- Orlande de Lassus [Chronology]
HumanitiesWeb HumanitiesWeb
Periods Alphabetically Nationality Topics Themes Forms Glossary

Selected Works


Get Your Degree!

Find schools and get information on the program that’s right for you.

Powered by Campus Explorer

& etc

All Rights Reserved.

Site last updated
28 October, 2012
Real Time Analytics

Orlande de Lassus
(1532 - 1594)


M : Orlande de Lassus born
ST : Francisco Pizarro leads expedition from Panama to Peru
RP : Eng. clergy submit to Henry VIII
ED : Robert Estienne (Stephanus): Thesaurus linguae Latinae, first Lat.-Eng. dictionary
RP : Machiavelli's Il Principe published posth.
RP : Reformation in France (John Calvin)
ST : Ger. botanist Otto Brunfels: Book of Herbs
DL : Sugar cane first cultivated in Brazil


PH : Henry VIII secretly marries Anne Boleyn
RP : Thomas Cranmer becomes Archbishop of Canterbury: he declares marriage between Henry and Catherine of Aragon void and marriage with Anne Boleyn lawful; Anne crowned queen; Henry is excommunicated by pope
PH : Accession of Ivan IV of Russia
PH : Pizarro executes the Inca of Peru
ED : Nicholas Udall: Floures for Latine Speaking
M : First madrigals by Philippe Jacques Verdelot, Arcadelt, and others, printed in Rome
VA : Allerhand Farben and mancherley weyse Dünten zu bereyten, manual for the production of paints and inks, published in Augsburg
ST : First lunatic asylums (without medical attention)
LT : Elizabeth I born 7 September


PH : "Communist state" of Anabaptists under leadership of John Leiden at Münster, Westphalia
PH : Final rift between England and Rome - Church of England is officially formed
RP : Confession of Basel drafted by Oswald Myconius
RP : Pope Clement VII dies; Cardinal Alessandro Farnese elected Pope Paul III
RP : Jesuit Order founded by Ignatius Loyola
RP : Luther completes German translation of the Bible
ST : Jacques Cartier sights coast of Labrador
DL : Decree forbidding Eng. farmers to own more than 2,000 sheep
VA : Correggio dies


PH : Eng. clergy abjure authority of the pope
PH : Sir Thomas More tried for treason and executed after refusing the oath of the king's supremacy
PH : Münster capitulates to the Hessian army; Catholicism prevails again; Anabaptist leader John of Leiden tortured to death
PH : Charles V conquers Tunis and frees 20,000 Christian slaves
ED : Study of canon law forbidden in Cambridge
RP : Order of the Ursulines founded by Angela Merici in Brescia
ED : Marino Sanudo's "Diarii" finished, source for the history and daily life of Venice
ST : First diving bells
DL : Beginnings of the London Exchange
DL : Statute of Uses curbs power of Eng. landowners


PH : Queen Anne Boleyn sent to the Tower of London and executed
PH : Henry VIII marries Jane Seymour, his third wife
RP : The Pilgrimage of Grace, a rising against the dissolution of monasteries, begins under Robert Aske of Doncaster
PH : Act of Parliament declares the authority of the pope void in England
RP : John Calvin: Christianae religionis Institutio
RP : Reginald Pole: Pro ecclesiasticae unitatis defensione
RP : Reformation in Denmark and Norway
RP : 376 religious houses dissolved in England by royal decree
ED : Sansovino (Jacopo Tatti): St. Mark's Library, Venice
M : First songbook with lute accompaniment printed in Spain
ST : India rubber mentioned for the first time


PH : The Pilgrimage of Grace and similar risings are put down; Robert Aske is sentenced to death for treason and executed
RP : First Catholic hymnal (Vete)
ED : Robert Recorde: Introductions for to Lerne to Recken with the Pen
M : First conservatories of music are founded; in Naples for boys, in Venice for girls
ST : Niccolò Fontana, called "Tartaglia", initiates the science of ballistics
ST : Paracelsus: Grosse Astronomie, manual of astrology
ST : First map of Flanders by Gerardus Mercator


RP : Destruction of relics and shrines in southern England
RP : Melanchthon: Ethica doctrinae elementa
ST : Bogotá founded by Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada
VA : Albrecht Altdorfer dies


M : William Byrd born
RP : Calvin: Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans
RP : Erasmus: Proverbs or Adagies, trans. by Richard Taverner
RP : Melanchthon: De officio principum
ST : Olaus Magnus: map of the world
DL : First Christmas tree, at Strasbourg Cathedral
DL : A public lottery held in France


PH : Henry VIII marries Anne of Cleves; marriage annulled by the convocation of Canterbury and York; Henry marries Catherine Howard, his fifth wife
PH : Treaty between Venice and Turkey signed at Constantinople
PH : Afghan rebel Sher Shah becomes Emperor of Delhi
RP : Order of the Jesuits confirmed by Pope Paul III
ED : Henry VIII founds regius professorships of Greek, Hebrew, divinity, civil law, and physics ast Oxford and Cambridge
RP : Augustinus Steuchus: De perenni philosophia
ST : Ether produced from alcohol and sulfuric acid
ST : Michael Servetus discovers pulmonary circulation of the blood
VA : Parmigianino dies


