- Modest Mussorgsky - Voicing the Spirit of Russia [Chronology]
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Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky
(1839 - 1881)


M : Frederic Chopin : 24 piano preludes, including 'Raindrop' prelude and Prelude in E-Minor
M : Frederic Chopin : Piano Sonata No.2
M : Hector Berlioz : Romeo and Juliet, Dramatic Symphony
DL : First bicycle constructed by Macmillan
VA : Paul Cézanne born 19 January
M : Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky born 21 March
VA : Alfred Sisley born 30 October


LT : Robert Browning: Sordello
M : Gaetano Domenico Maria Donizetti : La Favorite ('The Favourite')
M : Gaetano Domenico Maria Donizetti : Opera, La fille du régiment ('The Daughter of the Regiment')
M : Richard Wagner : Opera, Rienzi
M : Richard Wagner : A Faust Overture
M : Robert Schumann : Song-cycle, Dichterliebe (Poet's Love)
M : Robert Schumann : Song-cycle, Frauenliebe un Leben (Women's Love and Life)
M : Mikhail Glinka : Collection of Songs, Proshchaniye s Peterburgom ('Farewell to St. Petersburg')
M : Mikhail Glinka : Incidental music for the play Knyaz Kholmsky ('Prince Kholmsky')
M : Hector Berlioz : Grande symphonie funèbre et triomphale
M : Clara Wieck Schumann : Volkslied (on a poem by Heine)
M : Clara Wieck Schumann : Am Strande (on a poem by Burnes)
M : Clara Wieck Schumann : Ihr Bildnis
PH : Frederick William III, King of Prussia, dies; succeeded by Frederick William IV
PH : London Conference on Turko-Egyptian conflict signs the Protocol des Droits
PH : Lower and Upper Canada united by Act of Parliament
PH : William II ascends the throne of the Netherlands after abdication of his father William I
RP : French socialist writer Pierre Joseph Proudhon: Qu'est-ce que la propriété
VA : Nelson's Column erected in Trafalgar Square, London
ST : Louis Agassiz: Etudes sur les Glaciers
DL : Botanical Gardens at Kew, London, opened
DL : Transportation of criminals from England to New South Wales comes to end
DL : Penny postage established in Great Britain
DL : Washington Temperance Society formed
M : Pyotr Tchaikovsky born 7 May
VA : Caspar David Friedrich dies 7 May
M : Nicolò Paganini dies 27 May
LT : Thomas Hardy born 2 June
VA : Claude Monet born 14 November


LT : Walt Whitman: Death in the School Room
M : Richard Wagner : Opera, Der fliegende Holländer ('The Flying Dutchman')
M : Giuseppe Verdi : Opera, Nabucco ('Nebuchadnezzar')
M : Robert Schumann : Symphony No.1, 'Spring'
M : Frederic Chopin : Ballade No.3
M : Adolphe Adam : Ballet, Giselle
M : Hector Berlioz : Song cycle, Les Nuits d'été
M : Clara Wieck Schumann : Die gute Nacht, die ich dir sage
M : Clara Wieck Schumann : Gedichte aus Rückert's Liebesfrühling
PH : Britain's sovereignty proclaimed over Hong Kong
PH : William Henry Harrison dies one month after his inauguration, John Tyler succeeds him    GO !
DL : U.S.S. "Creole", carrying slaves from Virginia to Louisiana, is seized by the slaves and sails into Nassau where they become free
PH : New Zealand becomes British colony
PH : Lajos Kossuth becomes Hungarian nationalist leader
PH : Turkey's sovereignty guaranteed by the five Great Powers
DL : The London humorous periodical Punch begins to appear
RP : Carlye: On Heroes, Hero-Worship and the Heroic in History
RP : Emerson: Essays, First Series
RP : Ludwig Feuerback: Das Wesen des Christentums
M : Adolphe Sax invents the saxophone
ST : Bessel deduces a value 1/299 for the ellipticity of the earth
ST : Hypnosis discovered
DL : Barnum opens the "American Museum", and exhibition of freaks, curios, etc., in New York City
ED : The first university degrees granted to women in America
VA : Berthe Morisot born 14 January
M : Emmanuel Chabrier born 18 January
VA : Pierre-Auguste Renoir born 25 February
M : Antonin Dvorák born 8 September
VA : Jean-Frédéric Bazille born 6 December


VA : Pierre-Etienne-Théodore Rousseau : Under the Birches
LT : Walt Whitman: Franklin Evans
LT : William Wordsworth: Poems, Chiefly of Early and Late Years
LT : Elizabeth Barret Browning: The Cry of the Children
LT : Robert Browning: Dramatic Lyrics
M : Gaetano Domenico Maria Donizetti : Opera, Linda di Chamounix ('Linda of Chamonix')
M : Robert Schumann : Piano Quintet in E-flat
M : Giaocchino Antonio Rossini : Stabat mater
M : Felix Mendelssohn : more incidental music to A Midsummer Night's Dream
M : Felix Mendelssohn : Symphony No.3, 'Scotch'
M : Mikhail Glinka : Opera, Rusian and Lyudmila
M : Frederic Chopin : Ballade No.4
VA : Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres : Odalisque with a Slave
PH : Webster-Ashburton Treaty between Great Britain and the U.S. defines Canadian frontier
PH : Treaty of Nanking ends Opium War between Britain and China
DL : Riots and strikes in the industrial areas in the north of England
PH : Orange Free State set up by the Boers
ED : Macaulay: Lays of Ancient Rome
M : New York Philharmonic Society founded
RP : Martin Tupper: Proverbial Philosophy, second series
ST : Doppler publishes On the Colored Light of the Binary Stars (Doppler Effect)
ST : Joseph Henry's discovery of the oscillatory character of electrical discharge
ST : Ether first used to produce surgical anaesthesia
ST : Julius Robert von Mayer (German physicist) publishes On the Forces of the Inanimate Nature (beginnings of thermodynamics)
M : The polka, a lively dance of Czech origin, comes into fashion
DL : Queen Victoria makes her first railroad journey, Windsor to Paddington, London
M : Jules Massenet born 12 May
M : Arthur Sullivan born 13 May


PH : Military revolt in Spain drives General Espartero from power: Isabella II declared of age and Queen of Spain
PH : Maori revolts against Britain in New Zealand
PH : Serbian Skupstina summons Prince Alexander Karageorgevich to the throne
LT : D.D. Emmett produces the first minstrel show
ED : William H. Prescott: History of the Conquest of Mexico
RP : George Borrow: The Bible in Spain
RP : Thomas Carlyle: Past and Present
RP : John Stuart Mill: Logic
ED : British Archaeological Association and Royal Archaeological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland founded
ST : Oliver Wendell Homes: The Contagiousness of Puerperal Fever
ST : Alexander von Humboldt: Asie centrale
ST : James Prescott Joule determines the amount of work required to produce a unit of heat
ST : Metallic element erbium discovered
DL : American social reformer Dorothea Dix reveals in a report to the Mass. legislature the shocking conditions in prisons and asylums
DL : Guy's Hospital Football Club founded in London
DL : S.S. "Great Britain", first propeller-driven ship to cross the Atlantic
DL : Congress grants S.F.B. Morse $30,000 to build first telegraph line (Washington to Baltimore)
DL : Worlds' first night club, "Le Bal des Anglais", opens in Paris
DL : Beginning of skiing as sport (Norway)


DL : First painted Christmas card appears


M : Edvard Grieg born 15 June


LT : Elizabeth Barret Browning: publishes a two-volume edition of Poems
M : Franz von Suppé : Overture, Morning, Noon and Night in Vienna
M : Felix Mendelssohn : Violin Concerto
M : Frederic Chopin : Piano Sonata No.3
M : Hector Berlioz : Overture, Roman Carnival (from Benvenuto Cellini)
VA : Joseph Mallord William Turner : Rain, Steam and Speed
The Great Western Railway
PH : Charles XIV, King of Sweden and Norway since 1818 dies; succeeded by his son as Oscar I
RP : Emerson: Essays, second series
ED : Bishop Nikolais Grundtvig founds the first institute for adult education
ST : Hermann Günther Grassmann: Die Ausdehnungslehre (Calculus of extension)
DL : First public bath and wash houses opened in Liverpool, England
DL : Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers founded
DL : German humorous weekly paper Fliegende Blätter
DL : Wood-pulp paper invented by Friedrich Gottlob Keller
PH : Treaty of Tangier ends French war in Morocco
PH : Revolts of the weavers in Silesia
PH : China and the U.S. sign first treaty of peace, amity, and commerce
ST : A.W. Kinglake: Eothen
DL : Young Men's Christian Association founded in England
M : Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov born 18 March
VA : Henri Rousseau born in Laval, France`
VA : Mary Cassatt born 22 May


