not know how to handle. Every one of the things you mention is a fable. I
have not only yielded nothing but have been asked to yield nothing. These
manoeuvres which the cablegram speaks of are purely imaginary. I cannot
check them from this end because the men who sent them insist on having
something to talk about whether they know what the facts are or not. I
will do my best with the three press associations.

WOODROW WILSON.

       *        *        *        *        *

Cablegram--Paris.

Received at White House, Washington,
  January 17, 1919.

TUMULTY,
  White House, Washington.

Distressed to hear of your illness. Beg that you will make it your chief
duty to take care of yourself and get well. All unite in most affectionate
messages. Everything going well here. Very few of the troubles spoken of
by the newspapers are visible to me on the spot.

WOODROW WILSON.

       *        *        *        *        *

Cablegram--Paris.

Received at White House, Washington,
  January 21, 1919.

TUMULTY,
  White House, Washington.

The issue of publicity is being obscured by the newspaper men and we have
won for the press all that is possible or wise to win, namely, complete
publicity for real conferences. Publicity for the conversations I am
holding with the small group of the great powers will invariably break up
the whole thing, whereas the prospects for agreement are now, I should
say, very good indeed. Delighted that you are up and beg that you will not
expose yourself or exert yourself too soon. Affectionate messages from us
all.

WOODROW WILSON.

        *       *       *       *       *

Cablegram

The White House, Washington,
  29 January, 1919.

THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES,
  Paris.

Notice in morning papers discussion with reference to disposition of
German colonies. Call your attention to speech of British Premier
delivered in January as follows: Quote with regard to German colonies, I
have repeatedly declared that they are held at the disposal of a
conference whose decision must have primary regard to the wishes of the
native inhabitants. The general principle of national self-determination
therefore is applicable in their cases as in those of the occupied
European territories End quote. I believe that Balfour made a similar
statement.

TUMULTY.

       *       *       *       *       *

Cablegram--Paris.

Received at White House, Washington,
  March 15, 1919.

President's Residence, Paris
TUMULTY,
  White House, Washington.

The Plenary Council has positively decided that the League of Nations is
to be part of the Peace Treaty. There is absolutely no truth in report to
the contrary.

WOODROW WILSON.

       *       *       *       *       *

Cablegram

The White House, Washington,
  16 March 1919.

PRESIDENT WILSON,
  Paris.

Believe your most critical time in setting forward America's position at
conference has come. Opposition to League growing more intense from day to
day. Its bitterness and pettiness producing reaction. New polls throughout
country indicate strong drift toward league. League of Nations and just
peace inseparable. Neither half can stand alone. Know you will not be
drawn away from announced programme to incorporate League covenant in
treaty. You can afford to go any length in insisting upon this. There is
no doubt of your success here and abroad. The real friends of a
constructive peace have not begun to fight. Everything fine here.

TUMULTY.

        *       *       *       *       *

Cablegram

The White House, Washington,
  25 March, 1919.

THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES,
  Paris.

There is great danger to you in the present situation. I can see signs
that our enemies here and abroad would try to make it appear that you are
responsible for delay in peace settlement and that delay has increased
momentum of bolshevism and anarchy in Hungary and Balkans. Can
responsibility for delay be fixed by you in some way?

TUMULTY.

        *       *       *       *       *

Cable From the Associated Press at Paris.

Paris, March 27, 1919.

President Wilson to-day issued the following statement:

Quote in view of the very surprising impression which seems to exist in
some quarters, that it is the discussions of the commission on the league
of nations that are delaying the final formulation of peace, I am very
glad to take the opportunity of reporting that the conclusions of this
commission were the first to be laid before the plenary conference.

They were reported on February 14, and the world has had a full month in
which to discuss every feature of the draft covenant then submitted.

During the last few days the commission has been engaged in an effort to
take advantage of the criticisms which the publication of the covenant has
fortunately drawn out. A committee of the commission has also had the
advantage of a conference with representatives of the neutral states, who
are evidencing a very deep interest and a practically unanimous desire to
align themselves with the league.

The revised covenant is now practically finished. It is in the hands of a
committee for the final process of drafting, and will almost immediately
be presented a second time to the public.