PH : Henry VIII assumes titles of King of Ireland and Head of the Irish Church
PH : Queen Catherine Howard sent to the Tower on suspicion of immoral conduct
RP : John Knox leads Calvinist Reformation in Scotland
RP : Loyola elected General of the Jesuits


PH : Queen Catherine Howard executed
PH : Mary, Queen of Scots, ascends the throne
RP : Pope Paul III establishes Inquisition in Rome
ED : Magdalen College, Cambridge, founded
ED : University of Pisa refounded by Cosimo I de'Medici
ST : Antonio da Mota enters Japan as the first European
ST : Andreas Vesalius: De fabrica corporis humani, modern anatomy
DL : Heavy taxes on drinks in Bavaria


PH : Henry VIII marries Catherine Parr, his sixth queen, who survives him
RP : Index librorum prohibitiorum issued by Pope Paul III
RP : First Protestants burned at the stake by Span. Inquisition
ST : Span. navigator and mechanician Blasco da Baray submits to Charles V the design for a steamboat
VA : Hans Holbein the Younger dies


PH : Act of hereditary settlement fixes Swed. succession in male line
ED : University of Königsberg founded
ST : Georg Agricola initiates the study of physical geology
ST : Luca Ghini publishes the first herbarium
ST : Sebastian Münster: Cosmographia generalis
ST : Michael Stifel: Aritmetica integra
ST : St Bartholomew's Hospital in London re-founded
ST : Silver mines of Potosi, Peru, discovered


PH : Truce of Adrianople between Charles V, Ferdinand of Austria, and Suleiman I
LT : Stage comedians create a new type of improvised theatrical entertainment in northern Italy
RP : Council of Trent meets to discuss Reformation and Counter Reformation
ST : Gernoimo Cardano works out Scipione del Ferro's equations of the third and fourth degree
ST : Claude Garamond designs his antique typography
ST : First European botanical garden in Padua
M : John Taverner dies 15 October


ST : Civil war in Germany (Schmalkaldic War) between Emperor Charles V and the Schmalkldic League
ED : Cardinal College, Oxford, refounded as Christ Church
RP : Etienne de La Boétie: Le Discours de la servitude volontaire
ST : First Welsh book printed: Yny Lhyvyr Mwnn
ST : Ital. physician Girolamo Fracastoro states his view on infections and epidemic diseases
ST : Fl. geographer Gerardus Mercator states that the earth has a magnetic pole
ST : First pharmacopoia by Valerius Cordus
ST : Abortive efforts to find the legendary Dorado in Venezuela


PH : Ivan IV crowned Czar of Russia in Moscow
PH : Henry VIII of England dies; succeeded by his and Jane Seymour's son Edward VI
PH : Francis I of France dies; succeeded by his son Henry II
PH : Crown of Bohemia proclaimed hereditary in the House of Hapsburg
RP : William Baldwin: A Treatise of Morall Phylosophie
RP : La chambre ardente created in France for the trial of heretics
M : Swiss musical theorist Henricus Glareanus publishes his work on the 12 church modes, Dodekachordon
DL : First predictions of the Fr. astrologer Nostradamus
DL : French instead of Latin declared the official language of the Fr. authorities
DL : Moscow destroyed by fire
DL : Poor rate levied in London


PH : Sigusmund I of Poland dies; succeeded by his son Sigismund II Augustus
LT : Hôtel de Bourgogne, first roofed theatre, opened in Paris
LT : Royal edict forbids performance of "mystères" in Paris
RP : Ignatius Loyola: Spiritual Exercises published
ED : University of Messina founded
RP : Francis Zavier founds a Jesuit mission in Japan
ED : Sir Thomas Gresham founds seven professorships in London


PH : Ivan IV calls first national assembly in Russia
LT : Joachim du Bellay, leader of the poetic Pléiade group, states the program of Fr. Classicism: Défense et illustration dela langue francaise
RP : Only the new Book of Prayer may be used in England
RP : Consensus Tigurinus agreement between Calvin and Zwinglians on Holy Communion
ST : Melanchthon objects to the theories of Copernicus
RP : Pope Paul III dies
ED : Siegmund von Herberstein: Rerum Moscovitarum commentarii, report on Russia
ED : Konrad von Gesner: Biblioteca universalis
ST : Thomé de Souza founds Sao Salvador
DL : Court jesters (dwarfs, cripples) appear in Europe