LT : Robert Browning: of Dramatic Romances and Lyrics
M : Richard Wagner : Opera, Tannhäuser
M : Robert Schumann : Piano Concerto in A-minor
M : Robert Schumann : Symphony No.2
M : Felix Mendelssohn : 'Spring Song' and 'Bee's Wedding' from 'Songs Without Words'
M : Mikhail Glinka : Capriccio brillante (First Spanish Overture)
M : Frederic Chopin : Cello Sonata
PH : James K. Polk inaugurated as President of the U.S.    GO !
PH : Anglo-Sikh War begins
PH : Swiss Sonderbund for the protection of Catholic cantons formed
ED : Thomas Carlyle: Oliver Cromwell's Letters and Speeches
RP : Friedrich Engels: The Condition of the Working Class in London
ED : Sir Austen Layard begins excavations in Nineveh
RP : Max Stirner: Der Einzige und sein Eigentum (egocentric anarchistic philosophy)
VA : First artistic photo portraits by David Octavius Hill
ST : Hydraulic craned patented
ST : Power loom for manufacturing carpets is constructed
ST : Arthur Cayler: Theory of Linear Transformations
ST : First submarine cable laid across English channel
ST : Machine for combing cotton and wool patented
ST : Acetic acid synthesised
ST : Compound steam engine developed
DL : Knickerbocker Baseball Club codifies rules of baseball
M : Gabriel Urbain Fauré born 12 May
VA : Walter Crane born


VA : Camille Corot : Forest of Fontainebleau
M : Franz von Suppé : Overture, Poet and Peasant
M : Felix Mendelssohn : Oratorio, Elijah
M : Franz Liszt : Hungarian Rhapsodies for piano
M : Frederic Chopin : Barcarolle
M : Hector Berlioz : Dramatic cantata, The Damnation of Faust
M : Clara Wieck Schumann : Cadenzas for Beethoven's C minor and G major concerti
VA : Joseph Mallord William Turner : Angel Standing in a Storm
PH : Treaty of Lahore ends First Sikh War
PH : Revolts break out in Poland
PH : Louis Napoleon escapes from the fortress of Ham to London
RP : Evangelical Alliance founded, London
RP : Pope Gregory XVI dies; succeeded by Cardinal Mastai-Rerretti as Pope Pius IX
RP : Friedrich Vischer: Aesthetics
RP : Theodor Waitz: Foundation of Psychology
RP : William Whewell: Elements of Morality
RP : Brigham Young leads the Mormons to the Great Salt Lake, Utah
DL : Electric arc lighting at the Opéra, Paris
ST : F.G.J. Henle: Manual of Rational Pathology
ST : Ether first used as an anaesthetic in dentistry
ST : Nitroglycerine first prepared
DL : Famine in Ireland caused by failure of potato crop
ED : Smithsonian Institution, Washington, founded
PH : 13 May - U.S. declares war against Mexico    GO !


LT : Alfred, Lord Tennyson: The Princess
LT : Dante Gabriel Rossetti: The Blessed Damozel
M : Giuseppe Verdi : Opera, Macbeth (later revised)
PH : Liberia proclaimed independent republic
PH : Sonderbund War in Switzerland; Catholic cantons refuse to dissolve union
ED : W.H. Prescott: History of the Conquest of Peru
ED : Louius Blanc: History of the Revolution
RP : Karl Marx attacks Proudhon's Philosophy of Poverty in The Poverty of Philosophy
RP : The Mormons found Salt Lake City
RP : Leopold von Ranke: Neun Bücher preussicher Geschichte
ST : George Bool: Mathematical Analysis of Logic
ST : Evaporated milk made for the first time
DL : First Swiss railroad between Baden and Zurich opens
ST : Helmholtz: On the Conservation of Energy
ST : I.T. Semmelweis, Hungarian physician, discovers connection between childbed fever and puerperal infection
DL : British Factory Act restricts the working day for women and children (between 13 and 18) to 10 hours
DL : First Roman Catholic working men's club, Cologne, Germany
DL : Gold discoveries in California lead to first gold rush
M : Felix Mendelssohn dies 4 November


VA : Sir John Everett Millais : Isabella
M : Richard Wagner : Opera, Lohengrin
M : Franz Liszt : Trois études de concert (including 'Un Sospiro')
M : Franz Liszt : Symphonic Poem, Les Préludes
M : Franz Liszt : Années de Pèlerinage (Years of Pilgrimage) for piano, Book I
M : Mikhail Glinka : Overture, Kamarinskaya
PH : King Christian VIII of Denmark dies; succeeded by Frederick III
PH : Revolt in Paris; Louis Philippe abdicates, Louis Napoleon elected President of French Republic in December
PH : Revolutions in Venice, Berlin, Milan and Parma
PH : Second Sikh War begins
PH : Sardinia declares war on Austria
PH : Revolutions in Vienna, the emperor abdicates in favour of his nephew who becomes Emperor Francis Joseph I
PH : Nasr-ed-Din becomes Shah of Persia
PH : Switzerland, by its new constitution, becomes a federal union
PH : Ibrahim, Viceroy of Egypt, dies; succeeded by Abbas
PH : Revolt in Rome; Pius IX flees to Gaeta
ED : Jakob Grimm: History of the German Language
ED : Macaulay: History of England
RP : Communist Manifesto issued by Marx and Engels
RP : Spiritualism becomes popular in U.S.
DL : Böttger: first safety matches
ST : First appendectomy by Hancock
DL : Serfdom abolished in Austria
RP : Bismarck founds the Neue Preussische Zeitung, Marx the Neue Rheinische Zeitung
DL : First Public Health Act in Britain
DL : First settlers arrive in New Zealand
DL : New York News Agency founded (will become Associated Press in 1856)
DL : Sebastian Kneipp introduces cold-water cures as Worrishofen, Germany
PH : 2 February - Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ends Mexican-U.S. war    GO !
M : Sir Charles Hubert Hastings Parry born 27 February
M : Gaetano Domenico Maria Donizetti dies 8 April
VA : Eugène Henri Paul Gauguin born 7 June
VA : Gustave Caillebotte born 19 August


LT : Mathew Arnold: The Strayed Reveller and other Poems
VA : Gustave Courbet : Stonebreakers
M : Robert Schumann : Incidental music to Byron's verse-drama Manfred
M : Franz Liszt : Années de Pèlerinage Book II
M : Franz Liszt : Totentanz, (Dance of Death), for piano and orchestra
M : Franz Liszt : Piano Concertos No.1 and No.2
PH : Rome proclaimed a republic under Guiseppe Mazzini
PH : Charles Albert of Sardinia abdicates in favour of his son Victor Emmanuel II
PH : Peace of Milan ends war
PH : Zachary Taylor inaugurated as President of the U.S.    GO !
PH : German National Assembly passes constitution; elects King Frederick William IV of Prussia "Emperor of the Germans"; he refuses to accept
PH : Hungarian Diet proclaims independence
PH : Revolts in Dresden and Baden
RP : French enter Rome and restore Pope Pius IX
ED : J.M. Kemble: History of the Saxons in England
ED : Who's Who begins publication
ST : Fizeau measures speed of light
ST : Amyl isolated
ED : Bedford College for Women, London, founded
DL : Amelia Bloomer begins American women's dress reform
VA : John William Waterhouse born 6 April
M : Frederic Chopin dies 17 October


LT : William Wordsworth: The Prelude
LT : Alfred, Lord Tennyson: In Memoriam
LT : William Cullen Bryant: The Letters of a Traveller
LT : Elizabeth Barret Browning: Sonnets from the Portuguese
LT : Robert Browning: Christmas Eve and Easter Day
VA : Camille Corot : Morning,
the Dance of the Nymphs
M : Robert Schumann : Symphony No.3, 'Rhenish'
M : Franz Liszt : Liebersträume (Dreams of Love), for piano
M : Franz Liszt : Consolations for piano
M : Adolphe Adam : Opera, Giralda
M : Hector Berlioz : Te Deum
VA : William Holman Hunt : Claudio and Isabella
VA : William Holman Hunt : A Converted British Family
Sheltering a Christian Missionary
from the Persecution of the Druids
PH : Outbreak of Anglo-Kaffir War
PH : Prussia and Denmark sign Peace of Berlin on Schleswig-Holstein
PH : U.S. President Zachary Taylor dies; Millard Fillmore becomes 13th president    GO !
PH : Taiping rebellion in China; Hung Hiu-tseun proclaims himself emperor
RP : Church council to manage Protestant churches in Prussia
ED : Public Libraries Act in Britain
RP : Schopenhauer: Parerga und Paralipomena
RP : Herbert Spencer: Social Statics, beginnings of sociology
M : Foundation of Bach-Gesellschaft to publish the complete works of J.S. Bach
ST : R.W. Bunsen produces gas burner
ST : Rudolf Clausius formulates second law of thermodynamics, and kinetic theory of gases
ST : The speed of nervous impulse established
ST : Pafnut Chebyshev: On Primary Numbers
DL : Old age insurance in France
ST : Royal Meteorological Society founded
ED : School of Mines, London (to becomes College of Science and Technology), founded
ED : University of Sydney, Australia, established
LT : William Wordsworth dies 23 April


