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A History of Diplomacy in the International Development of Europe: Vol I The Struggle for Universal Empire
- Authorities
by David Jayne Hill, LL.D.

In addition to works already named, the following are to be mentioned for the present chapter: Jaffé, Bibliotheca Rerum Germanicarum, Berlin, 1864-1873, of which volume IV, Monumenta Carolina, contains the Codex Carolinus and the Letters of St. Boniface. The correspondence of Charles the Great and Pope Leo III is included in the Codex Carolinus. See also Jaffé, Regesta Pontificum Romanorum, Berlin, 1888, from the foundation of the Church to 1198. Cenni, Monumenta Dominationis Pontificiae, Rome, 1761-1764; and Theiner, Codex Diplomaticus Dominii Temporalis Sanctae Sedis, Rome, 1861-1862, contain the chief data and documents regarding the establishment of the temporal power of the Papacy. The Liber Pontificalis, Vignoli's edition, Rome, 1724-1755, and Duchesne's edition, Paris, 1884, contains biographies of the popes. Troya, Codice Diplomatico Longobardo dal 568 al 774, Naples, 1852-1855, has collected the documents relating to the Lombards; and his Storia d'Italia nel medio evo, Naples, 1839-1859, presents minute analyses of them. Muratori, Scriptores Rerum Italicarum, Milan, 1723-1751, is the great collection of Italian writers from 500 to 1500. A new edition is in course of publication. The Annali d'Italia, Lucca, 1761-1770, is a valuable digest. Böhmer-Mühlbacher, Die Regesten des Kaiserreichs unter den Karolingern (751-918), Innsbruck, 1809, gives a catalogue of the acts of the Carlovingians. The Jahrbücher des fränkischen Reichs include the work of Bonnell on the beginnings of the Carlovingian rule,

Berlin, 1866; of Breysig on Charles Martel, Leipzig, 1869; of Hahn on the Frankish kingdom, Berlin, 1863; and of Abel and Simson on Charles the Great, Leipzig, 1883. Richter, Annalen der deutschen Geschichte im Mittelalter, Halle, 1873-1898, is an admirable digest of the period 200-1137, with citations from the text of original authorities, commentaries, and bibliography. Henderson, Select Historical Documents of the Middle Ages, London, 1892, contains translations of certain documents into English.

The history of the city of Rome is found in Gregorovius, Geschichte der Stadt Rom im Mittelalter, Stuttgart, 1859-1873; Reumout, Geschichte der Stadt Rom, Berlin, 1867-1870, vol. II(476-1420); and Grisar, Geschichte Roms und der Päpste im Mittelalter, Freiburg, 1898, still in course of publication.

The conversion and work of Clovis are treated by Junghans, Die Geschicchte der fränkischen Könige Childerich und Chlodovech, Göttingen, 1857.

On the early growth of the Papacy and the work of St.. Boniface, see Pingaud, La politique de St. Grégoire le Grand, Paris, 1874; Bede, Ecclesiastical History of England, London, 1847. Ozanam, La civilization chrétienne chez les Francs, Paris, 1849; the biographies of St. Boniface by Buss, Gratz, 1880; Fischer, Leipzig, 1881; and Kuhlmann, Paderborn, 1895.

On the development of the Frankish monarchy, see Dubos, Histoire critique de l'établissement de la monarchie française dans les Gaules, Paris, 1734; Fustel de Coulanges, La monarchie franque, Paris, 1889; Waitz, as already cited under chapter I; Viollet, Histoire des institutions politiques et administratives de la France, Paris, 1895, vol. I; Richter, Annalen, I Abteilung, pp. 108, 150.

The Byzantine administration of Italy is discussed in Diehl, Etudes sur l'administration byzantine dans l'exarchate de Ravenne (568-751), Paris, 1888.

The policy of the popes toward the Empire is considered by Gregorovius, cited above; by Baxmann, Die Politik der Päpste von Gregor I bis Gregor VII, Elberfeld, 1868; and by Duchesne, Les premiers temps de l'état pontifical, Paris, 1898. These and the following discuss also the diplomatic relations of the Papacy with the Franks: W. Sickel, Kirchenstaat und Karolinger, in the Historische Zeitschrift, Neue Folge, Bd. XLVIII, drittes Heft, 1900, pp. 386, 409; Bayet, Le voyage d'Étienne III en France, in the Revue Historique, t. XX, 1882, pp. 88, 105; Brunengo, Le origini della sovranità temporale del papi, Prato, 1882, third edition, 1889; Brunengo, I primi papi-re e l'ultimo dei re longobardi, Rome, 1864; W. Sickel, Die Verträge der Päpste mit den Karolingern, in the Deutsche Zeitschrift für Geschichtswissenschaft, Bd. XI, pp. 302, 351, and Bd. XII, pp. 1, 43, 1894-1895; W. Martens, Beleuchtung der neuesten Kontroversen über die römische Frage
, Munich, 1898.

The popular traditions of the Empire are discussed by Graf, Roma nella memoria e nelle immaginazioni del medio evo, Turin, 1882-1883.

On the relations of Charles the Great to the Papacy, see also Brunengo, Il patriziato romano di Carlomagno, Prato, 1893.


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