RP : Thomas Cranmer: A Defence of the Catholic Doctrine of the Sacrament
RP : Cardinal Giovanni Maria del Monte becomes Pope Julius III
RP : Siegmund von Herberstein: De natura fossilium
VA : Beginning of early Baroque in art
VA : Beginnings of Jap. "Ukiyoe" painting
VA : Giorgio Vasari: Lives of the Artists
M : John Marbeck: The Booke of Common Praier noted, first musical setting of Eng. liturgy
DL : Game of billiards played for the first time in Italy
DL : Sealing wax used for first time
DL : First written reference to game of cricket (creag) in young Edward VI's wardrobe accounts


ED : Jesuits found Collegio Romano in Rome as papal university
RP : Jews persecuted in Bavaria
ED : University of Lima founded
ST : Pierre Belon: Histoire naturelle des estranges poissons
ST : Konrad von Gesner: Historia animalium, modern zoology
DL : First licensing of alehouses and taverns in England and Wales


LT : Sir Walter Raleigh born
ED : Collegium Germanicum, Rome, founded by Jesuits
ED : Francesco López de Gómera, private secretary to Cortes, publishes his Historia general de las Indias
RP : Second Prayer Book of Edward VI
ST : Bartolommeo Eustachio: Tabulae anatomicae, Eustachian tube and valve
ST : Christ's Hospital, London, founded by King Edward VI
DL : St. Andrew's Golf Club, Scotland, founded; Mary, Queen of Scots, probably first female golfer


PH : Lady Jane Grey proclaimed Queen of England; deposed nine days later
PH : Mary I, daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon, becomes Queen of England
PH : Sultan Suleiman I makes peace with Persia
RP : Domingo de Soto: De justicia et jure
RP : Sir Thomas More: A Dialogue of Comfort Against Tribulation (posth.)
RP : Thomas Wilson: The Arte of Rhetorique
M : The violin in its present form begins to develop
DL : Pedro de Cieza de Leon describes the potato in his Chronicle of Peru
VA : Lucas Cranach the Elder dies


PH : Lady Jane Grey executed
PH : Princess Elizabeth sent to the Tower for suspected participation in rebellion against Mary I
RP : Catholic restoration in England
ED : Trinity College, Oxford, founded
ST : Ulisse Aldrovandi: Herbarium


PH : Peace of Augsburg: Lutheran states to enjoy equal rights with Catholic
PH : Charles V turns over government of Netherlands to his son Philip
ED : An Aztec dictionary published
RP : Pope Julius III dies 23 March; Cardinal Marcello Cervino elected Pope Marcellus II (dies 30 April); Cardinal Giovanni Pietro Caraffa elected Pope Paul IV
ST : Pierre Belon: L'Histoire de la nature des oyseaux
ST : Tobacco brought for the first time to Spain from America


PH : Charles V abdicates, assigning Spain to his son Philip II, and the Holy Roman Empire to his brother Ferdinand I, and retires into the monastery of Yuste
PH : Akbar the Great, Mogul Emperor of India
RP : Juan de Ávila: Audi filia, ascetic Christian text
RP : Jesuit Order established in Prague
ST : George Agricola: De re metallica, a study of mineralogy (posth.)
DL : Stationer's Company of London granted monopoly of printing in England


M : Thomas Morley born
PH : John III, King of Portugal dies; succeeded by his grandson Sebastian I
DL : State bankruptcy in Spain and France
LT : The Sack-Full of Newes, first English play to be censored
ED : Gonville College, Cambridge, refounded as Gonville and Caius College
ST : Robert Recorde: Whetstone of Wit, first Eng. treatise on algebra
ED : Repton School, Derbyshire, founded
ED : Accademia di San Luca, Rome
ST : Thomas Tusser: A Hundreth Good Pointes of Husbandrie
DL : Influenza epidemic throughout Europe


PH : Ferdinand I assumes the title of Holy Roman Emperor
PH : Ex-Emperor Charles V dies
PH : Queen Mary I of England dies; succeeded by Elizabeth I
DL : John Knox: The First Blast of the Trumpet Against the Monstrous Regiment of Women
RP : Zohar, cabbalistic work of Jewish mysticism (13th-century), printed
ED : University of Jena founded
M : Gioseffo Zarlino: Institutioni harmoniche, definitions of modern major and minor scales
DL : Thomas Gresham suggests reform of Eng. currency (Gresham's Law)
DL : Hamburg Exchange founded
DL : Portuguese introduce Europeans to the habit of taking snuff
PH : French retake Calais


PH : King Christian III of Denmark and Norway dies; succeeded by Frederick II
PH : Coronation of Queen Elizabeth I
PH : King Henry II of France killed in a tournament; succeeded by his son Francis II, whose wife Mary, Queen of Scots, assumes title Queen of England
PH : Margaret of Parma, sister of Philip II, Regent in the Netherlands
LT : Thomas Sackville: Induction, introducing the new age of Elizabethan literature
RP : Elizabethan Prayer Book
RP : Mattias Flacius: Ecclesiastica historica
RP : Pope Paul IV dies; Giovanni Angelo de'Medici elected Pope Pius IV
ED : University of Geneva founded
ST : Realdo Colombo describes position and posture of human embryo


