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William Blake
(1757 - 1827)

1757

VA : Louis Tocqué : Portrait of Ekaterina Golovkina
RP : Denis Diderot: Entretiens sur le fils natural
RP : Richard Price: Review of the Principal Questions in Morals
ED : Royal Library, London, transferred to British Museum
DL : The London Chronicle appears
M : Johann Wenzel Anton Stamitz dies 27 March
M : Domenico Scarlatti dies 23 July
VA : William Blake born 28 November

1758

VA : Thomas Gainsborough : The Painter's Daughters
VA : Giovanni Battista Pittoni : Annunciation
VA : Louis Tocqué : Portrait of Empress Elizabeth Petrovna
DL : Samuel Johnson: The Idler, weekly periodical
RP : Pope Benedict XIV dies; succeeded by Carlo della Torre Rezzonico as Pope Clement XIII
RP : Emerich de Vattel: Le Droit des gens
RP : Claude Adrien Helvétius: De l'esprit
ED : Serjeant's Inn (London Court) formed
M : First English manual on guitar playing published
VA : Pierre-Paul Prud'hon born 4 April

1759

VA : Corrado Giaquinto : Justice and Peace
VA : Bernardo Bellotto : View of Vienna from the Belvedere
LT : Candide written by Voltaire
DL : The Botanical Gardens founded at Kew in London
PH : Cherokee War against the English begins
VA : Jean-Marc Nattier : Portrait of a Lady as a Vestal Virgin
PH : King Ferdinand VI of Spain dies; succeeded by Charles II
RP : Alexander Gerard: An Essay on Taste
ED : Oliver Goldshmith: An Enquiry Into the Present State of Polite Learning in Europe
RP : Expulsion of Jesuits from Portugal
RP : Adam Smith: Theory of Moral Sentiments
VA : William Chambers: Treatise on Civil Architecture
ST : Franz Aepinus: Testamen theoriae electricitatis et magnetesmi
ED : Bavarian Academy of Science founded
ED : British Museum opened (at Montagu House)
DL : The Publish Ledger, London daily paper, appears
M : George Frideric Handel dies 14 April

1760

PH : George III becomes King of England
PH : Catherine II, The Great becomes ruler of Russia
PH : King George II of England dies; succeeded by his grandson George III
LT : James Macpherson: Fragments of Ancient Poetry, Collected in the Highlands, famous literary fraud
VA : First exhibition of contemporary art at Royal Society of Arts, London
M : Noverre, ballet master at Stuttgart, publishes his Letter on Dancing and Ballets
ED : First British school for deaf and dumb opened by Thomas Braidwood, Edinburgh
DL : Josiah Wedgewood founds pottery works at Etrurua, Staffordshire
ST : Botanical Gardens in Kew, London, opened
DL : Rules of whist laid down by Edmund Hoyle
M : C.P.E. Bach : Sonatas with Varied Repeats
VA : George Stubbs : Mares and Foals in a Landscape
VA : Richard Wilson : Solitude
VA : Francesco Zuccarelli : Mountain Landscape with Washerwomen and Fisherman

1761

M : Christoph Willibald Gluck : Ballet, Don Juan
M : Joseph Haydn : Symphonies No.6, No.7 and No.8 ('Morning', 'Midday' and 'Evening')
VA : Jean-Baptiste Greuze : The Laundress
VA : Jean-Baptiste Greuze : The Village Betrothal
VA : Pompeo Girolamo Batoni : Diana & Cupid
VA : Anton Raphael Mengs : Parnassus
VA : Allan Ramsay : Mrs. Martin
PH : Ieharu, the new Shogun of Japan
LT : Benjamin Victor: History of the Theatres of London and Dublin
RP : Henry Home: An Introduction to the Art of Thinking
ST : Russian scientist and poet Mikhail V. Lomonosov discovers the atmosphere of Venus
ST : B.G. Morgagni: On the Causes of Diseases, beginning of pathological anatomy
ST : Johann Peter Süssmilch initiates study of statistics
ED : First French veterinary school founded at Lyons
ST : Society of Arts, London, opens first exhibition of agricultural machines

1762

VA : Allan Ramsay : Queen Charlotte
M : Christoph Willibald Gluck : Opera, Orfeo ed Euridice
VA : Thomas Gainsborough : William Pointz
VA : George Stubbs : Whistlejacket
VA : Richard Wilson : Lake Albano
PH : Czarina Elizabeth of Russia dies; succeeded by Peter III, who dies by assassination; succeeded by Catherine II
PH : Treaty of Hamburg between Sweden and Prussia
PH : Russo-Prussian alliance against Austria signed
PH : Truce between Prussia, Saxony, and the Holy Roman Empire
ED : Robert Lowth: Introduction to English Grammar
RP : George Campbell: Dissertation on Miracles
ED : John Parkhurst: Hebrew and English Lexicon
RP : Rousseau: Du Contrat social, ou principes du droit politique
ED : Sorbonne Library, Paris, opened
VA : Stuart and Revett: Classical Antiquities of Athens, Vol I
M : Benjamin Franklin improves the harmonica, turning it into a practical musical instrument
ST : At Carron ironworks in Stirlingshire, Scotland, cast iron converted for the first time into malleable iron

1763

PH : The Seven Years war ends with the Treaties of Paris and Hubertusburg    GO !
PH : Augustus III dies; he is succeeded (1764) by Stanislaw II, the last king of Poland
VA : Jean-Baptiste Greuze : Filial Piety
VA : Jean-Baptiste Oudry : Still-life with Pheasant
VA : Joseph Marie Vien : The Cupid Seller
RP : Voltaire: Treatise on Tolerance
ED : Frederick the Great establishes village schools in Prussia

1764

VA : German historian Johann Winckelmann publishes his History of the Art of Antiquity
M : Joseph Haydn : Symphony No.22, 'The Philosopher'
PH : Pontiac's Rebellion in Ohio valley
PH : Stanislas Poniatowski elected King of Poland
PH : Hyder Ali usurps throne of Mysore
RP : Confiscation of Church lands in Russia
PH : Deposed Czar Ivan VI murdered in prison
RP : Jesuits suppressed in France
LT : The Literary Club founded in London by Dr. Johnson, with Burke, Gibbon, Goldsmith, Reynolds, etc.
LT : Literary salons founded in Paris by Mme. Necker and Mlle. de Lespinasse
RP : Cesare Beccaria-Conesana: On Crimes and Punishments
RP : Charles Bonnet: Contemplation de la nature
ED : Brown University, Providence, R.I. founded
RP : Voltaire: Philosophical Dictionary
VA : J.J. Winckelmann: History of Ancient Art
ST : James Watt invents condenser, first step toward steam engine
DL : London introduces practice of numbering houses
PH : April - Sugar Act passed by Parliament to offset expenses of the French and Indian War
M : Johann Mattheson dies 17 April
PH : July - James Otis publishes The Rights of the British Colonies Asserted and Proved
VA : William Hogarth dies 26 October

1765

VA : Thomas Gainsborough : Studies of a Cat
PH : Joseph II becomes the Holy Roman Emperor
VA : Corrado Giaquinto dies
VA : Sir Joshua Reynolds : Lady Sarah Bunbury
Sacrificing to the Graces
VA : Bernardo Bellotto : The Ruins of the Old
Kreuzkirche in Dresden
PH : British Parliament passes Stamp Act for taxing American colonies    GO !
PH : Emperor Francis I, Maria Theresa's husband dies; their son Joseph II succeeds as Holy Roman Emperor, becomes co-regent with his mother
RP : A.R.J. Turgot: Refléxions sur la formation et la distribution des richesses
ST : Spallanzani suggests preserving by means of hermetic sealing
DL : Bank of Prussia founded by Frederick the Great
VA : Charles-André van Loo dies 15 July