VA : Sir John Everett Millais : Ophelia
LT : Elizabeth Barret Browning: Casa Guidi Windows
VA : Charles-François Daubigny : Harvest
M : Giuseppe Verdi : Opera, Rigoletto
M : Franz Liszt : Symphonic Poem, Mazeppa
M : Franz Liszt : Transcendental Studies for piano
M : Mikhail Glinka : Souvenir d'une nuit d'été à Madrid (Second Spanish Overture)
M : Anton Grigoryevich Rubinstein : Symphony No.2, Ocean
VA : Sir John Everett Millais : Mariana
PH : Cuba declares its independence
PH : Beginning of Basuto War
PH : Coup d'état of Louis Napoleon; plebiscite in France favours new constitution
PH : Danilo II converts Montenegro into a secular principality
RP : Vincenzo Gioberti: Il Rinnovamento civile d'Italia
ST : Franz Neumann: law of electromagnetic induction
ST : Isaac Singer devises the continuous stitch sewing machine
RP : Mary Carpenter: Reformatory Schools...for Juvenile Offenders
DL : First double-decker bus introduced
DL : The New York Times appears
DL : Maine and Illinois begins to enforce prohibition against liquor
VA : Joseph Mallord William Turner dies 19 December


LT : William Cullen Bryant: The Fountain, and other Poems
LT : Mathew Arnold: Empedocles on Etna, and Other Poems
M : Louis Moreau Gottschalk : El Sitio Zaragoza
M : Giuseppe Verdi : Opera, Il Trovatore ('The Troubadour')
M : Adolphe Adam : Opera, Si j'étais roi ('If I Were King')
M : Johannes Brahms : Piano Sonatas No.1 and No.2
M : Anton Grigoryevich Rubinstein : Opera, Thomas the Fool
VA : Arthur Hughes : Ophelia
VA : Sir John Everett Millais : A Huguenot on St Bartolomew's Day
VA : William Holman Hunt : On English Coasts
PH : South African Republic (Transvaal) established
PH : New French constitution gives president monarchical powers, Louis Napoleon proclaims himself Emperor Napoleon III
PH : Outbreak of Second Burmese War
RP : The Convocation of the Church of England revived
ST : Delisle begins the study of modern paleography
RP : First Plenary Council of American Roman Catholics held in Baltimore
ED : Rank: History of France
ST : C.F. Gerhardt: New Theory of Organic Compounds
ST : David Livingstone explores Zambezi
ST : Dutch army surgeon Mathysen impregnates bandages with plaster
ST : Herbert Spencer: The Development Hypothesis (first use of the word "evolution")
ST : James Sylvester: Calculus of Forms
DL : The U.S. imports sparrows from Germany as defence against caterpillars
DL : First Congress of Co-operative Societies meets in London
DL : Formation of United All-English Cricket Eleven
VA : Edwin Austin Abbey born


VA : Lord Frederic Leighton : The Reconciliation
VA : Edmund Blair Leighton born
VA : Sir Frank Bernard Dicksee born
LT : Mathew Arnold: Poems with the famous "preface" (Arnold's first important critical essay)
M : Giuseppe Verdi : Opera, La Traviata ('The Woman Gone Astray')
M : Robert Schumann : Scenes from Goethe's Faust, for chorus and orchestra
M : Franz Liszt : Piano Sonata in B-minor
VA : William Holman Hunt : The Awakening Conscience
PH : Peace between Britain and Burma
PH : Crimean War begins
PH : Maria II of Portugal dies; succeeded by her son Pedro V
RP : Johann Herzog: Encyclopaedia of Protestant Theology
ED : Mommsen: History of Rome
RP : Hippolyte Taine: Essai sur les fables de La Fontaine
M : Henry Steinway and his three sons begins the New York firm of piano manufacturers
ED : Melbourne University founded
ST : Alexander Wood uses hypodermic syringe for subcutaneous injections
ST : Queen Victoria allows choloroform to be administered to her during the birth of her seventh child, thus ensuring its place as an anaesthetic in Britain
DL : Telegraph system established in India
DL : Vaccination against smallpox made compulsory in Britain
VA : Howard Pyle born
VA : Vincent van Gogh born 30 March


M : Richard Wagner : Opera, Das Rheingold
M : Franz Liszt : Symphonic Poem, Orpheus
M : Hector Berlioz : Oratorio, The Childhood of Christ
VA : Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres : Joan of Arc
VA : William Holman Hunt : The Scapegoat
PH : Convention of Bloemfontein
PH : Britain and France conclude alliance with Turkey and declare war on Russia
PH : "War for Bleeding Kansas" between free and slave states in U.S.    GO !
PH : Elgin Treaty between Britain and U.S. on Canadian trade
RP : George Boole: An Investigation of the Laws of Thought, on Which are Founded the Mathematical Theories of Logic and Probabilities
RP : Jewish seminary established at Breslau
DL : Juvenile Offenders Act in Great Britain
RP : Pope Pius IX declares the dogma of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary to be an article of faith
ST : Christian Ehrenberg: Microgeology
ST : Laryngoscope invented
ST : First form of lightbulb developed
ST : Georg Riemann: On the Hypotheses Forming the Foundation of Geometry
ED : University College, Dublin, founded
DL : Northcote-Trevelyan report leads to British Civil Service Commission
ED : Working Men's College, London, founded
PH : Abbas I, Viceroy of Egypt assassinated; succeeded by Mohammed Said
M : Leoš Janácek born 3 July
M : John Phillip Sousa born 6 November


VA : Arthur Hughes : April Love
VA : Sir John Everett Millais : Autumn Leaves
LT : Walt Whitman: Leaves of Grass
LT : Alfred, Lord Tennyson: Maud
LT : Robert Browning: Men and Women
LT : Mathew Arnold: Poems, Second Series
VA : Gustave Courbet : The Painter's Studio
M : Jacques Offenbach : Operetta, Les Deux aveugles ('The Two Blind Men')
M : Georges Bizet : Symphony in C
PH : Czar Nicholas I of Russia dies; succeeded by Alexander II
PH : Britain and Afghanistan join against Persia in Treaty of Peshawar
PH : Taiping Rebellion ends
RP : Henry Milman: History of Latin Christianity
RP : Herbert Spencer: Principles of Psychology
DL : George Audemars patents rayon production
ED : Professorship of technology created at Edinburgh University
ST : Printing telegraph invented
ST : Tungsten steel developed
ST : Mathew Maury: Physical Geography of the Sea
DL : First iron Cunard steamer crosses Atlantic
DL : Founding of The Daily Telegraph, London
DL : London sewers modernised after outbreak of cholera
ST : Florence Nightingale introduces hygienic standards into military hospitals during Crimean War


VA : Arthur Hughes : Home from the Sea
VA : Lord Frederic Leighton : The Fisherman and the Siren
M : Richard Wagner : Opera, Die Walküre ('The Valkyrie')
M : Franz Liszt : Dante Symphony
M : Mikhail Glinka : Valse-fantaisie, ('Fantasy Waltz') for orchestra
M : Adolphe Adam : Ballet, Le Corsaire
M : Georges Bizet : Operetta, Le Docteur Miracle
VA : Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres : The Source
DL : Queen Victoria institutes the Victoria Cross
PH : Reform edict in Turkish Empire; peace conference in Paris recognises integrity of Turkey
PH : Anglo-Chin. war begins
PH : Brit.-Persian war begins
ED : J.A. Foude: History of England from the Fall of Wolsey to the Deafeat of the Armada
ED : Theodor Goldstücker: Sanskrit Dictionary
RP : Rudolf Lotze: Mikrokosmos
RP : Hippolyte Taine: Les Philosophes classiques du XIXe siècle en France
ED : Alexis de Tocqueville: L'Ancien régime et la révolution
ST : Pure cocaine extracted from cocoa beans
ED : Neanderthal skull found in Feldhofer Cave near Düsseldorf
DL : "Big Ben" cast at Whitechapel Bell Foundry
VA : John Singer Sargent born
M : Heinrich Heine dies 17 February
M : Adolphe Adam dies 3 May
M : Robert Schumann dies 29 July


LT : Elizabeth Barret Browning: Aurora Leigh
M : Giuseppe Verdi : Opera, Simon Boccanegra (later revised)
M : Franz Liszt : Faust Symphony
PH : Peace of Paris ends Anglo-Persian war
PH : Indian Mutiny against British rule
PH : Garibaldi forms Italian National Association for unification of the country
PH : Irish Republican Brotherhood (Fenians) founded
ED : Henry T. Buckle: History of Civilisation in England
RP : Ernest Renan: Etudes d'histoire religieuse
VA : Victoria and Albert Museum, London, opened
M : Charles Hallé founds the Hallé concerts in Manchester
ST : Pasteur proves that fermentation is caused by living organisms
DL : Alpine Club, London, founded
DL : Financial and economic crisis throughout Europe, caused by speculation in U.S. railroad shares
DL : Matrimonial Causes Act in Britain
DL : First safety elevator installed
ED : Science Museum, South Kensington, London, founded
DL : Transatlantic cable laid
DL : Czar Alexander II begins the emancipation of serfs in Russia
M : Mikhail Glinka dies 15 February
M : Edward Elgar born 2 June