The conferences of the commission have invariably been held at times when
they could not interfere with the consultation of those who have
undertaken to formulate the general conclusions of the conference with
regard to the many other complicated problems of peace, so that the
members of the commissions congratulate themselves on the fact that no
part of their conferences has ever interposed any form of delay End
quote.

        *       *       *       *       *

Cablegram

The White House, Washington,
  25 March, 1919.

THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES,
  Paris.

St. Louis Republic of Saturday reporting speech of Senator Reed
referring to provision naming members of League says: Quote he told of
what he called a secret protocol and intimated that Germany is included in
this secret protocol End quote. Advise whether or not there is any
secret protocol such as Senator claims or of any character, attached to
League Covenant.

TUMULTY.

        *       *       *       *       *

Cablegram--Paris.

Received at White House, Washington,
  March 27, 1919.

TUMULTY,
  White House, Washington.

Statement that there is any sort of secret protocol connected with or
suggested in connection with the League of Nations is absolutely false.

WOODROW WILSON.

       *       *       *       *       *

Cablegram

The White House, Washington,
  March 28, 1919.

PRESIDENT WILSON,
  Paris.

Stories here this morning that amendment for Monroe Doctrine and racial
discrimination to be excluded from covenant causing a great deal of
uneasiness.

TUMULTY.

       *       *       *       *       *

Cablegram

The White House, Washington,
  March 30, 1919.

PRESIDENT WILSON,
  Paris.

In an editorial entitled Treat or Fight, Springfield Republican says:
Quote It is plain that the Allies dare not commit themselves to an
avowed war on the soviets and that it is not possible for the Allies with
the world in its present temper to take the position that the existence of
the soviet form of government in any country constitutes a casus belli;
that the world would recoil from the proposal to begin a new series of war
with so dubious an object; that Russia should be left to manage her own
affairs End quote. Editorial disagreed with policy of French Government
towards Russia and soviets. Calls attention to disastrous results of
foreign intervention during French Revolution, Editorial further says:
Quote Impossible to fight revolution in one place and be at peace
elsewhere. If Allies mean to fight Hungary because it has set up a soviet
form of government and allied itself to Russia they will have to fight
Russia. If they fight Russia they will have to fight the Ukraine. Such a
war would mean the end of the League of Nations. It is plain that the
Allies dare not commit themselves to an avowed war on the Soviets End
Quote.

TUMULTY.

       *       *       *       *       *

Cablegram

The White House, Washington,
  March 30, 1919.

PRESIDENT WILSON,
  Paris.

Dispatches from Simonds and others prove stories of weeks ago were most
optimistic now touched with deep pessimism. Simonds in article on Saturday
says: Quote No common objective in council; no dominating influence;
drifting, etc. End Quote. I fear your real position in council not
understood here and that lack of publicity strengthening many false
impressions. The responsibility attaching to those associated with you,
including France and England, when they accepted Fourteen Points evidently
lost sight of by them. Do not know what your real situation is, but it
appears to me that Germany is not prepared to accept the kind of peace
which is about to be offered, or if she does accept, with its burdensome
conditions, it means the spread of bolshevism throughout Germany and
central Europe. It seems to me that you ought in some way to reassert your
leadership publicly. I know the danger, but you cannot escape
responsibility unless you do so. Now is the moment in my opinion to strike
for a settlement permanent and lasting.

TUMULTY.

       *       *       *       *       *

Cablegram

The White House, Washington,
  2 April, 1919.

PRESIDENT WILSON,
  Paris.

The proposed recognition of Lenine has caused consternation here.

TUMULTY.

       *       *       *       *       *

Cablegram--Paris.

Received at White House, Washington,
  April 4, 1919.

TUMULTY,
  White House, Washington.

Am still confident that President will win. Encountering difficulties;
situation serious. President is the hope of the world more than ever, and
with his courage, wisdom, and force he will lead the way. Have you any
suggestions as to publicity or otherwise?

GRAYSON.

        *       *       *       *       *


Cablegram--Paris.

Received at White House, Washington,
  April 4, 1919.

TUMULTY,
  White House, Washington.

The President took very severe cold last night; confined to bed. Do not
worry; will keep you advised.

GRAYSON.

       *       *       *       *       *

Cablegram--Paris.

Received at White House, Washington,
  April 5, 1919.