1766

ST : The Nautical Almanac provides the first practical method for determining longitude
M : C.P.E. Bach : Six Easy Keyboard Sonatas
VA : Jean Honoré Fragonard : The Swing
VA : Allan Ramsay : Portrait of David Hume
PH : Repeal of Stamp Act, but Declaratory Act states Britain's right to tax American colonies    GO !
PH : Frederick V of Denmark dies; succeeded by the mad Christian VII
LT : Theatre Royal, Bristol, opens, oldest British theatre still in use
RP : Czarina Catherine the Great grants freedom of worship in Russia
ED : Adam Ferguson: Essay on the History of Civil Society
VA : Lessing: Laokoon, against Winckelmann's theories
ST : Louis de Bougainville sets out on voyage to Pacific on which he discovers Tahiti, the Soloman Islands, and New Guinea
DL : First paved sidewalk laid in Westminster, London
VA : Jean-Marc Nattier dies 7 November

1767

PH : Russian-Turkish War
VA : Anne-Louis Girodet-Trioson born
VA : Giovanni Battista Pittoni dies
M : Christoph Willibald Gluck : Opera, Alceste
VA : Joseph Marie Vien : Academie
PH : Townshend Duties: taxes on imports of tea, glass, paper, and dyestuffs in American colonies; non-importation agreement at public protest meeting in Boston    GO !
PH : First Mysore War
RP : Jesuits expelled from Spain, Parma, and the Two Sicilies
RP : Moses Mendelssohn: Phaedon, or the Immortality of Soul
VA : J.J. Winckelmann: Monumenti antichi inediti
M : Rousseau: Dictionnaire de musique
ST : Astronomer Royal, Nevill Maskelyne issues Nautical Almanac
ED : Maria Theresa and Joseph II introduce educational reforms in Austria
ST : Joseph Priestley: The History and Present State of Electricity
DL : Electrical machine with glass pane becomes a fashionable toy

1768

DL : The first modern Circus is formed in England by Philip Astley
VA : Joseph Wright of Derby : Experiment with the Air-Pump
PH : Ali Bey, leader of the Mamelukes, Sultan of Egypt
PH : Gurkhas conquer Nepal
RP : Abraham Booth: Reign of Grace
RP : Joseph Priestley: Essay on the First Principles of Government
RP : Swedenborg: Delititiae sapientiae
VA : Founding of the Royal Academy, London, with Joshua Reynolds as president
ST : James Cook sails on first circumnavigation
DL : New criminal code, on humanist principles, introduced in Austria
VA : Giovanni Antonio Canal dies 20 April
VA : John Crome born 22 December

1769

M : Joseph Haydn : Symphony No.48, 'Maria Theresa'
VA : Jean Honoré Fragonard : Inspiration
DL : Privy council in London decides to retain tea duty in American colonies
RP : Charles Bonnet: Palingénésie philosophique
RP : Pope Clement XIII dies; Lorenzo Ganganelli becomes Pope Clement XIV
RP : Johann Gottfried von Herder: Kritische Wälder
ST : N.J. Cugnot constructs first steam road carriage
DL : The Morning Chronicle issued in London
DL : Johann Friedrich Oberlin opens first crêche at Steintal, Alsace

1770

DL : Louis, the future king of France, marries Marie Antoinette
M : Christoph Willibald Gluck : Opera, Paride ed Elena
VA : Thomas Gainsborough : Portrait of Jonathan Buttall
VA : George Stubbs : A Horse Frightened by a Lion
VA : Benjamin West : Self Portrait
VA : Benjamin West : The Death of General Wolfe
RP : Edmund Burke: Thoughts on the Cause of the Present Discontents
RP : Kant: De mundi sensibilie et intelligibilis forma et principiis
ST : James cook discovers Botany Bay, Australia
ED : Elementary school education reformed in Austria
ST : English "Quack" John Hill introduces method of obtaining specimens for microscopic study
ST : Leonhard Euler: Introduction to Algebra
DL : First public restaurant opens in Paris
DL : Visiting cards introduced in England
VA : Giambattista Tiepolo dies 27 March
LT : William Wordsworth born 7 April
VA : Baron François Gérard born 4 May
VA : François Boucher dies 30 May
M : Ludwig van Beethoven born 17 December
VA : Jean Honoré Fragonard : The Love Letter
VA : Hubert Robert : The Burning of the Hötel-Dieu during the Night of 29-30 December 1772

1771

VA : Jean Honoré Fragonard : The Meeting
PH : Gustav III succeeds his father as king of Sweden
VA : Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin : Self Portrait at the Easel
VA : Claude-Joseph Vernet : Clair de lune
VA : Joseph Wright of Derby : The Alchemist in Search of the Philosophers Stone
PH : Adolphus Frederick of Sweden dies; succeeded by Gustavus III
ED : Encyclopaedia Britannica, first edition
RP : John William Fletcher: Five Checks to Antinomianism
ED : William Robertson: History of America
VA : Horace Walpole: Anecdotes of Painting
ST : Luigi Galvani discovers electrical nature of nervous impulse
ST : The Smeatonian Club for engineers founded in London
DL : The Assembly room, Bath, England, opened
DL : New York Hospital founded
VA : Baron Antoine-Jean Gros born 16 March
LT : Sir Walter Scott born 15 August

1772

VA : Louis Tocqué dies
LT : Anna Lætitia Barbauld: Poems
M : Joseph Haydn : Symphony No.45, 'Farewell'
PH : Boston Assembly demands rights of colonies, threatens secession
DL : Royal Marriage Act in Britain to prevent undesirable royal marriages
PH : First Partition of Poland
LT : The Göttinger Hainbund, society of young patriotic German poets, formed
ED : Herder: On the Origin of Speech, on comparative philology
RP : Inquisition abolished in France
RP : Mirabeau: Essai sur le despotisme
RP : F.S. Sullivan, Irish jurist: Lectures on the Feudal Law and the Constitution and Laws of England
M : Flight and Kelly, London firm of organ builders, produces first barrel organs
ST : Leonhard Eurler: Lettres à une princesse d'Allemagne, on mechanics, optics, acoustics, and astronomy
ST : Daniel Rutherford and Joseph Priestley independently discover nitrogen
DL : Judge William Murray decides in the Somerset case that a slave is free on landing in England
LT : Samuel Taylor Coleridge born 21 October

1773

LT : Johann Wolfgang von Goethe: Götz von Berlichingen
M : Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart : Exsultate, Jubilate ('Exult, Rejoice') for soprano and orchestra.
VA : Sir Joshua Reynolds : Ladies Adorning
a Term of Hymen
VA : Hubert Robert : Landscape with an Arch and The Dome of St Peter's in Rome
VA : Joseph Marie Vien : Young Greek Maidens Deck Sleeping Cupid With Flowers
VA : Joseph Marie Vien : Lover Crowning His Mistress
VA : Joseph Wright of Derby : The Iron Forge Viewed from Without
LT : Swedish national theatre established in Stockholm
RP : Pope Clement XIV dissolves Jesuit Order
RP : John Eerskine: Institutes of the Law in Scotland
RP : Joseph II expels Jesuits from the Empire
M : Charles Burney: The Present State of Music in Germany, the Netherlands, and the United Provinces
M : The waltz becomes fashionable in Vienna
ED : Philadelphia Museum founded
DL : 10 May - British East India Company Regulating Act
DL : 29-30 November - Boston Tea Party: protest against tea duty

1774

PH : Louis XVI becomes King of France
LT : Johann Wolfgang von Goethe: The Sorrows of Werther
M : Christoph Willibald Gluck : Opera, Iphigénie en Aulide
M : Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart : Symphony No.29
VA : Francesco Zuccarelli : Landscape with the Education of Bacchus
PH : Quebec Act, to secure Canada's loyalty to Great Britain, established Roman Catholicism in Canada
PH : Louis XV, King of France, dies; succeeded by his grandson Louis XVI
PH : First Continental Congress meets    GO !
PH : Accession of Abdul Hamid I as Sultan of Turkey
LT : Lord Chesterfield: Letters to His Son, on how a gentleman should behave
RP : John Campbell: A Political Survey of Great Britain
RP : John Cartwright: American Independence, the Glory and Interest of great Britain
RP : Jesuits expelled from Poland
RP : Anne Lee of Massachusetts settles in New York to begin a spiritualist revival
ST : Aust. physician F.A. Mesmer uses hypnosis for health purposes
ED : Swiss educator Johan Heinrich Pestalozzi founds school for orphaned and neglected children in Zurich to enable them to lead productive lives
VA : Caspar David Friedrich born 5 September

