HumanitiesWeb HumanitiesWeb
WelcomeHistoryLiteratureArtMusicPhilosophyResourcesHelp
Sort By Author Sort By Title
pixel

Resources
Sort By Author
Sort By Title

Search

Get Your Degree!

Find schools and get information on the program that’s right for you.

Powered by Campus Explorer

& etc
FEEDBACK

(C)1998-2013
All Rights Reserved.

Site last updated
26 June, 2013
The Great Republic by the Master Historians
The Battle of the Thames
by Bancroft, Hubert H.


[The naval victory on Lake Erie was quickly followed by an equally decisive one on the land. General Harrison, with an army of seven thousand men, was at that time on the southern shore of the lake, and immediately after Perry's victory embarked on his fleet, and was conveyed to the vicinity of Malden, the central point of the British movements in the West. The disaster to their fleet seem to have demoralized the British troops, or at least to have frightened their commander, General Proctor, who displayed a cowardice equal to that of Hull. He hastily retreated from Malden, after destroying the navy-yard and barracks. Tecumseh, the Indian chief, who was with him, strongly remonstrated against this flight, as unwise and unmilitary, but without success. Everything was burned that could not be carried off, and the retreat of the army was the precipitate flight of a panic-struck host, being conducted so rapidly that no effort was made to impede pursuit by burning bridges and obstructing roads. The story of the succeeding events we select from the "Historical Sketch of the Second War with Great Britain," by Charles J. Ingersoll, a member of Congress at that period.]

General Harrison almost despaired of overtaking the fugitives. On the 27th September, 1813, he wrote to the Secretary of War that he would pursue them next day, but that there was no probability of overtaking them. But the Kentuckians were resolved on the revenge of, at any rate, a battle with their murderers at Raisin.. They were not to be disappointed by any irresolution or deterred by any obstacle. Harrison, therefore, with Commodore Perry, General Cass, General Green Clay, and an army eager for action, pushed forward without delay or hesitation, by forced marches, over rivers, morasses, through broken countries, attended by some boats and water-craft; continually finding Proctor's stores, provisions, ammunition and arms, either deserted by the way, or so weakly guarded, by small detachments of the enemy, as to offer no resistance. Seldom was flight more mismanaged than that of the English.. The whole way from Malden to the Thames betrayed their extreme perturbation..

At length, on the morning of the 5th October, 1813, near an Indian settlement called the Moravian towns, on the river Thames, Harrison came up with the English, eight hundred regular troops under Major-General Proctor, and twelve hundred Indians headed by Tecumseh. By this time Colonel Johnson's regiment of twelve hundred mounted men, armed with guns, without either pistols or sabres, had joined General Harrison, having, by forced marches, followed from the moment they got his orders to do so..

The night before the battle of the Thames, Walk-in-the-water, with sixty followers, deserted Proctor, and threw themselves in General Harrison's arms. Large quantities of English stores fell into our possession continually. Late at night Proctor and Tecumseh descended the river clandestinely, and made a reconnoissance, with a view to attack Harrison, which was Tecumseh's desire, and probably Proctor's best plan for escape; but the English general did not choose to risk what would have been not only less dishonorable, but much safer, than the battle he was forced to accept.

When all General Harrison's dispositions for attack, on the 5th of October, 1813, had been made, and the army was advancing against the enemy, well posted among woods, marshes, and streams, Colonel Wood, who had approached close to the English, - concealed to reconnoitre, - returned to General Harrison and told him that Proctor's men were drawn up in open lines; that is, each man somewhat separated from the next, instead of standing close together, as is the strongest and safest method. With considerable felicity of prompt adaptation to circumstances, Harrison instantly changed his order of attack. He inquired of Colonel Johnson if his horsemen could charge infantry. "Certainly," said the colonel. His men had been trained and practised to charge in the woods, just as they were to do. General Harrison then gave Colonel Johnson the order to charge; and in an instant that battalion of the mounted regiment which Colonel Richard Johnson committed to his brother, the lieutenant-colonel, James, charged through and through the English infantry, who then threw down their arms and cried for quarters in a much more craven mood than had yet been betrayed in that war. Their commander, after demoralizing them by guilt and encumbering them with plunder, disheartened them by pusillanimous behavior when attacked. Colonel Richard Johnson's order to charge was discretionary, to charge the enemy as they stood, infantry, artillery, and some horse. Finding that the whole of his regiment could hardly get at them between the river and the swamp where they were drawn up, while by passing the swamp he might reach the Indians there awaiting our onset, Colonel Johnson, in the absence of General Harrison, exercised a judicious discretion to consign the first battalion of his regiment to his brother for the English, while he himself, with the other battalion, should attack the Indians. The English infantry delivered some shots as Lieutenant-Colonel James Johnson approached, and for a moment disconcerted some of the first horses, although drilled to that mode of charge. But, taking a couple of volleys as they advanced, they easily recovered composure, rushed on the infantry, pierced, broke, then wheeled upon them, poured in a destructive fire on their rear, and brought them to instantaneous submission, without much loss on either side.. Proctor, with a small escort of dragoons and mounted Indians, made his escape so quickly and rapidly that no effort could overtake him. He was pursued for many miles, abandoned his carriage and sword, lost all his plunder and papers,.. and found his way, at last, through many tribulations, to Burlington Heights, there to be publicly reprimanded and disgraced for cowardice and avarice, by the Governor-General of Canada. The disaster of the British army, said an English historian, was not palliated by those precautions and that presence of mind which even in defeat reflect lustre on a commander. The bridges and roads in rear of the retreating army were left entire, while its progress was retarded with a useless and cumbersome load of baggage..