RP : Huguenot conspiracy at Amboise; liberty of worship promised in France
PH : King Francis II of France dies; succeeded by Charles IX with Catherine de'Medici, his mother, as regent
RP : Church of Scotland founded
RP : Francesco Patrizi: Della historia, on the philosophy of history
RP : Beginnings of Puritanism in England
ED : Westminster School, London, founded
VA : The Uffizi at Florence founded
ST : First scientific society founded at Naples by Giambattista della Porta
PH : Madrid becomes capital of Spain
DL : Tobacco plant imported to Western Europe by Jean Nicot
DL : Visiting cards used for the first time by Germ. students in Italy


PH : Edict of Orleans suspends persecution of Huguenots
PH : Baltic states of the Order of the Teutonic Knights secularised
RP : First Calvinist refugees from Flanders settle in England
ST : Gabriele Fallopius: Observations anatomicae
DL : Ruy López develops in Spain the modern technique of chess playing
ST : Forerunners of hand grenades made for the first time
ED : Merchant Taylors' School, London, founded
VA : St. Paul's Cathedral, London, badly damaged by fire
DL : Tulips from the Near East first come to Western Europe


M : John Dowland born
PH : Shane O'Neill rebels in Ireland
PH : Emperor Ferdinand I signs eight-year truce with Suleiman I of Turkey
PH : Maximilian, son of Ferdinand I, becomes King of Bohemia
RP : Third session of Council of Trent convenes
RP : 1,200 Fr. Huguenots slain at Massacre of Vassy; first War of Religion begins
RP : Eng. Articles of Religion of 1552 reduced to the Thirty-Nine Articles
M : Gasparo Bertolotti da Salò moves to Brescia to become first great Ital. violin maker
ST : French attempt to colonise Florida
ST : John Hawkins makes his first journey to the New World; begins slave trade between Guinea and West Indies
DL : Milled coins introduced in England
DL : Plague in Paris
M : Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck born in April


LT : Michael Drayton born
RP : Peace of Amboise ends first War of Religion in France; the Huguenots are granted limited toleration
PH : Charles IX of France (at 13) is declared of age
PH : Maximilian II elected King of Hungary
ST : First printing presses in Russia
LT : Blossoming of Span. mystic poetry
RP : John Foxe's Book of Martyrs, first Eng. edition
RP : Council of Trent ends
RP : Counter Reformation begins in Bavaria
RP : Term "Puritan" first used in England
VA : John Shute: First and Chief Grounds of Architecture
ST : Gerardus Mercator draws the first accurate map of Lorraine
ST : Ambroise Pare: Cinq livres de chirugie
DL : Eng. Parliament passes acts for relief of the poor and for regulating apprentices
DL : General outbreak of plague in Europe kills 20,000 people in London


PH : Peace of Troyes ends war between England and France
PH : Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor since 1556 dies; succeeded by his son Maximilian II
RP : Council of Trent's Professio Fidei confirmed by Pope Pius IV
RP : Counter Reformation begins in Poland
RP : Index librorum prohibitorum published after receiving papal approval
RP : Philip Neri founds the Congregation of the Oratory in Rome
RP : Scots' Psalter
ST : Bartolommeo Eustachio: Opuscula anatomica
DL : Horse-drawn coach introduced in England from Holland
VA : Artist Michelangelo de Buonarotti dies in Rome
LT : William Shakespeare born 23 April


RP : Jacobus Anconcio: Stratagemata Satanae, advocating religious toleration
ED : Thomas Cooper: Thesaurus linguae Romanae et Britannicae
RP : Pierre de la Place: Histoire de nostre temps
RP : Pope Pius IV dies
ST : Royal College of Physicians, London, empowered to carry out human dissections
ST : Bernardino Telesio: De rerum natura, foreshadowing empirical methods of science
DL : Sir Thomas Gresham founds the Royal Exchange, London
DL : Pencils manufactured in England
DL : Sir John Hawkins introduces sweet potatoes and tobacco into England


PH : Suleiman I dies; succeeded by Selim II as Sultan of Turkey
RP : Calvinist riots in the Netherlands; Regent Margaret of Palma abolishes Inquisition
PH : Sigismund III, King of Poland
PH : Turko-Hungarian war renewed in spite of truce of 1562
RP : Jean Bodin: Methodus ad facilem historiarum cognitionem, on the philosophy of history
RP : Heinrich Bullinger unites Calvinism with Zwinglianism in Second Helvetian Confession
RP : Cardinal Michaele Ghislieri becomes Pope Pius V
DL : Notizie Scritte, one of first newspapers, appears in Venice


PH : Queen Mary forced to abdicate; makes her stepbrother, the Earl of Moray, regent
PH : Duke of Alba arrives as military governor in the Netherlands and begins reign of terror; Margaret of Parma resigns regency
PH : In Japan Nobunaga deposes shogunate and centralises government
ED : Francesco Guicciardini: Storia d'Italia (posth.)
RP : Maximilian II establishes monastery council to superintend clergy
ED : University of Helmstedt, Brunswick, founded
ST : Alvaro Mendana de Neyra discovers Solomon Islands in Pacific Ocean
PH : Rio de Janeiro founded
DL : Two million Indians die in S. America of typhoid fever
M : Claudio Monteverdi born 15 May