1775

LT : Anna Lætitia Barbauld: Devotional Pieces
VA : Gavin Hamilton : Priam Pleading with Achilles
for the Body of Hector
PH : Peasant's revolts in Bohemia against servitude
PH : American Revolution begins    GO !
RP : Cardinal Gianangelo Braschi elected in Feb as Pope Pius VI after a long conclave
RP : Justus Moser: Patriotische Phantasien, plea for one organic Germany
ST : Digitalis used for first time as a diuretic in dropsy
ST : J.C. Fabricius: Systema entomolgiae, classification of insects
ST : Pierre-Simon Girard invents water turbine
ST : James Watt perfects his invention of the Steam engine
DL : First British banks' clearinghouse established in Lombard Street, London
DL : First Thames Regatta
VA : Joseph Mallord William Turner born 23 April

1776

VA : Jean Honoré Fragonard : A Young Girl Reading
PH : Treaty of Copenhagen between Russia and Denmark
RP : John Cartwright: Take your Choice, on parliamentary reform
ED : Edward Gibbon: Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire
RP : Richard Price:Observations on Civil Liberty and the Justice and Policy of the War with America
RP : Adam Smith: An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations
M : Charles Burney: History of Music
M : Concerts of Ancient Music, London
DL : U.S. Congress institutes a national lottery
DL : Military ski competitions in Norway
VA : Corrado Giaquinto dies
M : Ernst Theodor Amadeus Hoffmann born 24 January
VA : John Constable born 11 June
PH : 4 July - Second Continental Congress adopts the Declaration of Independence    GO !

1777

RP : Christianity introduced in Korea
M : Christoph Willibald Gluck : Opera, Armide
VA : Jean-Baptiste Greuze : The Paternal Curse
LT : Court and National Theatre, Mannheim, founded
RP : Joseph Priestley: Disquisition Relating to Matter and Spirit
ST : American engineer David Bushnell invents torpedo
ST : Lavoisier proves that air consists mainly of oxygen and nitrogen
DL : Stars and Stripes adopted as Continental Congress flag
M : Heinrich Heine born 13 December

1778

PH : War of Bavarian Succession
LT : Anna Lætitia Barbauld: Lessons for Children of Two to Three Years Old and Lessons for Children of Three Years Old
M : Christoph Willibald Gluck : Opera, Iphigénie en Tauride
VA : Jean-Baptiste Greuze : Portrait of Count
Stroganov as a Child
VA : Jean-Baptiste Greuze : The Wicked
Son Punished
VA : Benjamin West : Romeo and Juliet
PH : American colonies sign treaties with France and Holland    GO !
RP : G.L.L. Buffon: Epoques de la Nature
RP : J.A. Deluc: Lettres physiques et morals sur les montagnes
M : La Scala, Milan, opened
ST : James cook discovers Hawaii
DL : Act of Congress prohibits import of slaves into the U.S.
VA : Giovanni Battista Piranesi dies 9 November

1779

M : C.P.E. Bach : Heilig for two choruses
M : Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart : Sinfonia Concertante
VA : Joseph Wright of Derby : Firework Display at the Castel Sant' Angelo in Rome
PH : Spain declares war on Britian
PH : British war against Mahrattas in India
LT : Samuel Johnson: Lives of the Poets
RP : David Hume: Dialogues of Natural Religion (posth.)
ST : James Rennel: "Bengal Atlas"
DL : First children's clinic, London
DL : The Derby established at Epson racetrack, Surrey, England
DL : Pope Pius VI begins draining Pontine Marshes
DL : First 'velocipedes' appear in Paris
VA : Anton Raphael Mengs dies 29 June
VA : Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin dies 6 December

1780

VA : Jean Honoré Fragonard : Education is Everything
VA : Jean Honoré Fragonard : Fête at Rambouillet
VA : Jean-Baptiste Greuze : Young Woman
in a White Hat
PH : Henry Grattan demands Home Rule for Ireland
PH : Gordon riots in London ("No Popery")
DL : Serfdom abolished in Bohemia and Hungary
PH : Empress Maria Theresa dies; succeeded by her son Joseph II
PH : Outbreak of Second Mysore War
PH : Rebellion in Peru against Spanish rule
RP : Gaetano Filangieri: Science of Legislation
M : Spanish dance 'bolero' invented
M : Sébastien Erard makes first modern pianoforte
ST : Circular saw invented by Gervinus
ST : American Academy of Sciences founded at Boston
DL : Scheller constructs first fountain pen
DL : The British Gazette and Sunday Monitor, first Sunday newspapers, appear in London
VA : Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres born 29 August
VA : Bernardo Bellotto dies 17 October
VA : Jean Honoré Fragonard : The Stolen Kiss

1781

VA : Henry Fuseli : Nightmare
ST : William Herschel discovers the Planet Uranus
LT : Anna Lætitia Barbauld: Hymns in Prose for Children
M : Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart : Piano Sonata No.11 in A
M : Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart : Horn Concerto No.4
M : Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart : Serenade No.10
M : Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart : Opera, Idomeneo
PH : Warren Hastings deposes Rajah of Benares, plunders treasure of the Nabob of Oudh
ED : Clarendon Press, Oxford, established
RP : Franciscan monks settle at Los Angeles
DL : Joseph II grants patent of religious tolerance and freedom of press in Austria
RP : Kant: Critique of Pure Reason, fundamental work of modern philosophy
RP : Moses Mendelssohn: On the Civil Amelioration of the Condition of the Jews
M : Johann Adam Hiller establishes the Gewandhaus concerts at Leipzig
ST : Herschel discovers the planet Uranus
ST : Composition of mineral tungsten discovered
DL : Serfdom abolished in Aust. dominions

1782

VA : Henry Fuseli : The Three Witches
LT : William Blake: Poetical Sketches
M : Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart : Opera, The Abduction from the Seraglio
M : Joseph Haydn : Six string quartets published as Opus 33
VA : Francesco Guardi : Concert
VA : George Romney : Lady Hamilton as 'Nature'
PH : Tippoo Sahib succeeds Hyder Ali in Mysore
PH : Rama I founds new dynasty in Siam, makes Bangkok his capital
PH : Pope Pius VI in Vienna fails to persuade Joseph II to rescind program of tolerance
RP : Joseph Priestley: A History of the Corruptions of Christianity
ED : Royal Irish Academy, Dublin, founded
RP : Dugald Stewart: Elements of the Philosophy of the Human Mind
ST : Montgolfier brothers construct air balloon
ST : James Watt invents double-acting rotary steam engine
PH : Bank of North America established in Philadelphia
VA : Richard Wilson dies 15 May
M : Nicolò Paganini born 27 October

1783

ST : First successful hot-air ballon flight
VA : Jean-Baptiste Perronneau dies
M : Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart : Symphony No.36, 'Linz'
PH : Great Britain recognises American independence
DL : Joseph II enforces Germ. language in Bohemia
DL : Famine in Japan
ST : William Herschel: Motion of the Solar System in Space
RP : Kant: Prolegomen to Any Possible Metaphysics
RP : Moses Mendelssohn: Jerusalem, plea for freedom of conscience
RP : Charles Simeon begins evangelical movement at Cambridge
DL : Bank of Ireland founded
DL : Civil marriage and divorce in Aust. dominions