M : Max Christian Friedrich Bruch : Opera, Scherz, List und Rache ('Joke, Trick and Revenge')
M : Giuseppe Verdi : Opera, Un Ballo in maschera ('A Masked Ball')
M : Johann Strauss II : Polkas, Champagne and Tritsch-Tratsch
M : Jacques Offenbach : Operetta, Orphée aux enfers ('Orpheus in the Underwold'), later revised
M : Johannes Brahms : Serenade No.1 for orchestra
M : Hector Berlioz : Opera, The Trojans
PH : Treaty of Tientsin ends Anglo-Chin. war
PH : British proclaim peace in India
PH : Prince William of Prussia declared regent for the insane King Frederick William IV
PH : Alexander Karageorgevich deposed by Serbian Diet; Milos Obrenovic declared king
RP : The Blessed Virgin Mary reputed to have appeared at Lourdes, France
RP : Henry Carey: Principles of Social Science
ED : Thomas Carlyle: Frederick the Great
RP : The Paulist Fathers founded by American Catholic priest Issac Hecker
RP : Lionel de Rothschild becomes first Jewish member of British Parliament
RP : Philip Schaff: History of the Christian Church
M : New York Symphony gives its first public concert
ST : T.H. Huxley: The Theory of the Vetebrate Skulls
ST : Mirror galvanometer invented
DL : National Association of Baseball Players organised in America
DL : Ottawa becomes capital of Canada
DL : South Foreland lighthouse lit by electricity
M : Giacomo Puccini dies 29 November
M : Giacomo Puccini born 23 December


VA : Arthur Hughes : Knight of the Sun
M : Louis Moreau Gottschalk : Symphony No.1, La Nuit des Tropiques
VA : Charles-François Daubigny : On the Oise
VA : Charles-François Daubigny : The Flood-Gate at Optevoz
VA : Camille Corot : La Toilette
M : Richard Wagner : Music drama, Tristan and Isolde
M : Bedrich Smetana : Symphonic Poem, Wallenstein's Camp
M : Charles-François Gounod : Opera, Faust (later revised)
M : Johannes Brahms : Piano Concerto No.1
PH : Treaty of Alliance between Sardinia and France
PH : France declares war on Austria, armistice followed by peace of Billafranca, formalised by Treaty of Zurich
PH : King Ferdinand of the Two Sicilies dies; succeeded by Francis II
PH : King Oscar I of Sweden dies; succeeded by Charles XV
PH : German National Association formed; aimed at uniting German under Prussia
ST : Charles Darwin: On the Origin of Species by Natural Selection
RP : Ferdinand Lassalle: The Italian War and the Mission of Prussia
RP : Karl Marx: Critique of Political Economy
RP : J.S. Mill: Essay on Liberty
ED : Rank: History of England in the 16th and 17th Centuries
RP : Ernest Renan: Essais de morale et de critique
ED : L.F.K.Tischendorf discovers Codex Sinaiticus
ED : Pasquale Villari: Life of Savonarola
ED : Anthropological Society, Paris, founded
ST : F.L.G. Planté: first practical storage battery
ST : Steamroller invented
DL : French tightrope walker Charles Blondin crosses Niagara Falls on tightrope
DL : Work on Suez Canal begun
LT : A E Housman born 26 March
VA : Georges Seurat born 2 December


LT : Elizabeth Barret Browning: Poems Before Congress
M : Johann Strauss II : Waltz, Acceleration
M : Franz Liszt : Mephisto Waltz No.1, for piano
M : Johannes Brahms : Serenade No.2 for orchestra
VA : Sir John Everett Millais : The Black Brunswicker
VA : Pierre-Etienne-Théodore Rousseau : Springtime
PH : Treaty of Turin cedes Nice and Savoy to France
PH : Garibaldi and his 1,000 redshirts ("i Mille") take Palermo and Naples
PH : Garibaldi proclaims Victor Emmanuel II King of Italy
PH : Second Maori War begins
PH : Treaty of Peking
PH : Abraham Lincoln elected President of the U.S.    GO !
RP : English Church Union founded
RP : J.S. Mill: Considerations on Representative Covernment
RP : Charles de Montalembert: Les Moines d'Occident
ED : J.L. Motley: The History of the United Netherlands
RP : Russian Orthodox Church establishes monastery in Jerusalem
ST : The elements cesium and rubidium discovered
ST : G.T. Fechner: Elements of Psychophysics
ST : Lenoir constructs first practical internal-combustion engine
DL : Cork linoleum invented
DL : The Catholic Times published
DL : Food and Drugs Act enacted in Britain
DL : British Open Golf Championship started
DL : Primitive form of typewriter: Christopher Sholes
DL : First horse-drawn tram
M : Isaac Manuel Francisco Albéniz born 29 May
M : Gustav Mahler born 7 July


LT : Dante Gabriel Rossetti: The Early Italian Poets
LT : Mathew Arnold: On Translating Homer
VA : Camille Corot : Orpheus Leading Eurydice
from the Underworld
M : Arthur Sullivan : The Tempest, incidental music
M : Johannes Brahms : Variations and fugue on a theme of Handel for piano
VA : Ernest Meissonier : The French Campaign
PH : Frederick William IV of Prussia died; succeeded by William I
PH : Outbreak of Civil War in the U.S.    GO !
PH : The King of Naples surrenders, Italy proclaimed a kingdom by Parliament, with Victor Emmanuel II as king
PH : Warsaw Massacre- troops fire at demonstrators against Russian rule
DL : Emancipation of Russian serfs
PH : Sultan Abdul Mejid of Turkey dies; succeeded by his brother Abdul Aziz
PH : Pedro V of Portugal dies; succeded by Louis I
ED : Vladimir Dahl: Dictionary of the Living Russian Tongue
RP : Ferdinand Lassalle: System of Assigned Rights
RP : Herbert Spencer: Education: Moral, Intellectual, Physical
RP : Arthur P. Stanley: Lectures on the History of the Eastern Church
M : Royal Academy of Music, London, founded
ST : Archaeopteryx: skeleton of link between reptiles and bird discovered
ST : Thallium discovered
ST : First machine-chilled cold storage unit built
DL : Daily weather forecasts are begun in Britain
DL : Queen Victoria creates the Order of the Star of India
DL : U.S. introduces passport system
LT : Elizabeth Barret Browning dies 29 June
VA : John William Godward born 9 August


LT : Christina Rossetti: Goblin Market and Other Poems
LT : Elizabeth Barret Browning: Last Poems (posth.)
M : Louis Moreau Gottschalk : Union
M : Franz von Suppé : Operetta, The Queen of Spades
M : Giuseppe Verdi : Opera, La Forza del destino ('The Force of Destiny')
M : Johann Strauss II : Musical scherzo, Perpetuum Mobile
M : Anton Bruckner : String Quartet
M : Johannes Brahms : Piano Quintet
M : Hector Berlioz : Opera, Beatrice and Benedict
PH : King Otto I of Greece resigns after military revolt
ED : James Bruce: The Holy Roman Empire
ED : George Rawlinson: The Five Great Monarchies of the Ancient Eastern World
RP : Herbert Specner: First Principles
ST : Lion Foucault successfully measures the speed of light
ST : Helmholtz: The Doctrine of the Sensations of Tones
DL : Swiss humanist Jean Henri Duanant proposes in his book Souvenir de Solferinio the foundation of an international Voluntary relief organisation - the Red Cross
DL : International Exhibition, London
M : Frederick Delius born 29 January
VA : Gustav Klimt born 14 July
M : Claude Debussy born 22 August


VA : Arthur Hughes : Ophelia
VA : Jessie Willcox Smith born
VA : Alexandre Cabanel : The Birth of Venus
M : Max Christian Friedrich Bruch : Opera, Die Loreley
M : Bedrich Smetana : Opera, The Brandenburgers in Bohemia
M : Giaocchino Antonio Rossini : Petite messe solennelle ('Little Solemn Mass')
M : Camille Saint-Saëns : Introduction and Rondo Capriccioso for violin and orchestra
M : Johannes Brahms : String Quartet No.2
M : Georges Bizet : Opera, Les Pêcheurs de perles ('The Pearl Fishers')
VA : Jean Léon Gérôme : The Dance of the Almeh
VA : Edouard Manet : Olympia
PH : Lincoln issues Emancipation Proclamation    GO !
PH : Mohammed Said, Khedive of Egypt, dies; succeeded by Ismail
PH : William, Prince of Denmark, becomes George I, King of Greece
PH : Civil War breaks out in Afghanistan after the death of Dost Mohammed
PH : Frederick VII, King of Denmark dies, succeeded by Christian IX
PH : French capture Mexico City and proclaim Archduke Maximilian of Austria emperor
ED : S.R. Gardiner: History of England...1603-1642
RP : T.H. Huxley: Evidence as to Man's Place in Nature
ED : A.W. Kinglake: The Invasion of Crimea
RP : Charles Lyell: The Antiquity of Man
RP : J.S. Mill: Utilitarianism
ED : University of Mass, Amherst, founded as Mass. Agricultural College
DL : Ebenezer Butterick develops first paper dress patterns
ST : Sir Francis Galton: Meteorographica or Methods of Mapping the Weather
ED : National Academy of Sciences founded Washington, D.C.
ST : Microstructure of steel discovered leading to development of science of metallurgy
DL : Grand Prix de Paris first run at Longchamp
DL : A.F. Nadar makes ascent in his balloon "Le Géant"
DL : U.S. Congress establishes free city mail delivery
DL : Roller skating introduced to America
VA : Eugène Delacroix dies 13 August
VA : Paul Signac born
M : Pietro Mascagni born 7 December
VA : Edvard Munch born 12 December