PH : Peace between Selim II and Maximilian II
PH : Treaty of Longjumeau ends second War of Religion in France
PH : Swedes declare Eric XIV unfit to reign and proclaim John III king
DL : First modern eisteddfod for Welsh music and literature held at Caerwys
RP : First translation of the Bible into Czech
RP : Archbishop Parker's Bishop's Bible
ED : English College founded at Douai by William Allen to train Jesuit missionaries for work in England
RP : Jesuit missionaries welcomed in Japan
RP : Pope Pius V issues revised Brevarium Romanun
ST : Gerardus Mercator devises cylindrical projection for charts
ST : Costanzo Varolio studies the anatomy of the human brain
DL : Alexander Nowell, Dean of St. Paul's, London, invents bottled beer
VA : Jan Brueghel the Elder born


PH : Sigismund II of Poland unites Poland with Lithuania; Union of Lublin
ST : Tycho Brahe begins at Augsburg construction of a 19-foot quandrant and a celestial glove, five feet in diameter
ST : Mercator: Cosmographia, and map of the world for navigational use
DL : 40,000 inhabitants of Lisbon die in carbuncular fever epidemic
DL : Public lottery held in London to finance repairs to the port
VA : Pieter Bruegel the Elder dies


PH : Peace of St. Germain-en-Laye ends third civil war in France; Huguenots gain amnesty
PH : Peace of Stettin: Denmark recognises independence of Sweden
PH : Imperial Diet meets at Speyer
DL : Japan opens port of Nagasaki to overseas trade
PH : Turks declare war on Venice
LT : Lodovico Castelvetro demands introduction of Aristotelian principles to contemporary drama
M : Jean Antoine de Baïf founds Académie de Poésie et de Musique, Paris
ED : Roger Ascham: The Scholemaster, manual on education
RP : Consensus of Sendomir: Calvinists, Lutherans and Moravian Brothers of Poland ally against Jesuits
RP : Blaise de Monluc: Commentaires on Fr. politics
RP : Pope Pius V issues bull, Regnans in Excelsis, excommunicating Elizabeth I
RP : Missale Romanum issued by Pius V
M : Earliest known music festival to honour St. Cecilia, in Normandy
M : Culminating point of vocal polyphonic a cappella style (Palestrina, Orlando di Lasso)
ST : Abraham Ortelius (Antwerp): Theatrum orbis terrarum, first modern atlas, with 53 maps
DL : Nuremberg postal services begin


PH : Sigismund II of Poland dies; end of Jagellon dynasty
PH : Reconciliation between Charles IX of France and Huguenots
DL : Act of Parliament forbids export of wool from England
RP : Act of Parliament enforces subscription to the Thirty-Nine Articles among clergy
ED : Bibliotheca Laurenziana in Florence opened to the public
RP : Hugh Latimer: Frutefull Sermons
RP : Francesco Patrizi: Discussiones peripateticae, anti-Aristotelian arguments
ED : Harrow School founded by John Lyon
ED : Jesus College, Oxford, founded by Hugh Price


LT : John Donne born
PH : Dutch War of Independence begins
PH : Estates of Poland declare the monarchy elective
RP : Massacre on St. Bartholomew's Day in Paris: 2,000 Huguenots murdered there
PH : Fourth War of Religion begins in France
ED : Annibale Caro: Lettere Familiari, history of Tuscan literary language in Italy
ED : Jean de Serres: Commentaqrii de statu religionis et reipublicae, survey of Fr. Wars of Religion
ED : Henri Estienne: Thesaurus linguae Graecae
RP : Mathew Parker: De antiquitate Britannicae ecclesiae
RP : Pope Pius V dies; Cardinal Ugo Buoncompagni elected Pope Gregory XIII
M : "Il Re", one of the earliest cellos by Andrea Amati of Cremona
ST : Artis auriferae quam chemium vocant, one of the earliest books on alchemy, published in Basel
ST : Tycho Brahe discovers the "New Star" in the Milky Way
ST : Society of Antiquaries founded in London
DL : Pigeons carrying letters used by Dutch during Span. siege of Haarlem
VA : Bronzino dies
LT : Ben Jonson born 11 June


PH : Peace of Constantinople ends war between Turks and Venice
PH : Henry, Duke of Anjou, elected King of Poland; returns to France to succeed his brother Charles IX
PH : Fourth Fr. War of Religion ends; Huguenots granted an amnesty
PH : Wan-Li begins reign as 13th emperor of the Ming dynasty in China
ED : Collegium Germanicum established in Rome
RP : François Hofman: Francogallia, a treatise on election and deposition of kings
M : Orlando di Lasso: Patrocinium musices
ST : Francis Drake sees Pacific Ocean for first time
VA : Michelangelo Merisi (Caravaggio) born