1784

VA : Sir Joshua Reynolds : Portrait of Mrs. Siddons
as the Tragic Muse
VA : Jacques-Louis David : The Oath of the Horatii
VA : Henry Fuseli : Lady Macbeth
PH : Treaty of Constantinople: Turkey agrees to Russian annexation of the Crimea
PH : Joseph II abrogates constitution in Hungary, suppressing feudal rights
RP : First Anglican bishop for the colonies
ED : Bengal Asiatic Society (study of Sanskrit) founded by William Jones
RP : Bernardin de Saint-Pierre: Etudes de la nature
RP : Herder: Ideas Toward a Philosophy of History
RP : Kant: Notion of a Universal History in a Cosmopolitan Sense
RP : John Wesley's Deed of Declaration, the charter of Wesleyan Methodism
ST : Swiss inventor Aimé Argant designs oil burner
ST : Eng. mathematician George Atwood accurately determines acceleration of a free-falling body
ST : Joseph Bramah constructs first patent lock
ST : Goethe discovers human intermaxillary bone
ST : Scot. millwright Andrew Meikle invents threshing machine
ED : First school for the blind in Paris
DL : Serfdom abolished in Denmark
VA : Allan Ramsay dies 10 August

1785

VA : Thomas Gainsborough : Mrs. Richard Brinsley Sheridan
M : Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart : Piano Concerto No.20
M : Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart : Piano Concerto No.21
VA : George Stubbs : Haymaking
PH : Der Fürstenbund (League of German Princes) formed by Frederick the Great against Joseph II
PH : Commercial Treaty signed between Prussia and the U.S.
LT : The Reverend James Wilmot of Warwickshire identifies Francis Bacon, as author of Shakespeare's plays
ED : Educational reforms in Germany
RP : Kant: Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Ethics
PH : James Madison's Religious Freedom Act abolishes religious tests in Virginia
RP : William Paley: Principles of Moral and Political Philosophy
ST : Salsano: seismograph for measuring earthquakes
VA : Pietro Longhi dies 8 May

1786

M : Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart : Symphony No.38, 'Prague'
M : Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart : Piano Concerto No.23
M : Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart : Opera, The Marriage of Figaro
M : Joseph Haydn : 'Paris' symphonies (including No.82 and No.83, 'The Bear' and 'The Hen')
M : Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart : Piano Concerto No.24
VA : Henry Fuseli : Oedipus Cursing His Son, Polynices
PH : Frederick the Great dies; succeeded by his nephew Frederick William II
LT : Berlin Court Theatre opens
RP : Mennonites from Central Europe settle in Canada
ST : William Herschel: Catalogue of Nebulae
ST : M.H.Klaproth, Ger. chemist, discovers uranium
ST : American inventor H.James Rumsey designs first mechanically driven boat
ST : Earliest attempts at internal gas lighting in Germany and England
M : Carl Maria von Weber born 18 November

1787

VA : Thomas Gainsborough : The Woodsman
M : Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart : Serenade, Eine kleine Nachtmusik
M : Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart : Opera, Il dissoluto punito, ossia Il Don Giovanni ('The Rake Punished, or Don Giovanni')
VA : Sir Joshua Reynolds : Heads of Angels
VA : Jacques-Louis David : The Death of Socrates
VA : Hubert Robert : The Pont du Gard
VA : George Romney : Miss Constable
PH : Aust. Netherlands declared province of Hapsburg monarchy
PH : Parliament of Paris demands summoning of States-General
PH : Turkey declares war on Russia
RP : John Adams: A Defence of the Constitution of Government of the U.S.A.
RP : Jeremy Bentham: Defence of usury
ED : Imperial Russian Dictionary with 285 words in 200 languages
RP : James Madison: The Vices of the Political System of the United States
ST : Lavoisier: Méthode de nomenclature chimique
DL : Dollar currency introduced in the US
DL : English settlement founded for freed slaves in Sierra Leone
VA : Pompeo Girolamo Batoni dies 4 February

1788

DL : London's Daily Universal Register becomes the Times
LT : William Blake: Natural Religion
M : C.P.E. Bach : Double Concerto for Harpsichord, Piano and Orchestra in Eb
M : Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart : Symphony No.39
M : Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart : Concerto for Flute and Harp in C Major
M : Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart : Symphony No.40
M : Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart : Symphony No.41 ('Jupiter')
PH : Austria declares war on Turkey
DL : Brit. parliamentary motion for abolition of slave trade
PH : George III's first attack of mental illness; regency crisis in England
RP : Kant Critique of Practical Reason
ED : John Lemprière: Classical Dictionary
RP : Hannah More: Thoughts on the Importance of the Manners of the Great to General Society
ST : James Hutton: New Theory of the Earth
ST : Marquis Pierre Simon de Laplace: Laws of the Planetary System
DL : Bread riots in France
DL : First German cigar factory opens
LT : George Gordon, Lord Byron born 22 January
VA : Maurice Quentin de La Tour dies 17 February
VA : Thomas Gainsborough dies 2 August
M : C.P.E. Bach dies 14 December
VA : Francesco Zuccarelli dies 30 December

1789

PH : George Washington elected the First President of the United States     GO !
PH : The French Revolution begins
ST : Planetary satellites of Saturn, Enceladus and Mimas were discovered by Herschel
LT : William Wordsworth: An Evening Walk
LT : William Blake: Songs of Innocence
M : Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart : Opera, Cosi fan tutte ('Women Are All the Same')
VA : Jacques-Louis David : The Lictors Bring to Brutus the Bodies of His Sons
VA : George Romney : Tom Hayley as Robin Goodfellow
PH : King George II of England recovers
PH : Aust. Netherlands declare independence as Belgium
PH : Abdul Hamid I dies; succeeded as Sultan of Turkey by his nephew Selim III
RP : Jeremy Bentham: Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation
M : Charles Burney: History of Music
ST : Antoine Jussieu: Genera plantarum, modern classification of plants
ED : Pennsylvania State University
DL : Journal des dèbates founded in Paris
DL : Tammany founded as benevolent institution, but shortly after becomes political
VA : Claude-Joseph Vernet dies 3 December

1790

LT : William Blake: Marriage of Heaven and Hell
LT : Anna Lætitia Barbauld: An Address to the Opposers of the Repeal of the Corporation and Test Acts
VA : Henry Fuseli : Thor in the Boat of Hymir
VA : Joseph Wright of Derby : An Italian Landscape with Mountains and a River
PH : Joseph of Austria dies; succeeded by his brother Leopold II
PH : Festival of Champs de Mars, Paris; Louis XVI accepts the constitution
PH : Third Mysore War
LT : Royal Literary Fund initiated by David Williams
RP : Edmund Burke: Reflections on the Revolution in France
RP : Jews in France are granted civil liberties
RP : Kant : Kritik der Urteilskraft
RP : The first Roman Catholic bishop consecrated in America
M : First musical competition in America
ST : Lavoisier: Table of Thirty-One Chemical Elements
RP : Alexander Raditcheff: Journey from St. Petersburg to Moscow, a plea for the emancipation of serfs
DL : Washington, D.C., founded
PH : First session of the Supreme Court of the U.S.
VA : William Blake : The Marriage of Heaven & Hell

1791

LT : William Blake: The French Revolution
LT : Anna Lætitia Barbauld: Epistle to William Wilberforce, Esq. on the Rejection of the Bill for Abolishing the Slave Trade of 1791
M : Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart : Requiem Mass
M : Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart : German Dances (set of 3), 'Sleigh Ride'
M : Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart : Piano Concerto No.27
M : Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart : Clarinet Concerto
M : Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart : Opera, The Magic Flute
VA : Benjamin West : The Expulsion of Adam and Eve from Paradise
PH : Louis XVI, trying to leave France with his family is caught at Varennes and returned to Paris
PH : Massacre of the Champ de Mars, Paris
PH : Fr. National Assembly dissolves
PH : First ten amendments to U.S. constitution (Bill of Rights) ratified    GO !
PH : Canada Constitutional Act divides the country into two provinces, Upper and Lower Canada
RP : Herder: Ideen zur Philosophie die Geschichte der Menschheit
RP : Thomas Paine: The Rights of Man, Part I
RP : Philippe Pinel: Traitè mèdico-philosophique sur l'aliènation mentale
M : The waltz becomes fashionable in England
DL : Bank of North America founded
DL : Wilberfource's motion for abolition of slave trade carried through Parliament
ED : London School of Veterinary Surgery founded
VA : Jean Louis André Théodore Géricault born 26 September
M : Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart dies 5 December