LT : Robert Browning: Dramatis Personae
M : Franz von Suppé : Biographical operetta, Franz Schubert
M : Max Christian Friedrich Bruch : Cantata, Frithjof for baritone, female voices and orchestra
M : Johann Strauss II : Waltz, Morning Papers
M : Jacques Offenbach : Operetta, La Belle Hélène
M : Edvard Grieg : Symphony (subsequently withdrawn by the composer)
M : Charles-François Gounod : Opera, Mireille
M : Anton Bruckner : Symphony in D-minor, known as 'Number 0'
VA : Jean-Frédéric Bazille : The Pink Dress
VA : Lord Frederic Leighton : The Painter's Honeymoon
VA : Lord Frederic Leighton : Golden Hours
VA : Pierre-Auguste Renoir : La Loge
VA : Pierre-Auguste Renoir : Portrait of Alfred Sisley
PH : Peace of Vienna; Denmark cedes Schleswig, Holstein, and Lauenburg to Austria and Prussia
PH : Abraham Lincoln re-elected President of the U.S.    GO !
PH : King Maximilian II of Bavaria dies; succeeded by Louis II
DL : First International Workingmen's Association founded by Karl Marx, London and New York
LT : Deutsche Shakespeare-Gesellscahft founded at Weimar
RP : Cesare Lombroso: Genius and Madness
RP : Cardinal Newman: Apologia pro Vita Sua
RP : Syllabus Errorum issued by Pope Pius Ix: condemns Liberalism, Socialsm, and Rationalism
ST : Joseph Bertrand: Treatise on Differential and Integral Calculus
ST : Louis Pasteur invents pasteurisation (for wine)
DL : Geneva Convention establishes the neutrality of battlefield medical facilities
DL : Octavia Hill begins London tenement-dwelling reforms
DL : Knights of Pythias founded, Washington, D.C.
DL : Neue Freie Presse founded in Vienna
DL : "In God We Trust" first appears on U.S. coins
LT : John Clare dies 20 May
M : Richard Strauss born 11 June
VA : Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec born 24 November


VA : Gustave Courbet : Woman with a Parrot
VA : Arthur Hughes : Goodnight
VA : Arthur Hughes : Sir Galahad
LT : Walt Whitman: Drum Taps
LT : Mathew Arnold: Essays in Criticism
VA : Hilaire Germain Edgar Degas : Madame Valpincon
with Chrysanthemums
M : Franz von Suppé : Operetta, The Beautiful Galathea
M : Gabriel Urbain Fauré : Song, Après un rêve ('After a Dream')
M : Antonin Dvorák : Symphony No.1, 'Bells of Zlonice'
M : Franz Strauss : Horn concerto in c minor
PH : Confederate States of America surrender at Appomattox on 9 April    GO !
PH : Abraham Lincoln assassinated; succeeded by Andrew Johnson    GO !
PH : King Leopold I of Belgium dies; succeeded by his son Leopold II
DL : Thirteenth Amendment to U.S. Constitution abolishes slavery
PH : Outbreak of war between Boers of Orange Free State and Basutos
RP : Henri Baudrillart: La Liberté du travail
RP : W.E.H. Lecky: A History of the Rise and Influence of Rationalism in Europe
RP : J.S. Mill: Auguste Comte and Positivism
ST : Line geometry invented (Julius Plücker)
RP : J.R. Seeley: Ecce Homo
DL : Atlantic cable finally completed
ST : Benzene ring theory explains the structure of aromatic compounds
ED : Mass Institute of Technology, founded
ST : Gregor Mendel enunciates his Law of Heredity
DL : Pasteur succeeds in curing silkworm disease, saving the French silk industry
ST : Ivan M. Sechenov: Reflexes of the Brain, on physiological basis of psychic processes
RP : Christian Revival Association organised (later the Salvation Army)
DL : First carpet sweeper comes into use
DL : Ku Klux Klan founded, Pulaski, Tenn.
DL : London Metropolitan Fire Service established
DL : First railroad sleeping cars appear
DL : San Francisco Examiner and San Francisco Chronicle founded
DL : First train holdup at North Bend, Ohio
DL : Edward Whymper climbs the Matterhorn
ED : First woman (Maria Mitchell) appointed as professor of astronomy, Vassar College
LT : William Butler Yeats born 13 June
M : Jean Sibelius born 8 December


VA : Claude Monet : The Women in the Garden
LT : Christina Rossetti: Prince's Progress and Other Poems
VA : Gustave Courbet : A Thicket of Deer at the
Stream of Plaisir-Fontaine
VA : Sir Edward Coley Burne-Jones : The Lament
M : Franz von Suppé : Operetta, Light Cavalry
M : Giuseppe Verdi : Opera, Don Carlos (later revised)
M : Pyotr Tchaikovsky : Symphony No.1, 'Winter Daydreams'
M : Arthur Sullivan : Irish Symphony
M : Bedrich Smetana : Comic Opera, The Bartered Bride
M : Jacques Offenbach : Operetta, La Vie parisienne
M : Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky : Songs 'The Seminarist', 'Darling Savishna'
M : Franz Liszt : Années de Pèlerinage Book III
M : Anton Bruckner : Symphony No.1
M : Léo Delibes : Ballet, La Source also known as Naila
M : Georges Bizet : Opera, La joie fille de Perth
VA : Claude Monet : Jeanne-Marguerite Lecadre
PH : Alexander Xuza, Prince of Rumania, dethroned; succeeded by Karl, Prince of Hohenzollern, as King Carol I
PH : Treaty of Vienna ends Austro-Ital. war
PH : Revolts in Crete against Turkish rule
ED : Pierre Larousse: Grand dictionnaire universel du XIX siècle
RP : Friedrich Lange: History of Materialism
RP : American Evangelical Alliance founded
ST : Aeronautical Society of Great Britain founded
ST : Ernst Haeckel: General Morphology (fundamental law of biogenetics)
ST : Dynamite invented
ST : Underwater torpedo invented
DL : "Black Friday" on London Stock Exchange
DL : Dr. T.J. Barnardo opens his first home for destitute children at Stepney, London
M : Erik Satie born 17 May
VA : Wassily Kandinsky born in Moscow


LT : Walt Whitman: Democratic Vistas I
LT : Mathew Arnold: On the Study of Celtic Literature
M : Jules Massenet : Opera, La Grand'tante ('The Great Aunt')
M : Franz von Suppé : Operetta, The Jolly Robbers
M : Richard Wagner : Opera, Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg ('The Mastersingers of Nuremberg')
VA : Sir Adolph William Bouguereau : Art and Literature
M : Johann Strauss II : Waltzes, The Blue Danube and An Artist's Life
M : Bedrich Smetana : Opera, Dalibor
M : Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov : 'Symphonic Picture', Sadko (later revised as an opera)
M : Jacques Offenbach : Operetta, La Grande-Duchesse de Gérolstein
M : Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky : Song 'Gathering Mushrooms'
M : Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky : St John's Night on the Bare Mountain for orchestra (later revised by Rimsky and Mussorgsky)
M : Franz Liszt : Oratorio, Christus
M : Edvard Grieg : Lyric Pieces for Piano, Book I
M : Alexander Porfiryevich Borodin : Symphony No.1
VA : Jean-Frédéric Bazille : The Artist's Family
on a Terrace near Montpellier
VA : Edouard Manet : The Execution
VA : Ernest Meissonier : Information:
VA : Alfred Sisley : Avenue of Chestnut Trees
Near Le Celle St. Cloud
VA : Gavin Hamilton : The Oath of Brutus
VA : William Holman Hunt : Self Portrait
DL : The Queensberry Rules, by John Graham Chambers of the London Amateur Athletic Club
PH : Austro-Hungarian dual monarchy created by "Ausgleich"; Francis Joseph I crowned King of Hungary at Budapest
PH : Brit. Parliamentary Reform Act
ST : Discovery of S. African diamond field
ED : E.A. Freeman: History of the Norman Conquest
PH : Fenian outrages in Ireland and in Manchester
ST : Gold discovered in Wyoming
ST : Livingstone explores Congo
RP : Marx: Das Kapital, vol. I
PH : N. German Confederation founded
PH : Napoleon III withdraws his support from Maximilian in Mexico; Maximilian executed
VA : Paris World's Fair introduces Japanese art to the West
DL : Pierre Michaux begins to manufacture bicycles
RP : Pope Pius IX, on the 18th centenary of the St. Peter and St. Paul, announces his intention to hold an ecumenical council
LT : Reclams Universal Bibliothek, first of all paperback series, founded at Leipzig
RP : Walter Bagehot: The English Constitution
VA : Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres dies 14 January
VA : Arthur Rackham born
VA : Pierre-Etienne-Théodore Rousseau dies 22 December