PH : Charles IX of France dies; succeeded by his brother Henry III, King of Poland
PH : Selim II, Sultan of Turkey dies; succeeded by Murad III
PH : Fifth French War of Religion
RP : First auto-da-fé in Mexico
RP : Jean Bodin: Discours sur les causes de l'extrême cherté en France, on luxury
RP : Hubert Languet: Vindiciae contra tyrannos, political theories of the Huguenots
ED : University of Berlin founded
ST : Ulissi Aldovrandi: Antidotarii Bononiensis epitome, a treatise on drugs
ST : Conrad Dasypodius builds the famous Strasbourg clock
VA : Giorgio Vasari dies


M : Thomas Tallis : Motets, Cantiones sacrae published jointly with William Byrd
M : William Byrd : Cantiones Sacrae (joint collection with Thomas Tallis
PH : King Henry III of France crowned at Rheims
PH : Stephen Báthory of Transylvania becomes King of Poland
PH : Freedom from arrest granted by Eng. Parliament for its members and their servants
DL : State bankruptcy in Spain
ED : University of Leiden founded by William of Orange
ST : Tycho Brahe constructs an observatory at Uraniborg for Frederick II of Denmark
ST : George Turberville: Book of Falconrie
DL : Outbreaks of plague in Sicily, spreading through Italy up to Milan


PH : Act of Federation between Holland and Zeeland signed in Delft
RP : Edict of Beaulieu tolerating Reformed religion in France
PH : Emperor Maximilian II dies; succeeded by his brother Rudolf II
ED : Académy du Palais founded in Paris by Henry III, associated with Baïf's Académie of 1570
RP : Jean Bodin: La république, advocating constitutional change
RP : League of Torgau, supporting opinions of the Lutherans, draws up Articles of Faith
ED : University of Warsaw, Poland, founded
ST : Clusius publishes his treatise on flowers of Spain and Portugal; beginning of modern botany
ST : Robert Norman, English hydrographer, discovers magnetic 'dip', or inclination
ST : François Viète introduces decimal fractions
VA : Titian dies


PH : Henry of Navarre recognised head of Huguenot party
PH : Perpetual Edict to settle civil war in the Netherlands issued by Don John of Austria; rejected by William of Orange
PH : Sixth Fr. War of Religion breaks out
PH : Peace of Bergerac ends sixth War of Religion
RP : William Allot: Thesaurus Bibliorum
ED : Richard Eden: History of Travel in East and West Indies
RP : Lutheran Book of Concord drafted
ED : William Harrison: Description of England
VA : Peter Paul Rubens born


PH : Sebastian, King of Portugal, killed at Alcazar during invasion of Morocco
PH : John III of Sweden secretly converted to Catholicism
PH : Mohammed Khudabanda becomes Shah of Persia
PH : Otomo Yoshishige, one of chief rulers of Japan, converted to Christianity
ED : Jacques Cujas: Commentaries on Roman Law
ED : Eng. College of Douai removed to Rheims
ST : Catacombs of Rome discovered
DL : Work begun on Pont Neuf, oldest bridge over Seine River, Paris


PH : Signing of Union of Utrecht marks foundation of Dutch Republic
LT : Stephen Gosson: The Schools of Abuse, against the theatre
LT : Thomas Lodge: A Defense of Poetry, Music and Stage Plays, answer to Gosson
RP : St. John of the Cross: Dark Night of the Soul


PH : Seventh Fr. War of Religion breaks out
PH : Ivan IV, The Terrible, kills his son and heir with his own hands
RP : Last performance of a miracle play in Coventry
RP : Jean Bodin: Démonomanie des sorciers, against witchcraft
RP : Jesuits Edmund Campion and Robert Parson land in England, begin Jesuit mission
ED : François de la Noue: 24 Discours politiques et militaires, Huguenot point of view on Fr. Wars of Religion
RP : Michel de Montaigne: Essais
ST : Francis Drake returns to England from voyage of circumnavigation
DL : Venice imports coffee from Turkey to Italy
DL : Earthquake in London
DL : New building banned in London to restrict growth of city
VA : Frans Hals born (year approximate)


RP : Edmund Campion, Eng. Jesuit, tried for treason and executed
RP : Pope Gregory XIII attempts to reconcile Roman Catholic and Russian Orthodox churches
PH : James VI of Scotland signs Second Confession of Faith
ED : Lancelot Popelinière: Premier Livre de l'idée de l'histoire accomplieé, contemporary history
M : Vincenzo Galiglei: Dialogo della musica antica e moderna
ST : William Borough: A Discourse on the Variation of the Compass or Magneticall Needle
ST : Elizabeth I knights Francis Drake at Deptford
ST : Galileo Galilei discovers isochronous property of the pendulum
DL : Sedan chairs in general use in England