1792

LT : The Old Farmers Almanac is published for the first time
LT : Anna Lætitia Barbauld: Remarks on Gilbert Wakefield's Enquiry into . . . Public or Social Worship
M : Joseph Haydn : 'London' symphonies (including No.94 'The Surprise')
PH : Peace of Jassy ends war between Russia and Turkey
PH : Leopold II of Austria dies; succeeded as Holy Roman Emperor by his son Francis II
PH : The Girondists form ministry in France; the royal family imprisoned
PH : Gustavus II assassinated in Stockholm Opera House: succeeded as King of Sweden by Gustavus IV
PH : France declares war on Austria, Prussia, and Sardinia
DL : Denmark is the first nation to abolish the slave trade
PH : Two political parties formed in the U.S.: The Republican and the Federalist
RP : Baptist Missionary Society founded in London
RP : Thomas Paine: Rights of Man, Part II
RP : Mary Wollstonecraft: Vindication of the Rights of Women
ST : Worlds's first chemical society founded, Philadelphia
ST : French engineer Claude Chappe invents mechanical semaphore signal
ST : Illuminating gas used in England for the first time
DL : Libel Act passed in Britain
DL : Dollar coinage minted in U.S.
M : Giaocchino Antonio Rossini born 29 February

1793

PH : Reign of Terror in France
LT : William Wordsworth: Descriptive Sketches
LT : William Blake: America: A Prophecy and Visions of the Daughters of Albion
LT : Anna Lætitia Barbauld: Sins of Government, Sins of the Nation
VA : Jacques-Louis David : Marat Assassinated
VA : Anne-Louis Girodet-Trioson : Endymion Asleep
VA : George Stubbs : William Anderson with Two Saddle-horses
PH : Louis XVI executed
PH : Reign of Terror begins
RP : Roman Catholicism banned in France
PH : Queen Marie Antoinette executed
PH : Holy Roman Empire declares war on France
PH : Second Partition of Poland
ED : Compulsory public education in France from the age of six
RP : The Feast of Reason in St. Eustache Church, Paris
RP : William Godwin; The Inquiry concerning Political Justice
RP : Kant: Religion innherhalb der Grenzen der blossen Vernunft (Religion within the limits of mere reason)
ST : Kermadec Islands discovered
ST : Eli Whitney invents the cotton gin
DL : Board of Agriculture established in Britain
DL : U.S. law compels escaped slaves to return to their owners
VA : Francesco Guardi dies in January
LT : John Clare born 13 July

1794

LT : Johann Wolfgang von Goethe: Wilhelm Meister’s Apprenticeship
LT : William Blake: Songs of Innocence and of Experience and The First Book of Urizen
VA : Jacques-Louis David : Self Portrait
VA : Sir Henry Raeburn : Portrait of Sir John Sinclair
VA : William Blake : God as an Architect
PH : "Feast of the Supreme Being" in Paris
PH : The Commune of Paris abolished
PH : Jacobin Club closed
PH : Habeas Corpus Act suspended in Britian
PH : Agha Mohammed founds the Kajar dynasty in Persia
PH : U.S. Navy established
LT : Drury Lane Theatre, London, reopened
ST : Erasmus Darwin: Zoonomia, or the Laws of Organic Life
RP : Thomas Paine: The Age of Reason
ST : Adrien Legendre: Elèments de gèomètrie
ST : First telegraph, Paris - Lille
DL : Slavery abolished in French colonies
ED : Ecole Normale founded in Paris
ED : Ecole Polytechnique, the word's first technical college, opens in Paris
LT : William Cullen Bryant born 3 November

1795

LT : William Blake: The Song of Los
M : Joseph Haydn : Six more 'London' symphonies (including No.100 'The Military', and No.101, 'The Clock'
VA : Baron François Gérard : Jean-Baptiste Isabey and his Daughter
VA : Sir Henry Raeburn : Miss Eleanor Urquhart
PH : Bread riots and White Terror in Paris
PH : Napoleon appointed commander-in-chief, Italy
PH : Secret treaty between Austria and Russia for Third Partition of Poland; joined by Prussia
PH : Third Partition of Poland
PH : King Stanislas II abdicates
PH : Treaty of San Lorenzo between U.S. and Spain settles boundary with Florida
RP : Freedom of worship in France
RP : Kant: Zum ewigen Frieden
M : Paris Conservatoire de Musique founded
ST : Joseph Bramah invents hydraulic press
ED : Institute National, Paris, to replace the abolished academies
ST : Metric system adopted in France
DL : Speenhamland Act for poor relief in Britain
VA : Sir Joshua Reynolds dies 23 February
LT : Joseph Rodman Drake born 7 August
LT : John Keats born 31 October

1796

LT : Samuel Taylor Coleridge: Poems on Various Subjects
M : Joseph Haydn : Trumpet Concerto
PH : John Adams elected second president of the U.S.    GO !
PH : Spain declares war on Britain
PH : Agha Mohammed of Persia siezes Khurasan in Khuzistan
PH : Kau-Tsung, great Manchu Emperor of China dies, succeeded by Kia-King
RP : Louis de Bonald: Thèorie du pouvoir politique et religieux
RP : Jean Jacques Cambacérès: Projet de code civil
RP : Joseph de Maistre: Considérations sur la France
RP : Richard Watson: An Apology for the Bible
ST : G.L.C. Cuvier founds the science of comparative zoology
ST : C.W.Hufeland: Macrobiotics, or The Art to Prolong One's Life
ST : Engl. physician Edward Jenner introduces vaccination against smallpox
ST : J.T. Lowitz prepares pure ethyl alcohol
DL : Edict of Peking forbids import of opium into China
DL : Freedom of press in France
ED : Royal Technical College, Glasgow, founded
VA : Camille Corot born 16 July

1797

LT : Samuel Taylor Coleridge: Poems, Second Edition
M : Joseph Haydn : Six string quartets published as Opus 76 (including 'Emperor Quartet')
VA : Anne-Louis Girodet-Trioson : Portrait of Jean-Baptiste Belley
PH : Napoleon proclaims Venetian Constitution, founds Ligurian Republic in Genoa
PH : Peace of Campo Formio between France and Austria
PH : Final treaty of Polish partition
PH : Frederick William II dies; succeeded as King of Prussia by his son Frederick William III
PH : Fath Ali, Shah of Persia
RP : Chateaubriand: Essai historique, politique, et moral sur les révolutions
RP : Kant: Metaphysik der Sitten
RP : Schelling: Idden zu einer Philosophie der Natur
RP : Wackenroder and Tieck: Outpourings of a Monk, romantic religious essays
RP : William Wilberforce: Practical View of the Religious System
ST : Thomas Bewick: British Birds
ST : J.L.Langrange: Théorie des fonctions analytiques
ST : Ger. astronomer H.W.M.Olbers publishes his method of calculating the orbits of comets
ST : Nicolas de Saussure: Recherches chimiques sur la végétation
DL : First copper pennies minted in England and first one-pound notes issued
M : Franz Schubert born 31 January
VA : Joseph Wright of Derby dies 29 August
M : Gaetano Domenico Maria Donizetti born 29 November

1798

LT : Samuel Taylor Coleridge: Lyrical Ballads
M : Joseph Haydn : Oratorio The Creation
M : Ludwig van Beethoven : Piano Concerto No.1
VA : Joseph Mallord William Turner : Buttermere Lake: A Shower
VA : Baron François Gérard : Cupid and Psyche
PH : French capture Rome: proclaim Roman Republic; Pope Pius VI leaves the city for Valence
PH : Napoleon master of Egypt
PH : King Ferdinand IV of Naples declares war on France and enters Rome
PH : Treaty of Hyderabad between Britain and the Nizam
PH : The last King of Poland, Augustus Stanislas II dies
RP : T.R.Malthus: Essay on the Principle of Population
ST : Ger. inventor Aloys Senefelder invents lithography
DL : Income tax of 10% of all incomes over £200 introduced in Britain as wartime measure
VA : Gavin Hamilton dies 4 January
VA : Eugène Delacroix born 26 April