VA : Hilaire Germain Edgar Degas : The Rape
VA : Edouard Manet : The Balcony
VA : Jean-François Millet : Spring
VA : Dante Gabriel Rossetti : La Pia de'Tolomei
LT : Walt Whitman: Democratic Vistas II
LT : Robert Browning: The Ring and the Book
VA : Gustave Courbet : The Source
VA : Alexandre Cabanel : The Fallen Angel
M : Max Christian Friedrich Bruch : Violin Concerto No.1 in G-minor
M : Johann Strauss II : Polka, Thunder and Lightning
M : Johann Strauss II : Waltz, Tales from the Vienna Woods
M : Camille Saint-Saëns : Piano Concerto No.2
M : Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov : Symphony No.2, 'Antar' (later revised as an 'Oriental Suite')
M : Jacques Offenbach : Operetta, La Périchole
M : Edvard Grieg : Piano Concerto in A-minor
M : Anton Bruckner : Mass No.3, for solo voices, chorus and orchestra
M : Johannes Brahms : A German Requiem
VA : Jean-Frédéric Bazille : View of the Village
VA : Lord Frederic Leighton : Acme and Septimius
VA : Lord Frederic Leighton : Jonathon's Token to David
RP : A.H. Stephens: A Constitutional View of the War between the States
ED : Aust. schools freed from Church control
RP : Bakunin founds Alliance internationale de la démocratie sociale
ST : Charles Darwin: The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication
VA : Development of French impressionist style
DL : Earliest recorded bicycle race at the Parc de St. Cloud, Paris
RP : Ernst Haeckel: Natural History of Creation
PH : King Michael III of Serbia assassinated; succeeded by Milan IV
PH : Revolution in Spain; Queen Isabella II is deposed and flees to France
PH : Shogun Kekei of Japan abdicates; shogunate abolished; Meiji dynasty restored
ST : Skeleton of Cro-Magnon man from Upper Paleolithic age found in France
DL : The game of badminton devised at the Kuke of Beaufort's residence, Badminton Hall, Gloucestershire
PH : U.S. President Johnson impeached for violating Tenure-of-Office Act but acquitted by Senate    GO !
DL : Whitaker's Almanack appears in England
DL : 14th Amendment to U.S. Constitution prohibits voting discrimination, denies government office to certain Civil War rebels, and repudiates Confederate war debts
M : Giaocchino Antonio Rossini dies 13 November


VA : Berthe Morisot : The Mother and
Sister of the Artist
LT : Alfred, Lord Tennyson: The Holy Grail and Other Poems
LT : Mathew Arnold: Culture and Anarchy
M : Anton Grigoryevich Rubinstein : Oratorio, Der Turm zu Babel ('The Tower of Babel')
M : Pyotr Tchaikovsky : Song, None But the Lonely Heart
M : Pyotr Tchaikovsky : Overture fantasy, Romeo and Juliet
M : Arthur Sullivan : Oratorio, The Prodigal Son
M : Johannes Brahms : Hungarian Dances for piano duet
VA : Pierre-Auguste Renoir : Le Grenouillere
DL : British debtors' prisons are abolished
ST : Celluloid invented
RP : Eduard Hartmann: The Philosophy of the Unconscious
DL : First Nihilist Congress meets at Basel, Switzerland
DL : First postcards introduced in Austria
ST : Francis Galton: Hereditary Genius, pioneering treatise on eugenics
PH : General Grant inaugurated as President of the U.S.    GO !
ED : Girton College, Cambridge, founded
RP : J.S. Mill: On the Subjection of Women
RP : Mathew Arnold: Culture and Anarchy
ST : Mendeleyev formulates his periodic law for the classification of the elements
DL : Opening of Suez Canal by Empress Eugénie
PH : Parliamentary system reintroduced in France
PH : U.S. National Prohibition Party formed in Chicago
RP : W.E.H. Lecky: A History of European Morals from Augustus to Charlesmagne
RP : Walter Bagehot: Physics and Politics, etx.
M : Hector Berlioz dies 8 March
M : Louis Moreau Gottschalk dies 18 December
LT : Edwin A Robinson born 22 December
VA : Henri Matisse born


LT : Walt Whitman: Passage to India
LT : Christina Rossetti: Commonplace and Other Short Stories
LT : Dante Gabriel Rossetti: Poems
LT : William Blake: Hesiod
M : Giuseppe Verdi : Opera, Aida
M : Arthur Sullivan : Overture di ballo
M : Johann Strauss II : Waltz, Vienna Blood
M : Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky : Song-cycle, The Nursery
M : Léo Delibes : Ballet, Coppélia
VA : Jean-Frédéric Bazille : The Artist's Studio
VA : Sir John Everett Millais : The Knight Errant
ED : Dictionary of American Biography issued for the first time
PH : Bismarck's "Ems Telegram"
PH : End of Red River Rebellion; Manitoba becomes Canadian province
RP : First Vatican Council promulgates the dogma of papal infallibility
M : Founding of Société Nationale de Musique, France
ST : Heinrich Schliemann begins to excavate Troy
PH : Isabella of Spain abdicates in favour of Alfonso XII
ED : Keble College, Oxford, founded
PH : Prince Leopold of Hohenzollern accepts Span. throne but is forced to withdraw by the head of the House of Hohenzollern, King William I, following Fr. protest
PH : Revolt in Paris and proclamation of the Third Republic
ST : T.H. Huxley: Theory of Biogenesis
DL : W. G. Grace and his brothers found the Gloucester Cricket Club
M : Franz Lehár born 30 April
VA : Frederick Maxfield Parrish born 25 July


LT : Thomas Hardy: Desperate Remedies
LT : Mathew Arnold: Friendship's Garland
M : Richard Wagner : Opera, Siegfried
M : Arthur Sullivan : Hymn, 'Onward Christian Soldiers'
M : Arthur Sullivan : The Merchant of Venice, incidental music
M : Camille Saint-Saëns : Symphonic Poem, Omphale's Spinning Wheel
M : Georges Bizet : Opera, Djamileh
M : Georges Bizet : Jeux d'enfants for piano duet
M : Anton Grigoryevich Rubinstein : Opera, Der Demon
RP : "Kulturkampf" against Catholic Church in Prussia
RP : Adolph Wagner: The Social Question
M : Albert Hall, London, opened
DL : Bank Holidays introduced in England and Wales
DL : Brit. Act of Parliament legalises labour unions
ST : Charles Darwin: The Descent of Man
RP : First congress of Old Catholics meets in Munich
RP : Italian Law of Guarantees allows the Pope possession of Vatican
RP : Jehovah's Witnesses founded
RP : John Ruskin: Fors Clavigera
ST : Leprosy bacillus discovered
ED : Mommsen: Roman Constitutional Law
DL : P.T. Barnum opens his circus, "The Greatest Show on Earth", in Brooklyn, N.Y.
ST : Pneumatic rock drill invented
PH : The Commune in Paris rules for two months
DL : The Great Fire in Chicago
PH : William I, King of Prussia, proclaimed Ger. Emperor at Versailles, Peace of Frankfurt
VA : Jean-Frédéric Bazille dies 28 November


LT : Alfred, Lord Tennyson: Gareth and Lynette
LT : Christina Rossetti: Sing-Song: a Nursery Rhyme Book
LT : Dante Gabriel Rossetti: The Stealthy School of Criticism, Rossetti's reply to The Fleshy School of Poetry is printed in The Athenaeum
LT : Thomas Hardy: Under the Greenwood Tree
VA : Hilaire Germain Edgar Degas : Children on a Doorstep
VA : Hilaire Germain Edgar Degas : At the Races in the Country
VA : Charles-François Daubigny : Landscape with Cattle
M : Max Christian Friedrich Bruch : Cantata, Odysseus for solo voices, chorus and orchestra
M : Pyotr Tchaikovsky : Symphony No.2, 'Little Russian'
M : Charles-François Gounod : Funeral March of a Marionette
M : Anton Bruckner : Symphony No.2
M : Georges Bizet : Incidental music to Alphonse Daudet's play L'Arlésienne
VA : Berthe Morisot : The Cradle
VA : Dante Gabriel Rossetti : Veronica Veronese
VA : Alfred Sisley : The Rest by the Stream
ST : Automatic railroad air brake perfected
DL : Bakunin expelled from the First International at the Hague conference
DL : Ballot Act in Britain, voting by secret ballot
ST : Billroth makes first resection of esophagus
PH : Civil war in Spain - Carlists are defeated and Don Carlos escapes to France
DL : Compulsory military service introduced in Japan
RP : D.F. Strauss: The Old Faith and the New
ST : Edison perfects the "duplex" telegraph
DL : First U.S. ski club founded at Berlin, N.H.
DL : First international soccer game, England vs. Scotland
PH : Grant re-elected President of the U.S.    GO !
RP : Jesuits expelled from Germany
PH : T. F. Burgers elected President of Transvaal Republic
PH : Three-Emperors League established in Berlin; alliance between Germany, Russia, and Austria-Hungary
PH : U.S. General Amnesty Act pardons most ex-Confederates
VA : Aubrey Beardsley born
M : Ralph Vaughan Williams born 12 October