PH : Raid of Ruthven: James VI kidnapped by Protestant nobles
DL : Gregorian Calendar adopted in Papal States, Spain, and Portugal, France and the Netherlands and Scandinavia
PH : Nobunaga, ruler of Japan, assassinated
PH : Venetian Constitution amended; authority of Council of Ten restricted
ED : George Buchanan: Rerum Scoticarum historiae
RP : Jesuit mission founded in China
ED : Utrecht Library founded
ED : University of Edinburgh founded
ED : Richard Hakluyt: Divers Voyages Touching the Discovery of America
ST : Urbain Hémand investigates the anatomy of the teeth
DL : Royal Navy gets graduated pay according to rank
DL : London's first waterworks founded; water wheels installed on London Bridge


DL : England adopts Gregorian Calendar
PH : James VI of Scotland escapes from hands of Ruthven raiders after 10 months
LT : Queen's Company of Players formed in London by Sir Edmund Tilney
RP : Francesco Sansovino: Del Governo et ammistrazione di diversi regni et republiche
ED : Joseph Justus Scaliger: Opus de emendatione temporum, foundation of modern chronology
RP : Sir Thomas Smith: De repubica Anglorum, on government machinery in England
DL : First known life insurance in England, on life of William Gibbons
M : Girolamo Frescobaldi born in September


PH : Ivan IV, The Terrible, dies; succeeded as Czar of Russia by his son Fyodor, who relinquishes most of his powers to his brother-in-law Boris Godunov
ED : Foundation of Accademia dei Scienze, Lettere ed Arti in Lucca
RP : Giordano Bruno: Spaccio della bestia trionfante
RP : Nicholas Sanders: De origine ac progressu schismatis Anglicani
RP : Reginald Scot: The Discoverie of Witchcraft, attacking superstition
ED : Emmanuel College, Cambridge, founded by Sir Walter Mildmay
ED : Uppingham School founded
DL : Dutch trading post founded at Archangel, Russia
ST : Sir Walter Raleigh discovers and annexes Virginia
DL : Banco di Rialto founded in Venice
ST : Oldest extant wave-swept lighthouse erected at Cordouan, at the mouth of the Gironde River


PH : Henry III of France and Elizabeth I of England decline sovereignty of the Netherlands; but Elizabeth takes the Netherlands under her protection
PH : Hideyoshi sets up dictatorship in Japan
LT : Teatro Olimpico, in Vicenza, opened
RP : Pope Gregory XIII dies; Cardinal Felice Peretti becomes Pope Sixtus V
ED : Jesuit University founded in Graz, Austria
ST : Simon Stevin formulates the law of equilibrium
ST : Lucas Janszoon Waghearen: Spiegel der Zeevaart, a book of sailing directions
ST : Bartholomew Newsam constructs first Eng. travelling and standing clocks
M : Heinrich Schütz born 9 October
M : Thomas Tallis dies 23 November


PH : Mary, Queen of Scots, tried for treason at Fotheringay; sentence is pronounced against her; Elizabeth confirms it
PH : Abbas I becomes Shah of Persia
PH : Stephen Báthory, King of Poland, dies
LT : Beginning of Kabuki theatre, Japan
LT : William Webbe: Discourse of English Poetrie
RP : Caesar Baronius: Annales ecclesiastici, history of the Roman Catholic Church
PH : Ludwig Pfyffer forms League of the Seven Swiss Catholic Cantons
ED : William Camden: Britannia, guide to the counties of Britain
RP : Pope Sixtus V fixes number of cardinals at 70; issues bull, "Detestablilis", forbidding usury
DL : Corn severely short in England


M : Samuel Scheidt born
M : Claudio Monteverdi : Book I of Madrigals
PH : Mary, Queen of Scots, executed at Fotheringay
PH : A son of King John of Sweden succeeds Stephen Báthory as Sigismund III of Poland
RP : Pope Sixtus V proclaims Catholic crusade for invasion of England
LT : First company of Eng. players in Germany
RP : Antonio Agustino: Dialogo de medallas y inscriciones, on numismatics (posth.)
RP : John Knox: Hystory of the Reformation in Scotland (posth.)
RP : Rederijckkunst, Dutch manual on rhetoric
M : Zeminoth Israel publishes early collection of Jewish songs
DL : Construction of Rialto Bridge, Venice, by Antonio da Ponte


M : William Byrd : Psalmes, Sonets & Songs
PH : Frederick II of Denmark dies; succeeded by Christian IV
PH : Henry, Duke of Guise, and his brother Louis, Cardinal of Guise, assassinated by order of Henry III; another brother, the Duke of Mayenne, becomes leader of Catholic League
RP : William Morgan's translation of the Bible into Welsh
RP : Jan Blahoslav's Czech translation of New Testament incorporated in Kralice Bible
RP : Thomas Stapleton: Tres Thomae, controversial Roman Catholic tract
ED : Vatican Library opened in Rome
ST : Joachim Camerarius: Hortus medicus
ST : Timothy Bright: An Arte of Shorte, Swifte, and Secrete Writing by Character, manual of shorthand
VA : Paolo Caliari (Veronese) dies