1799

M : ErnstTheodor Amadeus Hoffmann : Die Maske three-act singspiel
M : Ludwig van Beethoven : Pathétique Piano Sonata
PH : Austria declares war on France
PH : Britain joins Russo-Turk alliance
PH : Kingdom of Mysore divided between Britain and Hyderabad
RP : Church Missionary Society founded in London
RP : Fichte: System der Sittenlehre
RP : Herder: Metakritik, attacks Kant and Fichte
RP : Schlegel: Geschichte der Poesie der Griechen und Römer
RP : Schleiermacher: Reden über die Religion
ED : Universities of Cologne and Mainz closed
ED : Egyptian Institute founded at Cairo
ED : Pestalozzi's school in Burgdorf, Switzerland, opened
ED : Rosetta Stone found - deciphering of hieroglyphics now possible

1800

M : Ludwig van Beethoven : Symphony No.1
VA : Francisco José de Goya Y Lucientes : Nude Maja
VA : Jacques-Louis David : Portrait of Madame Récamier
VA : Sir Henry Raeburn : Portrait of Lieutenant Colonel William Shirriff H.E.I.C.S.
VA : Sir Henry Raeburn : Lady Anne Torphicen
VA : William Blake : Job and his Daughters
PH : U.S. federal offices are moved from Philadelphia to Washington, D.C. - the new capital city
PH : Napoleon appoints committee of jurists to draw up Civil Code
RP : Cardinal Barnaba Chiaramonti elected Pope Pius VII
RP : Fichte: Der geschlossene Handelsstaat
RP : Arnold Heeren: European Political Systems
RP : Schelling: System des transzendentalen Idealismus
RP : Church of United Brethren in Christ founded in the U.S.
ST : German physician F.J. Gall founds practice of phrenology
ST : William Herschel discovers existence of infrared solar rays
ED : Royal College of Surgeons, London, founded
ST : Alessandro Volta produces electricity from cell; first battery of zinc and copper plates
ST : Eli Whitney makes muskets with interchangeable parts
DL : Letter post introduced in Berlin
DL : Robert Owen takes over New Lanark mills and starts social reforms

1801

M : ErnstTheodor Amadeus Hoffmann : Overture, Musica per la chiesa
M : Joseph Haydn : Oratorio The Seasons
M : Ludwig van Beethoven : 'Moonlight' Piano Sonata
M : Ludwig van Beethoven : Piano Concerto No.3
PH : Act of Union of Great Britain and Ireland comes into force
PH : Peace of Lunéville between Austria and France marks the actual end of the Holy Roman Empire
PH : Thomas Jefferson inaugurated President of U.S.    GO !
PH : Czar Paul I assassinated; succeeded by Alexander I
RP : K.F. Gauss: Disquisitiones arithmeticae
RP : Hegel and Schelling published the Critical Journal of Philosophy
ST : M.F.X. Bichat: Anatomie générale
ST : American civil engineer Robert Fulton produces the first submarine "Nautilus"
ST : J.J. Lalande catalogues 47,390 stars
DL : Bank of France founded
DL : The Union Jack becomes official flag of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
ST : Victoria Regia discovered in Amazon Territory
M : Vincenzo Bellini born 3 November

1802

LT : Samuel Taylor Coleridge: Poems
M : Ludwig van Beethoven : Symphony No.2
VA : Baron François Gérard : Madame Récamier
PH : Napoleon becomes President of Italian Republic
PH : Peace of Amiens between Britain and France
RP : Jeremy Bentham: Civil and Penal Legislation
ED : G.F. Grotefend deciphers Babylonian cuneiform
RP : Daniel Webster: The Rights of Neutral Nations in Time of War
VA : Period of the Classicist Empire style
ST : John Dalton introduces atomic theory into chemistry
ST : William Herschel discovers binary stars
ST : German naturalist Gottfried Trevinarus coins the term "biology"
DL : Peerage published in London by John Debrett
DL : The Duke of Richmond introduces horse racing at Goodwood
DL : "Health and Morals of Apprentices" Act in Britain
VA : George Romney dies 15 November

1803

LT : Sir Walter Scott: Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border
M : ErnstTheodor Amadeus Hoffmann : Mass in G (lost)
M : Ludwig van Beethoven : 'Kreutzer' Violin Sonata
PH : Swiss cantons regain independence (Act of Mediation)
PH : U.S. buys large tract of land from Louisiana Purchase    GO !
PH : Second Mahratta War against Sindhia of Gwalior
RP : Greek patriot Adamantios Coräes publishes his Present Conditions of Civilisation in Greece
RP : Joseph Lancaster: Improvements in Education as it Respects the Industrious Classes
ST : Claude Berthollet: Essai de statique chimique
ST : Lazare Carnot: Principes fondamentaux de l'équilibre et du mouvement
ST : Robert Fulton propels a boat by steam power
ST : Henry Shrapnel invents shell
ST : Building of Caledonian Canal begins
ED : Technical College, Prague, founded
M : Adolphe Adam born 24 July
M : Hector Berlioz born 11 December

1804

M : Ludwig van Beethoven : 'Waldstein' Piano Sonata
M : Ludwig van Beethoven : Symphony No.3 ('Eroica')
VA : Joseph Mallord William Turner : The Passage
of the St. Gothard
VA : Baron Antoine-Jean Gros : Napoleon in the
Pesthouse at Jaffa
VA : Pierre-Paul Prud'hon : Innocence Preferring Love to Wealth
PH : Napoleon, proclaimed emperor by Senate and Tribunate, is crowned in the presence of Pope Pius VII in Paris
PH : Francis II assumes the title of Emperor of Austria as Francis I
PH : Spain declares war on Britain
RP : British and Foreign Bible Society founded in London
PH : Code Napoléon promulgated
ST : Thomas Brown Inquiry into the Relation of Cause and Effect
VA : English Water Colour Society founded
ST : Thomas Bewick completes his History of British Birds
DL : The first dahlias in England
M : Mikhail Glinka born 1 June

1805

LT : William Wordsworth: Elegiac Stanzas
LT : Sir Walter Scott: The Lay of the Last Minstrel
M : ErnstTheodor Amadeus Hoffmann : Mass in D Minor
M : ErnstTheodor Amadeus Hoffmann : Singspiel, Die lustigen Musikanten
M : Nicolò Paganini : 24 Caprices for solo violin
M : Ludwig van Beethoven : Opera, Fidelio
M : Ludwig van Beethoven : 'Appasionata' Piano Sonata
VA : Pierre-Paul Prud'hon : The Empress Josephine
VA : Benjamin West : The Fatal Wounding of Sir Philip Sidney
PH : Thomas Jefferson begins his second term as President of U.S.    GO !
PH : Treaty of St. Petersburg by Britain and Russia against France, joined by Austria
PH : Napoleon crowned as King of Italy in Milan
PH : Peace of Pressburg between Austria and France; Bavaria and Württemberg becomes kingdoms
PH : Establishment of modern Egypt; Mehemet Ali proclaimed Pasha
RP : Hosea Ballou: A Treatise on Atonement
RP : Lord Liverpool: Treatise on the Coins of the Realm
ST : Rockets, originally constructed by Sir William Congreve, are reintroduced as weapons into the British army
ST : F.W.A. Sartürner isolates morphine
DL : Napoleon abandons French revolutionary calendar
ED : Pestalozzi school at Yverdun, Switzerland
VA : Jean-Baptiste Greuze dies 21 March
M : Luigi Boccherini dies 28 May

