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A History of Diplomacy in the International Development of Europe: Vol I The Struggle for Universal Empire
- Authorities
by David Jayne Hill, LL.D.


In addition to the collections of documents already named, the following are useful for the present chapter: Theophanes, Chronographia, printed in Migne, No. 1865, and separately with a Latin version by P. Goar, Paris, 1855, and newly edited by de Boor, 1883-1887, supplements the Western documents with the Byzantine records.

Th. Sickel, Acta Regum et Imperatorum Karolinorum, Vienna, 1887, supplements Böhmer's Regesten and contains, pp. 72, 76, a description of the chancellery of the Franks under the Merovingian and Carlovingian kings and emperors, with an account of the chancellors of Charles the Great.

The Vita Caroli of Einhard is contained in the Monumento Carolina of Jaffé.

Boretius, Monumenta Germaniae, 1881-1883, Leges I, contains the "Capitularia Regum Fraucorum." The Important Capitulary of 802 is translated in Henderson, Select Documents, pp. 189, 201.

Altmann and Bernheim, Ausgewählte Urkunden, Berlin, 1891, contains the text of many documents of this period.

Hincmar, De Ordine Palatii, found in Migne, and published separately, casts much light upon the Carlovingian court.

The regular collections of treaties now begin to be useful, but no complete and consecutive body of texts is yet available. Among the digests are Barbeyrac, Histoire des Anciens Traitez, Amsterdam and The Hague, 1739; and Gatti, Ristretto della Storia dei principali trattati di pace della divisione dell' Imperio, Rome, 1824. Full texts are given in Dumont, Corps universel diplomatique, Amsterdam and The Hague, 1726-1731. Rousset's supplement to Dumont, --vols. I and II, -- contains the text of several treaties after 838; but in both Dumont and Rousset there are many omissions.

On the coronation and reign of Charles the Great., see Kleinclausz, L'Empire carolingien, et origines et ses transformations, Paris, 1902.

The coronation is criticaily studied by Ohr, Die Kaiserkrönung Karls des Grossen, Tübingen, 1904; W. Sickel, Die Kaiserwahl Karls des Grossen, in the Mittheilungen des österreichischen Instituts, Bd. XX; W. Sickel, Dis. Kaiserkrönung von Karl bis Berengar, in the Historische Zeitschrift, Neue Folge, Bd. XLVI, erstes Heft, 1898, pp. 1, 37; and Sackur, Ein römischer Majestätsprozess und die Kaiserkrönung Karls des Grossen in the Historische Zeitschrift, Nene Folge, Bd. LI, 1901, pp. 385, 406. On the legality of Charles' election as Emperor, consult also Lécrivain, Le Sénat romain.

The relation, of the Carlovingian Empire, the Papacy, and Byzantium are discussed in Venediger, Versuch einer Darlegung der Beziehungen Karl des Grossen zum byzantinischen Reich, Halle, 1872; Gasquet, L'Empire byzantin et la monarchie franque, Paris, 1885; Harnack, Das Karolingische und das byzantinische Reich in ihren politischen Beziehungen, Göttingen, 1880; Ostermann, Karl der Grosse und das byzantinische Reich, Berlin, 1895; Norden, Das Papsttum wad Byzanz, Berlin, 1903.

On the general history of the Carlovingian Empire, see in addition to Kleinclausz, L'Empire carolingien, Döllinger, Das Kaiserthum Karls des Grossen und seiner Nachfolger, Munich, 1865; Mühlbacher, Deutsche Geschichte unter den Karolingern, Innsbruck, 1896; Fisher, The Mediaeval Empire, London, 1898.

The institution of the missi dominici is discussed In Krause, Geschichte des Instituts der Missi Dominici in the Mittheilungen des instituts für österreichische Geschichtsforschung, Bd. XI, 2e Abtheilung, 1890, pp. 193, 300.

On the diplomatic relations with Venice, see Fanta, Die Verträge der Kaiser mit Venedig bis zum Jahre 983, in the Mittheilungen des Instituts f. österr. Geschichte, Bd. I.

On the reign of Lewis the Pious, see Willems, L'élément historique dans le coronement de Looïs, Louvain, 1896; Himly, Wala et Louis le Débonnaire, Paris, 1849; Monnier, Histoire des luttes politiques et religieuses dans les temps carlovingiens, Paris, 1852; Fustel de Coulanges, Les transformations de la royauté à l'époque carolingienne, Paris, 1892.

The date of the "Donation of Constantine" is exhaustively considered by Scheffer-Boichorst in the Mittheilungen des Institute f. österr. Geschichte, Bd. X, 1889, pp. 302, 325, and Bd. XI, 1890, pp. 128, 146. See also Martens, Beleuchtung der neusten Kontroversen, pp. 151, 158.

The subdivision of the Empire and the diplomacy of the later Carlovingians are treated In Gasté, Les serments de Strassbourg, Strasburg, 1888; Schwartz, Der Bruderkrieg der Söhne Ludwigs des Frommen und der Vertrag zu Verdun, Fulda, 1843; Pouzet, La succession de Charlemagne et le Traité de Verdun, Paris, 1890; Doizé, Le gouvernement confraternel des fils de Louis le Pieux, Paris, 1898, In Le Moyen Age for 1898, pp. 252, 285; Calmette, La diplomatie Carolingienne du Traité de Verdun à la mort de Charles le Chauve, Paris, 1901. The forms of immediate intercourse between sovereigns in this period are given by Michael, Die Formen des unmittelbaren Verkehrs zwischen den deutschen Kaisern und souveränen Fürsten, vornehmlich im X, XI und XII Jahr- hundert, Hamburg and Leipzig, 1888.

Lapôtre, L'Europe et le S. Siège à l'époque Carolingienne, Paris, 1895, contains a defence of the motives and ideals of John VIII in choosing Charles the Bald as Emperor.

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