M : William Byrd : Songs of Sundrie Natures
M : William Byrd : Cantiones Sacrae
PH : Henry III, King of France, last of the house of Valois, assassinated; on his deathbed he recognises Henry, King of Navarre, as his successor, who, as Henry IV, is the first Burbon to become King of France
PH : House of Commons first appoints a Standing Committee for Privileges
LT : Thomas Nashe: Anatomie of Absurdities, criticism of contemporary literature
LT : George Puttenham: The Arte of English Poesie
RP : Amador Arrais: Dialogues de Dom Frei Amador Arraiz, Port. conversations on moral and religious themes
PH : Boris Godunov asserts Moscow's religious independence of Constantinople
RP : Justus Lipsius: Politicorum sive Civilis Doctrinae
ED : Kiev Academy founded
ED : Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, founded
M : Thoinot Arbeau: Orchésographie, early treatise on dancing, with several dance tunes
ST : Richard Hakluyt: The Principall Navigations and Discoveries of the English Nation
DL : Forks used for the first time at Fr. court
DL : The Reverend William Lee (Cambridge) invents the stocking frame, first knitting machine


LT : William Shakespeare: Henry VI
PH : Catholic League proclaims Cardinal de Bourbon King Charles X of France in Jan; he dies in May
PH : Shah Abbas I of Persia makes peace with Turkey
LT : Ital. Commedia dell' arte company, "I Accesi", begins activities
RP : Pope Sixtus V dies; Cardinal Giambattista Castagna succeeds him as Pope Urban VII and dies 12 days later; Cardinal Niccolò Sfondrato becomes Pope Gregory XIV
RP : José de Acosta: Historia natural y moral de las Indias
ST : Galileo: De Motu, description of experiments on dropping of various bodies
ST : Coal mining begins in the Ruhr


LT : Michael Drayton: Harmonie of the Church
M : William Byrd : My Ladye Nevells Book collection of keyboard pieces
M : William Byrd : Cantiones Sacrae
PH : Henry IV of France excommunicated by Pope Gregory XIV
PH : Christian I of Saxony dies; succeeded by his eight-year-old son Christian II
RP : Giordano Bruno: De immenso et innumerabilis seu de universo et mundis
RP : Pope Gregory XIV dies; Cardinal Antonio Facchinetti becomes Pope Innocent IX
ED : Trinity College, Dublin, founded by Elizabeth I
ST : François Viète: In Artem analyticam isagoge, on using letters for algebraic quantities
DL : Skittle alleys, in use since the end of the 12th century, become popular in Germany
LT : Robert Herrick born in August


LT : William Shakespeare: Richard III and The Comedy of Errors
LT : John III of Sweden dies; succeeded by Sigismund III of Poland
LT : Emperor Rudolf II makes peace with Poland
LT : Cardinal Ippolito Aldobrandini elected Pope Clement VIII
LT : Thomas Sanchez: De sacramento matrimonii, on religious and legal aspects of marriage
LT : Lodovico Zacconi: Prattica di musica, original edition
LT : Galileo: Della scienza mechanica, problems of raising weights
ST : Ruined Roman city of Pompeii discovered
DL : Plague kills 15,000 people in London
DL : Windmills used in Holland to drive mechanical saws


LT : William Shakespeare: Titus Andronicus and The Taming of the Shrew
LT : Michael Drayton: Idea, the Shepherd's Garland and Peirs Gaveston
M : Thomas Morley : Canzonets
PH : Rudolf II renews war against Turkey
PH : Henry IV becomes a Roman Catholic, hearing Mass at St. Denis: "Paris is well worth a mass"
LT : London theatres closed because of the plague
RP : Pierre Charron: Les Trois Vérités, Fr. theological treatise
ST : First Fr. botanical gardens established by University of Montpellier
ST : Giambattista della Porta: De refractione, optices parte, with an account of binocular vision
DL : Sant' Ambrogio Bank founded in Milan
LT : George Herbert born 3 April
VA : Artemisia Gentileschi born


LT : William Shakespeare: The Two Gentlemen of Verona, Love's Labor's Lost, King John
LT : Michael Drayton: Matilda and Idea's Mirror
M : Thomas Morley : Madrigals to Four Voyces
PH : Henry IV, having been crowned King of France at Chartres, enters Paris
RP : Edict of St. Germain-en-Laye grants Huguenots freedom of worship
LT : London theatres open again in May
ST : Giordano Bruno seized by the Vatican for supporting Copernican theory of the universe
RP : Richard Hooker: Of the Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity (vols 1-4)
ED : Piere Matthieu: Histoire des derniers troubles de France
M : Elizabeth I sends a Thomas Dallam organ to Sultan of Turkey
M : Dafne, by Jacopo Peri, first opera
ST : Galileo's Golden Rule
VA : Tintoretto dies
M : Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina dies 2 February
VA : Nicolas Poussin born
M : Orlande de Lassus dies 14 June

Terms Defined

Referenced Works