1806

LT : George Gordon, Lord Byron: Fugitive Pieces privately printed
M : ErnstTheodor Amadeus Hoffmann : Symphony, Eb
M : Ludwig van Beethoven : 'Razumovsky' String Quartets
M : Ludwig van Beethoven : Violin Concerto
M : Ludwig van Beethoven : Piano Concerto No.4
M : Ludwig van Beethoven : Symphony No.4
VA : Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres : Napoleon
PH : Joseph Bonaparte named King of Naples
PH : Louis Bonaparte named King of Holland
PH : Napoleon's Berlin Decree begins "Continental System"
PH : Confederation of Rhine founded
PH : Peace of Posen: Saxony is made a kingdom
ED : J.C. Adelun: Mithridates, a History of Languages and Dialects
RP : Fichte: Bericht über die Wissenschaftslehre
ED : Institute de France created by combining Académie Française with other academies
RP : James Madison: An Examination of the British Doctrine which Subjects to Capture a Neutral Trade not Open in Time of Peace
RP : Napoleon establishes a consistorial organisation for Jews in France
ST : P.A. Latreille: Genera Crustaceorum et Insectorum
ST : Sir Francis Beaufort designs scale to indicate wind strength
LT : Elizabeth Barret Browning born 6 March
VA : George Stubbs dies 10 July
VA : Jean Honoré Fragonard dies 22 August

1807

LT : William Wordsworth: Poems in two volumes
LT : George Gordon, Lord Byron: Hours of Idleness
M : ErnstTheodor Amadeus Hoffmann : Quintet for piano, two violins, viola, doublebass
M : ErnstTheodor Amadeus Hoffmann : Quintet for harp, two violins, viola, cello
M : ErnstTheodor Amadeus Hoffmann : Singspiel, Liebe und Eifersucht
M : Carl Maria von Weber : Symphonies No.1 and No.2
VA : Pierre-Paul Prud'hon : Portrait of Count Alexander Osterman-Tolstoy
PH : Treaty of Tilsit between Napoleon, the Czar, and the King of Prussia
PH : Jerome Bonaparte becomes King of Westphalia
PH : Napoleon ensures dictatorship by suppressing Tribunate
PH : Sultan Selim III of Turkey deposed and succeeded by Mustafa IV
DL : Baron von Stein emancipates serfs
PH : France invades Portugal: dethroned Portuguese royal family flees to Brazil
RP : U.S. Evangelical Association, founded by Jacob Albright, holds its first convention
PH : Commercial Law Code introduced in France
RP : Hegel: Phänomenologie des Geistes
RP : Gottlieb Hufeland: New Foundations of Political Economy
ST : Charles Bell: System of Comparative Surgery
ED : Alexander von Humboldt and Bonpland: Voyage aux régions équinoxiales du nouveau continent, 1799-1804, on Spanish America (first of 30 volumes)
DL : Horse racing: First Ascot Gold Cup
DL : England prohibits slave trade
DL : Street lighting by gas in London

1808

VA : Francisco José de Goya Y Lucientes : The Colossus
LT : Sir Walter Scott: Marmion
LT : Johann Wolfgang von Goethe: Faust
M : ErnstTheodor Amadeus Hoffmann : Canzoni
M : ErnstTheodor Amadeus Hoffmann : Opera, Der Trank der Unsterblichkeit
M : Ludwig van Beethoven : 'Für Elise' (completed 1810)
M : Ludwig van Beethoven : Symphonies No.5 and No.6
VA : Baron François Gérard : Caroline Murat and her Children
VA : Anne-Louis Girodet-Trioson : The Entombment of Atala
VA : Baron Antoine-Jean Gros : Napoleon on the Battlefield
of Eylau on 9 February 1807
VA : Pierre-Paul Prud'hon : David Johnston
DL : U.S. prohibits importation of slaves from Africa
PH : Joseph Bonaparte becomes king of Spain, Joachim Murat becomes King of Naples
PH : Erfurt Congress
PH : Rebellion in Madrid: King Joseph flees; Napoleon takes city
LT : Théâtre St. Philippe, New Orleans, opened
RP : John Dalton: New System of Chemical Philosophy
RP : J.F. Fries: New Critique of Reason
RP : Napoleon abolishes the Inquisition in Spain and Italy
RP : Schlegel: Von der Sprache und Weisheit der Inder
ST : J.L.Gay-Lussac: The Combination of Gases
ST : The source of the Ganges River discovered
DL : Baronetage published in London by John Debrett
DL : Disappearance of fashion of pigtails in men's hair
ED : Extensive excavations begin at Pompeii
DL : Henry Crabb Robinson, the first war correspondent, sent by The Times of London to Spain to report on the Peninsular War
VA : Hubert Robert dies 15 April

1809

VA : Caspar David Friedrich : Abbey in an Oak Forest
VA : Joseph Marie Vien dies
LT : Johann Wolfgang von Goethe: Elective Affinities
LT : George Gordon, Lord Byron: English Bards and Scotch Reviewers
M : ErnstTheodor Amadeus Hoffmann : Piano Trio
M : ErnstTheodor Amadeus Hoffmann : Miserere in Bb
M : Carl Maria von Weber : Incidental music to the play Turandot
M : Ludwig van Beethoven : Piano Concerto No.5 ('Emperor')
PH : Treaty of Dardanelles between Britain and Turkey
PH : War between France and Austria
PH : Peace of Schönbrunn
PH : Austria joins Continental System
PH : James Madison becomes 4th President of the U.S.    GO !
PH : King Gustavus IV of Sweden deposed; succeeded by Charles XIII
PH : Marshal Jean Bernadotte elected Crown Prince of Sweden
PH : Treaty of friendship between Britain and the Sikhs at Amritsar
PH : Napoleon annexes Papal States; Pope Pius VII taken prisoner
PH : Ecuador gains independence from Spain
M : Felix Mendelssohn born 3 February
M : Joseph Haydn dies 31 May
LT : Alfred, Lord Tennyson born 6 August

1810

VA : Caspar David Friedrich : Morning in the Riesengebirge
LT : Sir Walter Scott: The Lady in the Lake
M : Carl Maria von Weber : Piano Concerto No.1
M : Ludwig van Beethoven : Overture and incidental music to Egmont
VA : Caspar David Friedrich : Cloister Graveyard in the Snow
PH : Napoleon annexes Holland, Hanover, Bremen, Hamburg, Lauenburg, and Lübeck
PH : Venezuela breaks away from Spain
RP : Lazare Carnot: De la défense des places fortes
RP : Société de Amis formed in Geneva by Protestant revivalists
RP : Joseph de Maistre: Essay on the Generation of Political Constitutions
VA : The "Nazarenes" founded by J.F. Overbeck to revive German religious art
ST : Gail and Spurzheim: Anatomie et physiologie du systèm nerveux
ST : Samuel Hahnemann founds homeopathy
ST : François Appert develops techniques for canning food
DL : First public billiards rooms in England at the Piazza, Covent Garden, London
M : Frederic Chopin born 1 March
M : Robert Schumann born 8 June

1811

LT : Anna Lætitia Barbauld: Eighteen Hundred And Eleven, A Poem
M : Carl Maria von Weber : Opera, Abu Hassan
M : Carl Maria von Weber : Clarinet Concertos No.1 and No.2
M : Ludwig van Beethoven : 'Archduke' Piano Trio
VA : Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres : Jupiter and Thetis
PH : George III of England insane; Prince of Wales becomes Prince Regent
DL : Austria bankrupt
PH : Paraguay independent of Spain
RP : K.A. Böttiger: Kunstmythologie
PH : Civil Code introduced in Austria
RP : "Great Schism" of Welsh Protestants; two thirds leave Anglican Church
ED : Barthold G. Niebuhr: Roman History
ED : J.P.A. Récusat: Essai sur la langue et la littérature
ED : University of Christiania, Oslo, founded
ED : National University of Nicaragua founded
DL : John Rennie begins the building of Waterloo Bridge, London
M : Prague Conservatoire is opened
ST : Amadeo Avogadro: hypothesis of the molecular composition of gases
ST : Sir Charles Bell: New Idea of the Anatomy of the Brain
ST : S.O. Poisson: Traité de Mécanique
DL : French Press Agency founded (later to becomes Agence Havas)
DL : "Luddites" destroy industrial machines in North England
M : Franz Liszt born 22 October