TUMULTY,
  White House, Washington.

We are naturally disappointed at progress being made but not discouraged.
Hopeful everything will turn out all right. Will advise you if anything
definite develops. The President is better this morning but confined to
bed. No cause for worry.

GRAYSON.

       *       *       *       *       *

Cablegram--Paris.

Received at White House, Washington,
  April 5, 1919.

GRAYSON,
  % President Wilson, Paris.

In my opinion the President must in some dramatic way clear the air of
doubts and misunderstandings and despair which now pervade the whole world
situation. He must take hold of the situation with both hands and shake it
out of its present indecision, or political sabotage and scheming will
triumph. Only a bold stroke by the President will save Europe and perhaps
the world. That stroke must be made regardless of the cries and
admonitions of his friendly advisers. He has tried to settle the issue in
secret; only publicity of a dramatic kind now can save the situation. This
occasion calls for that audacity which has helped him win in every fight.

TUMULTY.

       *       *       *       *       *

Cablegram--Paris.

Received at White House, Washington,
  April 6, 1919.

TUMULTY,
  Washington.

The President says the situation here is extremely complex and intricate,
but seems to be improving and he expects to have it in hand this week, but
if necessary will act according to your suggestions. The President is
confined to bed but steadily improving. Thanks for your telegram.

Grayson.

       *       *       *       *       *

Cablegram--Paris.

Received at White House, Washington,
  April 8, 1919.

TUMULTY,
  Washington.

President attended conference in his study this afternoon. Situation shows
some improvement. President has ordered George Washington to proceed
here immediately.

GRAYSON.

       *       *       *       *       *

Cablegram

The White House, Washington,
  April 9,1919.

GRAYSON,
  Care President Wilson, Paris.

The ordering of the George Washington to return to France looked upon
here as an act of impatience and petulance on the President's part and not
accepted here in good grace by either friends or foes. It is considered as
an evidence that the President intends to leave the Conference if his
views are not accepted. I think this method of withdrawal most unwise and
fraught with the most dangerous possibilities here and abroad, because it
puts upon the President the responsibility of withdrawing when the
President should by his own act place the responsibility for a break of
the Conference where it properly belongs. The President should not put
himself in the position of being the first to withdraw if his 14 points
are not accepted. Either he should put himself in the position of being
the one who remained at the Conference until the very last, demanding the
acceptance of his 14 principles. Nothing should be said about his leaving
France, but he ought when the time and occasion arrive to re-state his
views in terms of the deepest solemnity and yet without any ultimatum
attached and then await a response from his associates. In other words,
let him by his acts and words place his associates in the position of
those who refuse to continue the Conference because of their unwillingness
to live up to the terms of the Armistice. Then the President can return to
this country and justify his withdrawal. He cannot justify his withdrawal
any other way. Up to this time the world has been living on stories coming
out of Paris that there was to be an agreement on the League of Nations.
Suddenly out of a clear sky comes an order for the George Washington and
unofficial statements of the President's withdrawal. A withdrawal at this
time would be a desertion.

TUMULTY.

        *       *       *       *       *


Cablegram

The White House, Washington,
  9 April, 1919.

PRESIDENT WILSON,
  Paris.

A great number of your friends here fear that the interposition of United
States in matter of indemnity and reparation which is a paramount question
with European nations and only of indirect interest to us will solidify
the opposition of England, France, Italy, and Belgium to a league of
nations. Our friends believe that any necessary sacrifices to assure a
league of nations should be made. Your supporters would be happy if you
could throw upon the other nations the burden of exacting indemnities and
at the same time win their support to a league of nations.

TUMULTY.

       *       *       *       *       *

Cablegram--Paris.

Received at White House, Washington,
  10 April, 1919.

TUMULTY,
  Washington.

President made good progress to-day by hammering ahead with his own force.
His health is improving; out for a short drive this afternoon; first
outing since last Thursday.

GRAYSON.

       *       *       *       *       *

Cablegram--Paris.

Received at White House, Washington,
  April 10, 1919.

TUMULTY,
  White House, Washington.