LT : Thomas Hardy: A Pair of Blue Eyes
LT : Mathew Arnold: Literature and Dogma
VA : Sir Edward Coley Burne-Jones : The Wheel of Fortune
M : Giuseppe Verdi : String Quartet in E-minor
M : Camille Saint-Saëns : Symphonic Poem, Phaeton
M : Camille Saint-Saëns : Cello Concerto No.1
M : Anton Bruckner : Symphony No.3
M : Léo Delibes : Opera, Le Roi l'a dit ('The King has Spoken')
M : Johannes Brahms : Variations on a Theme by Haydn ('St.Anthony Variations') for orchestra
VA : Edouard Manet : La Gare
DL : Abolition of slaves markets and exports in Zanzibar
M : Carl Rosa Opera Company founded
VA : Colour photographs first developed
DL : Famine in Bengal
DL : Financial panic in Vienna (May) and New York (Sept)
DL : First typewriters produced
DL : Germany adopts the mark as its unit of currency
RP : Herbert Spencer: The Study of Sociology
RP : Hippolyte Taine: Les Origines de la France contemporaine
DL : Initiation of modern cricket county championship
ST : James Clerk Maxwell: Electricity and Magnetism
ST : Jean Charcot: Leçons sur les maladies du systèm nerveux
DL : Lawn tennis first introduced under the name Sphairistike
ST : Payer and Weyprecht discover Franz Josef Land (islands in the Arctic Ocean)
PH : Republic proclaimed in Spain
DL : The cities of Buda and Pest are united to form the capital of Hungary
PH : Thiers falls and MacMahon is elected French President
DL : Vienna World Exhibition
ED : Walter Pater: Studies in the History of the Renaissance
RP : Wilhelm Wundt: Physiological Psychology
M : Sergei Rachmaninov born 1 April
LT : Walter de la Mare born 25 April


LT : Walt Whitman: A Prayer of Columbus and Song of the Redwood Tree
LT : Thomas Hardy: Far From the Madding Crowd
M : Richard Wagner : Der Ring des Nibelungen ('The Ring of the Nibelungs'), completed
M : Richard Wagner : Opera, Götterdämmerung ('Twilight of the Gods')
M : Giuseppe Verdi : Requiem Mass
M : Johann Strauss II : Operetta, Die Fledermaus ('The Bat')
M : Camille Saint-Saëns : Variations on a theme of Beethoven for two pianos
M : Camille Saint-Saëns : Symphonic Poem, Danse macabre
M : Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky : Song-cycle, Sunless
M : Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky : Pictures at an Exhibition for piano (orchestrated later by Ravel and others)
M : Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky : Opera, Boris Godunov (later revised by Rimsky)
M : Anton Bruckner : Symphony No.4 'Romantic'
M : Georges Bizet : Opera, Carmen
VA : Berthe Morisot : The Butterfly Chase
ST : A.T. Still founds osteopathy
PH : Alfonso XII, son of Queen Isabella, proclaimed King of Spain
DL : Civil marriage is made compulsory in Germany
PH : End of Ashanti war
RP : Ernst Haeckel: Anthropogenie
DL : First American zoo established in Philadelphia
VA : First impressionist exhibition
RP : Henry Sidgwick: Methods of Ethics
M : Paris Opéra completed
DL : Pressure-cooking methods for canning foods introduced
DL : Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children founded in New York
ST : Streptococci and staphylococci discovered
PH : Swiss Constitution revised
DL : Tennis introduced to the U.S.
DL : Union Générale des Postes established in Berne, Switzerland
LT : Robert Frost born 26 March
M : Arnold Schoenberg born 13 September
M : Gustav Holst born 21 September
M : Charles Ives born 20 October


LT : Alfred, Lord Tennyson: Queen Mary
VA : Gustave Caillebotte : The Floor Strippers
M : Pyotr Tchaikovsky : Symphony No.3, 'Polish'
M : Pyotr Tchaikovsky : Piano Concerto No.1
M : Arthur Sullivan : Operetta, Trial by Jury
M : Camille Saint-Saëns : Piano Concerto No.4
M : Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky : Song-cycle, Songs and Dances of Death (plus additional song, 'The Field Marshal', in 1877)
M : Edvard Grieg : Incidental music to the play Peer Gynt
M : Antonin Dvorák : Serenade for Strings
M : Antonin Dvorák : Symphony No.5
M : Anton Grigoryevich Rubinstein : Opera, Der Makkabäer ('The Maccabees')
VA : Claude Monet : Woman with a Parasol
VA : Berthe Morisot : A Woman at her Toilette
VA : Pierre-Auguste Renoir : Young Woman with a Veil
ST : Element gallium discovered
RP : Emile Laveleye: Le Protestantisme et le Catholicisme
DL : First roller-skating rink opens in London
DL : First swim across English Channel - Captain Matthew Webb
ED : Heinrich Schliemann: Troy and Its Remains
PH : Japanese courts of law are reformed
PH : Kwang Hsu becomes Emperor of China
ED : London Medical School for Women founded
RP : Mary Baker Eddy: Science and Health
DL : Public Health Act is passed in Britain
PH : Rebellion in Cuba
RP : Religious orders abolished in Prussia
PH : Risings in Bosnia and Herzegovina against Turk. rule
VA : The "Hermes" of Praxiteles found at Olympia, Greece
RP : Theosophical Society founded by Helena Blavatsky
VA : Jean-François Millet dies 20 January
VA : Camille Corot dies 22 February
M : Maurice Ravel born 7 March
M : Georges Bizet dies 3 June


VA : Hilaire Germain Edgar Degas : The Star
LT : Thomas Hardy: The Hand of Ethelberta
M : Franz von Suppé : Operetta, Fatinitza
VA : Sir Edward Coley Burne-Jones : Mirror of Venus
M : Pyotr Tchaikovsky : Marche Slave
M : Pyotr Tchaikovsky : Variations on a Rococo Theme for cello and orchestra
M : Pyotr Tchaikovsky : Symphonic fantasy, Francesca da Rimini
M : Pyotr Tchaikovsky : Ballet, Swan Lake
M : Bedrich Smetana : String Quartet No.1 ('From My Life')
M : Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov : Quintet for piano and wind instruments
M : Edvard Grieg : Ballade in G-minor
M : Anton Bruckner : Symphony No.5
M : Léo Delibes : Ballet, Sylvia
M : Alexander Porfiryevich Borodin : Symphony No.2
M : Johannes Brahms : Symphony No.1
VA : Pierre-Auguste Renoir : Ball at the
Moulin de la Galette
VA : John William Waterhouse : After The Dance
ST : Alexander Graham Bell invents the telephone
ST : Anthrax bacillus discovered
M : Bayreuth Festspielhaus opens with first complete performance of Wagner's Ring des Nibelungen
DL : Deutsche Richsbank opens
RP : F.H. Bradley: Ethical Studies
DL : First Chin. railroad is completed
DL : First tennis tournament in U.S.
ED : Heinrich Schliemann excavates Mycenae
ED : Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, opens
PH : Korea becomes an independent nation
RP : Lombroso: The Criminal
PH : Montenegro declares war on Turkey
PH : Serbia declares war on Turkey
PH : Sultan Abdul Aziz deposed in May; his successor, Murad V, deposed in August and succeeded by Abdul Hamid II
DL : World Exhibition at Philadelphia
VA : Second Impressionist Exhibition
M : Manuel de Falla born 23 November


VA : Frank Cadogan Cowper born
VA : Gustave Caillebotte : Street in Paris:
A Rainy Day
M : Arthur Sullivan : Operetta, The Sorcerer
M : Arthur Sullivan : Ballad, 'The Lost Chord'
M : Camille Saint-Saëns : Opera, Samson and Delilah
M : Antonin Dvorák : Stabat Mater
M : Antonin Dvorák : Symphonic Variations
M : Johannes Brahms : Symphony No.2
VA : Dante Gabriel Rossetti : A Sea Spell
DL : "Blue Cross" Founded to fight alcoholism by Swiss theologian Louis Lucien Rochet
ST : Canals on Mars observed by Giovanni Schiaparelli
ST : Edison invents phonograph
DL : Famine in Bengal
PH : First Kaffir War
DL : First public telephones (U.S.)
RP : J.C.F. Zöllner: Treatise of Spiritualism
ST : Lord Rayleigh: Treatise on Sound
ST : Oxygen liquefied
DL : Patent Protection Law enacted in Germany
PH : Porfirio Diaz- President of Mexico
PH : Queen Victoria proclaimed Empress of India
PH : Russia declares war on Turkey and invades Rumania; Serbia declares war on Turkey
PH : Satsuma revolt in Japan suppressed
VA : Third impressionist exhibition, Paris
VA : Third Impressionist Exhibition
VA : Raoul Dufy born
VA : Frank E. Schoonover born
VA : Gustave Courbet dies 31 December