Tecumseh, with his red braves, made a very different stand against Colonel Richard Johnson. Unlike the precipitate firing of the British infantry, these gallant savages reserved theirs till close pressed, then delivered volleys with deadly aim and effect. Embarrassed by the swamp, Colonel Johnson found it necessary to dismount his men. As soon as Governor Shelby heard the musketry from his station, the old soldier, eager for action, led up his men. After some time of close, sharp, and mutually destructive fighting, the Indians were forced to give way, but not without sacrificing three times as many lives as the English, and leaving infinitely fewer prisoners as trophies to their conquerors. Active and conspicuous, invincible and exemplary, the valiant Tecumseh fought till he fell pierced with several balls and died a hero's death. The Indian chief on whom the savage command devolved deplored to General Harrison, after the battle, the treacherous cowardice of their father, General Proctor, by which term of veneration he still mentioned that recreant superior..

Colonel Richard Johnson's task in conflict with Tecumseh was much longer, bloodier, and more difficult, though no bolder, than his brother's vanquishing the English. Whether with his own hand he killed the Indian chieftain is among the disputed occurrences of a conflict in which his conduct requires no additional celebrity. He was repeatedly shot, and desperately wounded..

The battle of the Thames was our first regular and considerable victory. I have not attempted to describe its professional, or indeed particular, features; that having been done by so many others. Truth, always difficult of attainment, is hardly a rudiment of narration when involving personal animosities and vanities, exacerbated by national prejudices. In fact, no one person witnesses much of most battles, but must be content with various reports from others. Hence the English proverb that falsehood glares on every French bulletin.. The result of the Northwestern campaign was to relieve great regions from English power and Indian devastation.

[Ingersoll proceeds to say, in justice to English soldiers, "Thousands of hard- fought fields in every quarter and with every people of the world, by land and sea, attest the stubborn valor of British troops. No history can deny their characteristic courage and fortitude. But English murderers and thieves became cowards in Canada; hard words, but true. To save themselves from retaliation, and their ill-got plunder from recapture, they laid down their arms to an inferior force of raw troops, while their commander fled in the first moment of encounter."

During the period of the events above related, an Indian war was taking place in the South which was attended with the ordinary barbarities of such outbreaks. Tecumseh, the bitter foe of the Americans and the head of the great Indian confederacy of the North, had used his influence to stir up the Southern tribes to war. His efforts proved successful with the Creeks, who took up the hatchet and made a sudden assault upon the settlements. Fort Mimms, in Alabama, in which many families of settlers had collected for safety, was taken by surprise, and its inmates, numbering nearly three hundred men, women, and children, were massacred with the usual cruelty of the Indians. General Andrew Jackson, the commander of the Tennessee militia, immediately marched into the Creek country, and a series of battles commenced which ended in the complete subjection of the savages. General Coffee, with nine hundred men, surrounded a body of Indians at Tallusahatchee, and killed about two hundred, not a warrior escaping. The battles of Talladega, Autosse, Emucfau, and others followed, with defeat to the Indians, though with much loss to the Americans. The last fight took place at the Horse-Shoe Bend of the Tallapoosa. Here the Indian fort was carried by assault, and the Indians, seeing no way of escape, continued to fight until nearly all were slain. This broke the power of the Creeks, and they soon after submitted to the whites.]

Charles J. Ingersoll

Personae

Terms Defined

Referenced Works