Have shown your message to the President. From your side of the water your
points are well taken, but he has formed his ideas through immediate
contact with actual conditions on this side of the world.... More progress
has been made in the last two days than has been made for the last two
weeks. Am spending all the time I can in guiding correspondents and
showing them every attention. I confer with Grasty every day. The
President is working too hard following his recent illness. To know that
things are going on and not properly handled, and yet be responsible for
them, causes him more worry and anxiety and does more harm than actual
participation. This is a matter that worries me. If his health ca hold out
I am still confident he will win handsomely. Am keeping as cheerful a
front as possible over here.

GRAYSON.

        *       *       *       *       *

Cablegram--Paris.

Received at White House, Washington,
  April 12, 1919.

TUMULTY,
  Washington.

So far as it is possible to tell amidst complexity of selfish interests
things seem to be slowly clearing. President sends you his love and says
keep stiff upper lip.

GRAYSON.

       *       *       *       *       *

Cablegram--Paris.

Received at White House, Washington,
  April 24, 1919.

TUMULTY,
  White House.

Thank you for your cable about Industrial Board. On the whole I think they
have got into a blind alley, but I am glad you are going to obtain Hines'
opinion. Do not give yourself any concern about secret treaties. You may
be sure I will enter into none.

WOODROW WILSON.

       *       *       *       *       *

Cablegram

The White House, Washington,
  30 April, 1919.

THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES,
  Paris.

Beg to call your attention to following editorial from Springfield
Republican. Quote The critical period in the peacemaking has been
reached when progress can win over reaction the very least of victories
only by a resolute stand of the most commanding figure in Paris. France
and England cannot desert the President without branding themselves as
hypocrites and ingrates. Worse things could happen than for the President
to come home without a peace treaty, leaving Europe to wallow in the mire
of national rivalries and hates to which reaction would sentence it for
all time. There is no compelling reason why America should sign a treaty
that would merely perpetuate ancient feuds and make new wars a certainty.
Our chief interest in the Conference at Paris, as the President declared
at Manchester, is the peace of the world. Unless that can be made
reasonably sure, with Europe's sincere cooperation, the time is near when
'pack up and come home' will be America's only policy End quote.

TUMULTY.

        *       *       *       *       *

Cablegram

The White House, Washington,
  8 May, 1919.

THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES,
  Paris.

In your cable you spoke of forwarding message to Congress. Have you made
up your mind as to what you will discuss? Would like to suggest certain
things I believe vital.

TUMULTY.

       *       *       *       *       *

Cablegram

Received at White House, Washington,
  May 9, 1919.

TUMULTY,
  White House, Washington.

Happily there is no mystery or privacy about what I have promised the
Government here. I have promised to propose to the Senate a supplement in
which we shall agree, subject to the approval of the Council of the League
of Nations, to come immediately to the assistance of France in case of
unprovoked attack by Germany, thus merely hastening the action to which we
should be bound by the Government of the League of Nations.

WOODROW WILSON.

       *       *       *       *       *

Cablegram

The White House, Washington,
  22 May, 1919.

THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES,
  Paris.

Great demonstration New York last night, addressed by Hughes, to protest
killings in Poland, Galicia, Roumania and elsewhere. Feeling in this
matter growing more intense throughout the country. Cannot something be
done? It is evident that Germany is doing everything to separate the
Allies. A great many newspapers in this country are worried lest you be
carried away by the pleadings of Germany for a Quote softer peace End
Quote. I know you will not be led astray. There is an intense feeling in
the Senate in favour of the publication of the terms of the Treaty. Can
anything be done to straighten this out?

TUMULTY.

       *       *       *       *       *

Cablegram

The White House, Washington,
  23 May, 1919.

THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES,
  Paris.

Mr. Taft in signed article this morning says: Quote Find it hard to
believe that President Wilson sent sympathetic note to women who plead for
Huns End quote. I think this matter of sufficient importance to be
cleared up from this side. There is great deal of unrest here owing to
talk in newspapers of return of German ships to Great Britain.

TUMULTY.

       *       *       *       *       *

Cablegram--Paris.

Received at White House, Washington,
  May 24,1919.

TUMULTY,
  Washington.

I think our friends in the Senate ought to be furnished very frankly with
the following reason, which seems to me quite convincing, for not at
present publishing the complete treaty: namely, that if our discussion of
the treaty with the Germans is to be more than a sham and a form it is
necessary to consider at least some of the details of the treaty as
subject to reconsideration and that, therefore, it would be a tactical
blunder to publish the details as first drafted, notwithstanding the fact
that there is no likelihood that they will be departed from in any
substantial way.