LT : Thomas Hardy: The Return of the Native
VA : Gustave Caillebotte : The Orange Trees
M : Max Christian Friedrich Bruch : Violin Concerto No.2
M : Pyotr Tchaikovsky : Violin Concerto
M : Pyotr Tchaikovsky : Symphony No.4
M : Pyotr Tchaikovsky : Opera, Eugene Onegin
M : Arthur Sullivan : Operetta, H.M.S. Pinafore
M : Antonin Dvorák : Serenade for Wind Instruments
M : Antonin Dvorák : Slavonic Dances, first series
M : Johannes Brahms : Violin Concerto in D
M : Sir Charles Hubert Hastings Parry : Piano Concerto in F-minor
VA : Sir Frank Bernard Dicksee : Miranda
M : A. W. Ambros: Geschichte der Musik
PH : Anti-Socialist Law enacted in Germany
DL : Bicycle Touring Club founded in England
DL : C.I.D., New Scotland Yard, established in London
RP : Charles Pierce: How to Make Our Ideas Clear (Philosophy of Pragmatism)
VA : Cleopatra's Needle is moved to London
DL : Deutscher Fussballverein, Hanover, founded
DL : Electric street lighting is introduced in London
DL : First European crematorium established at Gotha, Germany
DL : First bicycles manufactured in America
M : George Grove begins Dictionary of Music and Musicians
RP : George Romanes: A Candid Examination of Theism
RP : German historian Heinrich Treitschke begins racial anti-Semite movement, and Berlin court preacher Adolf Stoecker founds Christlich-Soziale Arbeiterpartei
PH : Greece declares war on Turkey
ST : Iodoform first used as an antiseptic
DL : Karl Benz builds motorised tricycle with top speed of seven miles per hour
ST : Microphone invented
DL : Paris World Exhibition
RP : Pope Pius IX dies; Cardinal Count Pecci succeeds as Leo XIII
DL : Repeater rifle produced
PH : Turk-Russ. armistice signed
PH : Victor Emmanuel II, King of Italy dies; succeeded by his son Humbert I
ED : W.E. Lecky: History of England in the Eighteenth Century
VA : Charles-François Daubigny dies 19 February
VA : Malevich born
M : Franz Schreker born 23 March
LT : John Masefield born 1 June
LT : William Cullen Bryant dies 12 June


VA : Mary Cassatt : The Cup of Tea
VA : Mary Cassatt : At the Opera
M : Franz von Suppé : Operetta, Boccaccio
M : Arthur Sullivan : Operetta, The Pirates of Penzance
M : Bedrich Smetana : Cycle of symphonic poems, collectively entitled Má Vlast ('My Fatherland')
M : Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov : Opera, May Night
M : Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky : 'The Song of the Flea'
M : Alexander Porfiryevich Borodin : String Quartet No.1
VA : Edouard Manet : In the Conservatory
VA : Pierre-Auguste Renoir : Irene Cahen d'Anvers
RP : A.J. Balfour: Defence of Philosophic Doubt
PH : Alexander of Battenberg elected Prince Alexander I of Bulgaria
RP : Anti-Jesuit Laws introduced in France
DL : Brit. churchman W. L. Blackly proposes a scheme for old-age pensions
ST : First electric tram exhibited at Berlin Trade Exhibition
RP : Henry George: Progress and Poverty
RP : Herbert Spencer: Principles of Ethics
PH : Ismail, Khedive of Egypt, deposed; succeeded by Tewfik
DL : London's first telephone exchange established
RP : Mary Baker Eddy becomes pastor of Church of Christ, Scientist, Boston
PH : Peace signed with Zulu chiefs
RP : Robert Giffen: Essay on Finance
ST : Saccharin discovered
ST : Scandium discovered
DL : The public granted unrestricted admission to the British Museum
PH : Treaty of Gandamak
ED : Treitschke: History of Germany in the XIXth Century
VA : Fourth Impressionist Exhibition
M : Ottorino Respighi born 9 July
LT : Wallace Stevens born 2 October
VA : Paul Klee born


VA : Hilaire Germain Edgar Degas : Dancers in Pink
LT : Alfred, Lord Tennyson: Ballads and Other Poems
LT : Thomas Hardy: The Trumpet-Major
VA : Mary Cassatt : Lydia in a Loge
Wearing a Pearl Necklace
VA : Gustave Caillebotte : View Across a Balcony
VA : Alexandre Cabanel : Phèdre
VA : Sir Edward Coley Burne-Jones : Golden Stairs
M : Jules Massenet : Oratorio, La Vierge ('The Virgin')
M : Max Christian Friedrich Bruch : Scottish Fantasia for violin and orchestra
VA : Sir Adolph William Bouguereau : Temptation
M : Pyotr Tchaikovsky : Serenade for Strings
M : Pyotr Tchaikovsky : Capriccio Italien
M : Pyotr Tchaikovsky : Overture, 1812
M : Johann Strauss II : Waltz, Roses from the South
M : Camille Saint-Saëns : Violin concerto No.3
M : Jacques Offenbach : Opera, Les Contes d'Hoffmann ('The Tales of Hoffmann'); orchestration completed posthumously by Ernest Guiraud
M : Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky : Opera, Sorochintsky Fair (completed by Anatol Lyadov and others)
M : Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky : Opera, Khovanshchina (completed by Rimsky)
M : Gustav Mahler : Starts on song settings Des Knaben Wunderhorn ('Youth's Magic Horn')
M : Antonin Dvorák : Violin Concerto
M : Antonin Dvorák : Symphony No.6
M : Léo Delibes : Opera, Jean de Nivelle
M : Alexander Porfiryevich Borodin : In the Steppes of Central Asia
M : Johannes Brahms : Academic Festival and Tragic overtures
M : Anton Grigoryevich Rubinstein : Opera, Kupets Kalashnikov ('The Merchant Kalashnikov')
VA : Alfred Sisley : The Chemin de By
through Woods at Roches-Coutaut:
DL : Canned fruits and meats first appear in stores
ST : Chicken cholera vaccine developed by Pasteur
ST : First practical electric lights devised
RP : John Claird: Philosophy of Religion
M : London Guildhall School of Music founded
ST : Malarial parasite discovered
DL : New York streets are first lit by electricity
PH : Pacific War: Chile against Bolivia and Peru
DL : Parcel post introduced in England
PH : Transvaal declares itself independent of Britain
DL : World Exhibition takes place in Melbourne
VA : Fifth Impressionist Exhibition
M : Jacques Offenbach dies 5 October


LT : Alfred, Lord Tennyson: The Cup
LT : Christina Rossetti: A Pageant and Other Poems
LT : Dante Gabriel Rossetti: The King’s Tragedy and Ballads and Sonnets with The House of Life
LT : Thomas Hardy: A Laodicean
VA : Hilaire Germain Edgar Degas : The Dance Class
M : Jules Massenet : Opera, Hérodiade
M : Max Christian Friedrich Bruch : Kol Nidrei Adagio on Hebrew melodies, for cello and orchestra
M : Arthur Sullivan : Operetta, Patience
M : Camille Saint-Saëns : Violin Sonata No.1
M : Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov : Opera, The Snow Maiden
M : Edvard Grieg : Norwegian Dances for piano duet
M : Anton Bruckner : Symphony No.6
M : Gabriel Urbain Fauré : Ballade for piano and orchestra
M : Emmanuel Chabrier : Pièces pittoresques ('Picturesque Pieces') for piano
M : Alexander Porfiryevich Borodin : String Quartet No.2
M : Johannes Brahms : Piano Concerto No.2
VA : Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema : At the Tepidarium
VA : Pierre-Auguste Renoir : Luncheon of
the Boating Party
PH : Austro-Serbian treaty of alliance
LT : D'Oyly Carte builds the Savoy Theatre, London
RP : Edward Tylor: Anthropology
DL : Flogging abolished in Brit. Army and Navy
DL : Freedom of press established in France
PH : President Garfield is shot and killed in Sept. and succeeded by Chester Arthur    GO !
ED : Natural History Museum, South Kensington, London, opened
RP : Persecution of Jews in Russia
PH : Political parties founded in Japan
DL : The first of all cabarets, "Chat Noir", Paris, founded
PH : Treaty of Pretoria: Britain recognises independent Transvaal Republic
ED : University College, Liverpool, founded
ED : Vatican archives opened to scholars
VA : Sixth Impressionist Exhibition
M : Béla Bartók born 25 March
M : Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky dies 28 March
VA : Pablo Ruiz y Picasso born

Terms Defined

Referenced Works