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A History of Diplomacy in the International Development of Europe: Vol I The Struggle for Universal Empire
- Authorities
by David Jayne Hill, LL.D.


The chief primary source of information regarding the social and political condition of Rome in the last centuries of the Empire is the Codex Theodosianus, published in 438 by Theodosius II, in which it codified the legislation of the later emperors. See Ritter's edition with Gothofred's notes, Leipzig, 1736-1743; also Hänel's 4th ed., Bonn, 1882. The Notitia Dignitatum, edited by Böcking, 1839-1853, and by Seeck, 1877, is an official register containing the titles of the superior functionaries of the Empire at the beginning of the fifth century, with other valuable information. See also the Corpus Juris Civilis of Justinian, Mommsen's edition.

Contemporary accounts of the barbarian world are found in the Germania of Tacitus, and the De Bello Gallico of Julius Caesar. The Rerum Gestarun of Arnmianus Marcellinus is a history of the fourth century struggle with the barbarians, in which the author personally participated. The histories of the barbarian invasions given by the ecclesiastical writers are contained in Migne, Patrologia. The important collection Monumenta Germaniae Historica includes the Latin accounts of the Germanic peoples and the laws of the barbarian kingdoms. Begun by Pertz in 1826, it has been continued under the editorial supervision of Waits (1875-1886), Wattenbach (1886-1888), and Dümmler. A general index was published In 1890. Cassiodorus, Opera, is the authority for the Ostrogothic kingdom. Guizot has published a collection of Mémoires relatifs à l'histoire de France, 1823-1835, which contains translations into French of the principal Latin histories of the barbarian kingdoms. Bouquet, Rerum Gallicarum et Francicarum Scriptores, Paris, 1738 et seq., is an old but still useful collection of authorities.

An excellent general view of Roman institutions, supplemented by an extensive bibliography, is found in Bouché-Leclercq, Manuel des institutions romaines, Paris, 1886. A more particular account of the Roman constitution and administration is given by Madvig, Die Ver fassung und Verwaltung des römischen Staats, Leipzig, 1882-1884; Herzog, Geschichte und System der römischen Staatsverfassung, Leipzig, 1884-1891; and Marquardt, Römische Staatsverwaltung, Leipzig, 1881-1885. See also Willems, Le Droit public romain, Louvain, 1886.

Special phases of Roman organization and administration are treated in Jullian, La transformation politique de l'Italie sous les empereurs romains, Paris, 1883; Willems, Le Sénat de la République romaine, Louvain, 1878-1889; Guiraud, Les assemblées provinciales de l'Empire romain, Paris, 1887; Paillard, Histoire de la transmission du pouvoir impérial à Rome et à Constantinople, Paris, 1875; Beurlier, Essai sur le culte des empereurs romains, Paris, 1870; Wallon, Histoire de l'esclavage dans l'antiquité, Paris, 1847; Lemonnier, Etude historique sur la condition privée des affranchis aux trois premiers siècles de l'Empire romain, Paris, 1887; Lécrivain, Le Sénat romain depuis Dioclétien à Rome et à Constantinople, Paris, 1888.

For the college and regulations of the Fetials, Voigt, De Fetialibus Populi Romani, Leipzig, 1852; Wetsels, De Fetialibus, Groningen, 1854; Weiss, Le droit fétial et les Fétiaux à Rome, Paris, 1883. For the relations of the Roman Empire with foreign nations, see Osenbruggen, De Jure Belli et Pacis Romanorum, Berlin, 1835; and Weiske, Considérations sur les ambassadeurs des romains, Zwickau, 1834.

On the development of Roman law, see Jhering, Geist des römischen Rechts auf den verschiedenen Stufen seiner Entwickelung, Göttingen, 1875-1881. The political theory of the Empire is discussed by R. W. and A. J. Carlyle, A History of Mediaeval Political Theory in the West, Edinburgh, 1903.

For the religion of Rome and the progress and triumph of Christianity, Boissier, La religion romaine d'Auguste aux Antonins, Paris, 1874; De Broglie, L'Eglise et l'Empire romain au IVe siècle, Paris, 1856-1866; Marignon, Le triomphe de l'Eglise ou IVe siècle, Paris, 1887; Boissier, La fin du paganisme, Paris, 1890; Schultze, Geschichte der Untergangs des griechischrömischen Heidenthums, Berlin, 1892.

For the institutions, migrations, and invasions of the barbarians, see the following: Waits, Deutsche Verfassungsgeschichte, Kiel, 1880; Wietersheim, Geschichte der Völkerwanderung, Leipzig, 1880, describes the migrations of the barbarian, and contains s good bibliography; Ozanam, Les Germains avant le christianisme, Paris, 1847, is a study of the ancient Germans; Léotard, Essai sur la condition des barbares établis dans l'Empire romain au IVe siècle, Paris, 1873, presents a valuable discussion of the influence of the barbarians upon the Empire as coloni and foederati; Fustel de Coulanges, L'invasion germanique et la fin de l'Empire, Paris, 1891, and Villari, Le invasioni barbariche, Milan, 1901, give an acoount of the German invasions; Lefèvre, Germains et Slaves, origines et croyances, Paris, 1904, describes the barbarians; Geffroy, Rome et les barbares, Paris, 1874, treats of the impression produced by the barbarians on the Romans; Hodgkin, Italy and Her Invaders, Oxford, 1885, gives a valuable account of the settlement of the barbarians in Italy between 476 and 535; Littré, Etudes sur les barbares et le moyen âge, Paris, 1867, contrasts the Roman and the German types of civilization, and describes the influence of the Romans on the barbarians; Bury, The Later Roman Empire, London, 1889, explains the relations of the barbarian kingdoms to the Eastern Empire. See also Bury's edition of Gibbon, Decline and FoU of the Roman Empire, London, 1896-1900. Martroye, L'Occident à l'époque byzantine, Paris, 1904, contains an admirable chapter on the diplomacy of Theodoric.

The forms and usages of diplomacy in this period may be found in Fumagalli, Delle istituzioni diplomatiche, Milan, 1802, which contains a history of diplomatic forms from the time of the Roman Empire down to the end of the Middle Ages, with an account of the manner in which the archives were kept; Löhren, Beiträge zur Geschichte des gesandtschaftlichen Verkehrs im Mittelalter, a Heidelberg dissertation, Frankfort, no date; and Menzel, Deutsches Gesandtschaftswesen im Mittelalter, Hanover, 1892.

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