WOODROW WILSON.

       *       *       *       *       *

Cablegram--Paris.

Received at White House, Washington,
  May 25, 1919.

TUMULTY,
  White House, Washington.

No one need have any concern about the return of the German ships in our
possession. Full understanding has been reached about them. As for Mr.
Taft's criticism, I am quite willing to be responsible for any sympathetic
reply I make to appeals on behalf of starving women and children. Please
give following message to Glass: You may take it for granted that I will
sign the Urgent Deficiency Bill and go forward with the plans you mention
in your cable.

WOODROW WILSON.

       *       *       *       *       *

Cablegram

The White House, Washington,
  26 May, 1919.

THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES,
  Paris.

Every Republican member of new Foreign Relations Committee openly opposed
to treaty, a majority in favour of its amendment. Every Democratic member
of Committee, including Thomas, for treaty and against separation. There
is a decided reaction evident against the League, caused, in my opinion,
by dissatisfaction of Irish, Jews, Poles, Italians, and Germans.
Republicans taking full advantage and liable, in order to garner
disaffected vote, to make absolute issue against League, Reaction
intensified by your absence and lack of publicity from your end and
confusion caused by contradictory statements and explanations of Quote
so-called compromises End quote. Simonds' article appearing in certain
American newspapers Sunday, admirable, explaining reasons for Saar Valley
and French pact and other controversial matters.

There is a tremendous drive against League, resembling German propaganda,
backed by Irish and Jews. Irish openly opposing; Jews attacking along
collateral lines. Could not Lansing or perhaps White, because he is a
Republican, or yourself inspire publicity or give interview explaining--
officially or unofficially--the following matters:

  First--America's attitude toward publication of terms of Treaty, along
           lines of your last cable to me.

  Second--That the fourteen points have not been disregarded.

  Third--The underlying reason for French pact emphasizing the point as
           Simonds' says Quote That French pact is merely an
           underwriting of the League of Nations during the period
           necessary for that organization not merely to get to work, but
           to become established and recognized by all nations
           End quote.

I am not at all disturbed by this reaction--it was inevitable. The
consummation of your work in the signing of the Treaty will clear the air
of all these distempers. Your arrival in America, your address to the
Congress and some speeches to the country will make those who oppose the
League to-day feel ashamed of themselves. The New York World had a very
good editorial favouring the mandatory of Turkey.

TUMULTY.

       *       *       *       *       *

Cablegram--Paris.

Received at White House, Washington,
  June 16, 1919.

TUMULTY,
  White House, Washington.

If Germans sign the Treaty we hope to get off the first of next week,
about the 24th or 25th. It is my present judgment that it would be a
mistake to take any notice of the Knox amendment. The whole matter will
have to be argued from top to bottom when I get home and everything will
depend upon the reaction of public opinion at that time. I think that our
friends can take care of it in the meantime and believe that one of the
objects of Knox and his associates is to stir me up, which they have not
yet done. I may nevertheless take the opportunity to speak of the League
of Nations in Belgium.

WOODROW WILSON.

        *       *       *       *       *

Cablegram

The White House, Washington,
  21 June, 1919.

THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES,
  Paris.

The fight against the League in Knox resolution faces utter collapse. Root
and Hayes here advising Republican leaders. I learned that Root is
advising Republicans to vote for the League with reservations. He is
advising Republicans to concentrate their forces upon a resolution of
ratification, which would contain specific reservations on the Monroe
Doctrine, immigration, tariff, and other purely American questions. I
believe that this is the course the Republicans will finally adopt. A
confidant of Mr. Taft's yesterday wanted to know from me what your
attitude was in this matter, saying that Mr. Taft might favour this
reservation plan. I told him I had no knowledge on the subject. It is a
thing that you might consider. To me it looks like cowardice.

The American Federation of Labour adopted a resolution favouring the
League of Nations by a vote of twenty-nine thousand seven hundred fifty
against four hundred twenty. Andrew Furuseth led the fight against it. The
resolution supporting the League contained a reservation in favour of home
rule for Ireland.

TUMULTY.

       *       *       *       *       *

Cablegram--Paris.

Received at White House, Washington,
  June 23, 1919.

TUMULTY,
  Washington.

My clear conviction is that the adoption of the Treaty by the Senate with
reservations would put the United States as clearly out of the concert of
nations as a rejection. We ought either to go in or stay out. To stay out
would be fatal to the influence and even to the commercial prospects of
the United States, and to go in would give her the leadership of the
world. Reservations would either mean nothing or postpone the conclusion
of peace, so far as America is concerned, until every other principal
nation concerned in the Treaty had found out by negotiation what the
reservations practically meant and whether they could associate themselves
with the United States on the terms of the reservations or not. Moreover,
changes in the Treaty seem to me to belong to the powers of negotiation
which belong to the President and that I would be at liberty to withdraw
the Treaty if I did not approve of the ratifications. I do not think it
would be wise for me to wait here for the appropriation bills. I hope to
sail on the twenty-fifth or twenty-sixth and suggest that you consider
the plan of sending a vessel to meet me.

WOODROW WILSON.

        *       *       *       *       *

 Cablegram

The White House, Washington,
  June 23, 1919.

THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES,
  Paris.

Your cable concerning reservations in ratification would make fine
statement for the public. The country would stand back of you in this. Can
I use it in this way or can I at least furnish copies to Senator Hitchcock
and Mr. Taft? If you allow me to make public use of it may I change
Quote leadership of the world End quote to Quote a notable place in
the affairs of the world End quote. This in order to avoid possibility
of hurting feelings of other nations. Now is time to issue statement of
this kind as Lodge has practically withdrawn Knox resolution and opponents
seem to be concentrating on Quote reservations End quote.

TUMULTY.

       *       *       *       *       *

Cablegram--Paris.

TUMULTY,
  White House, Washington.

June 25, 1919.

I am quite willing that you should make public use of my cable to you
about reservations by the Senate in regard to the treaty, with this change
in the sentence to which you call my attention:

Quote And to go in would give her a leading place in the affairs of the
world, End quote omitting also the last sentence about changes belonging
to power to negotiate treaties.

WOODROW WILSON.

       *       *       *       *       *

June 25, 1919.

Secretary Tumulty to-day gave out a message which he had received from the
President, as follows:

My clear conviction is that the adoption of the Treaty by the Senate with
reservations would put the United States as clearly out of the concert of
nations as a rejection. We ought either to go in or stay out. To stay out
would be fatal to the influence and even to the commercial prospects of
the United States, and to go in would give her a leading place in the
affairs of the world. Reservations would either mean nothing or postpone
the conclusion of peace, so far as America is concerned, until every other
principal nation concerned in the treaty had found out by negotiation what
the reservations practically meant and whether they could associate
themselves with the United States on the terms of the reservations or not.

WOODROW WILSON.

        *       *       *       *       *

Cablegram from Grasty to New York Times

June 29, 1919.

Aboard the Oklahoma.

President's sailing from Brest most auspicious. Most beautiful weather and
promise of more of same. President and Mrs. Wilson showed no ill effects
from strenuous activities of past few days and while both formed sincere
attachment for France, they are glad to turn faces homeward. Contrary to
some reports current in America he is in excellent health. While element
of novelty which entered his reception on arrival last December
disappeared, there was deeper feeling manifested toward him last night in
Paris than ever before. Thousands of Quote Vive Wilson End quote came
from French heart and continuous ovation. Paris showed popular recognition
of leadership of American in securing peace. One very old Frenchman sprang
in front of President's carriage in Champs Élysées and shouted in English:
Quote Mr. Wilson, thank you for peace End quote. That was the keynote
and same sentiment was echoed in thousands of ways. Although owing to
different American viewpoints, Wilson has been frequently antagonistic
during this month, at end relations with other governments' heads most
cordial. Lloyd George came over to Place des États-Unis last night and
told President Quote You've done more to bring English-speaking people
together than ever before done by any man End quote. Clemenceau looked
as if losing his best friend when he said Good Bye in Invalides Station.
Many representatives of smaller nations have expressed to me within past
few days hope that President be able to return to Europe and continue his
work of reconciliation and reconstruction, which they said nobody else in
position to do or able to do so well.

GRASTY.


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