1812

LT : George Gordon, Lord Byron: Childe Harold cantos I and II, published
M : ErnstTheodor Amadeus Hoffmann : Opera, Aurora
M : Carl Maria von Weber : Piano Concerto No.2
M : Giaocchino Antonio Rossini : Comic Opera, La scala di seta ('The Silken Ladder')
M : Ludwig van Beethoven : Symphonies No.7 and No.8
VA : Jacques-Louis David : Napoleon in His Study
PH : U.S. declares war on Britain    GO !
RP : Baptist Union of Great Britain formed
ED : H.F. Genesius: Hebrew and Chaldaic Dictionary
RP : Hegel: Die objective Logik
RP : Jews in Prussia emancipated (Hardenberg reforms)
VA : Elgin Marbles brought to England
M : Founding of Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde, Vienna
VA : Swiss explorer Burckhardt discovers the Great Temple of Abu Simbel
ST : Georges Cuvier: Recherches sur les ossements fossiles de quadrupèdes
ST : Humphry Davy: Elements of Chemical Philosophy
ST : Philippe Girard invents machine for spinning flax
ST : Laplace: Thérie analytique
DL : Royal Yacht Squadron founded
DL : Gas, Light and Coke Company, London developed by F.A. Winsor
VA : Pierre-Etienne-Théodore Rousseau born 15 April
LT : Robert Browning born 7 May

1813

LT : Sir Walter Scott: Rokeby
LT : Johann Wolfgang von Goethe: Aus meinem Leben: Dichtung und Wahrheit
LT : George Gordon, Lord Byron: The Giaour and The Bride of Abydos
M : Giaocchino Antonio Rossini : Comic Opera, L'italiana in Algeri ('The Italian Girl in Algiers')
M : Nicolò Paganini : Le streghe ('Witches Dance')
PH : Prussia declares war on France
PH : Austria declares war on France
PH : French expelled from Holland; return of William of Orange
PH : Simón Bolivar becomes dictator of Venezuela
PH : Mexico declares itself independent
RP : J.F. Herbart: Introduction to Philosophy
RP : Methodist Missionary Society founded
RP : Robert Owen: A New View of Society
RP : Schopenhauer: Über die vierfache Wurzel des Satzes vom sureichenden Grunde
M : London Philharmonic Society founded
DL : Last gold guinea coins issued in England
M : The waltz conquers the European ballrooms
M : Richard Wagner born 22 May
M : Giuseppe Verdi born 10 October

1814

LT : William Wordsworth: The Excursion
LT : Sir Walter Scott: Waverly
LT : George Gordon, Lord Byron: The Corsair and Lara published
M : Franz Schubert : Song, Gretchen am Spinnerade ('Gretchen and the Spinning Wheel')
VA : Francisco José de Goya Y Lucientes : The Third of May, 1808
VA : Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres : Grand Odalisque
VA : Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres : Raphael
and the Fornarina
PH : Napoleon abdicates and is banished to Elba
PH : Louis XVIII enters Paris and takes up the throne as his hereditary right
PH : Congress of Vienna opens
PH : Christian Frederick of Denmark elected King of Norway
PH : Treaty of Ghent ends British-American war    GO !
PH : Hanover proclaimed a kingdom
PH : Lord Hastings, Governor-General of India, declares war on the Gurkhas (Nepal)
ED : Chateaubriand: De Buonaparte et le Bourbons
RP : Pope Pius VII returns to Rome and restores the Inquisistion
RP : Savigny: The Claim of Our Age on Legislation
VA : Dulwich Gallery, London, opened
M : J.N. Maelzel invents the metronome
ST : Berzelius: Theory of Chemical Proportions and the Chemical Action of Electricity
ST : M.J.B. Orfila: Toxicologie générale
ST : At Killingworth Colliery, George Stephenson constructs the first practical steam locomotive
DL : English Statute of Apprentices (1563) repealed
M : Johann Friedrich Reichardt dies 27 June
VA : Jean-François Millet born 4 October

1815

LT : William Wordsworth: Collected Poems
LT : Sir Walter Scott: Guy Mannering
LT : Sir Walter Scott: The Lord of the Isles
LT : Samuel Taylor Coleridge: Biographia Literaria
LT : George Gordon, Lord Byron: Hebrew Melodies
M : Carl Maria von Weber : Clarinet Quintet
M : Franz Schubert : Songs, Der Erlkönig, Heidenröslein
PH : Napoleon leaves Elba; the "Hundred Days"; Napoleon abdicates again and is banished to St. Helena
PH : Swiss Federal Pact ratified; the Confederation now consists of 22 cantons
PH : Joachim Murat, King of Naples executed after attempt to regain Naples
PH : Brazil declares itself an independent empire
RP : Protestant Baseler Missiongesellschaft founded
RP : T.R. Malthus: An Inquiry into the Nature and Progress of Rent
ED : Savigny: History of Roman Law in the Middle Ages
RP : Dugald Stewart: Progress of Metaphysical, Ethical, and Political Philosophy
VA : The Biedermeier styles arrives
ST : Miner's safety lamp invented
ST : Augustin Fresnel: research on the diffraction of light
ST : Lamarck: Histoire naturelle des animaux
ST : L.J. Prout: hypothesis on relation between specific gravity and atomic weight
DL : Apothecaries Act forbids unqualified doctors to practice in Britain
DL : British income tax ended
DL : British road surveyor John Macadam constructs roads of crushed stone
DL : Eruption of Sumbawa Volcano in Indonesia - more than 50,000 dead
ED : Technological College, Vienna, founded
VA : Ernest Meissonier born 21 February

1816

LT : Sir Walter Scott: Tales of my Landlord
LT : George Gordon, Lord Byron: Childe Harold canto III and The Prisoner of Chillon
LT : George Gordon, Lord Byron: The Siege of Corinth and Parisina
M : ErnstTheodor Amadeus Hoffmann : Opera, Undine
M : Franz Schubert : Symphonies No.4 'Tragic', and No.5
M : Giaocchino Antonio Rossini : Comic Opera, Il barbiere di Siviglia ('The Barber of Seville')
PH : Maria I, Queen of Portugal dies; succeeded by her son, Dom John VI
PH : Argentina declared independent
PH : Prince Metternich opens Diet of German Confederation at Frankfurt
RP : American Bible Society founded
ED : Nikolai Karamzin: History of the Russian Empire
ST : Sir David Brewster invents kaleidoscope
ST : Stethoscope invented
DL : Blackwood's Magazine founded, Edinburgh
DL : English economic crisis causes large-scale emigration to Canada and U.S.

1817

LT : Sir Walter Scott: Rob Roy
LT : John Keats: Poems
LT : George Gordon, Lord Byron: Manfred
LT : William Cullen Bryant: Thanatopsis
M : Franz Schubert : Songs, Die Forelle ('The Trout'), Der Tod und das Mädchen (Death and the Maiden'), An die Musik
M : Giaocchino Antonio Rossini : Opera, Armida
M : Giaocchino Antonio Rossini : Opera, La gazza ladra ('The Thieving Magpie')
M : Giaocchino Antonio Rossini : Comic Opera, La Cenerentola ('Cinderella')
M : Nicolò Paganini : Violin Concerto No.1
VA : Caspar David Friedrich : Cemetery at Dusk
VA : Caspar David Friedrich : City at Moonrise
PH : James Monroe inaugurated as fifth President of the U.S.    GO !
PH : Wartburg Festival of revolutionary German students
RP : August Böckh: The Public Economy of Athens
RP : Lutheran and Reformed Churches in Prussia form Evangelical Union
RP : Hegel: Encyclopaedia of the Philosophical Sciences
RP : H.F.R. de Lamennais: Essai sur l'indifférence en matière de religion
ED : Juan Llorente, a former secretary of the Inquisition, publishes his History of the Inquisition in Spain
RP : Joseph de Maistre: Du Pape
ED : Braccia Nuova begins building of Vatican Museum, Rome
ST : Berzelius discovers selenium and lithium
ST : Karl Ritter: Geographie in ihrer Beziehung zu Natur und Geschichte
DL : Riots in Derbyshire, England, against low wages
DL : Opening of Waterloo Bridge, London (replaced 1945)
VA : Charles-François Daubigny born 15 February

1818

LT : Sir Walter Scott: The Heart of Midlothian
LT : John Keats: Endymion
LT : George Gordon, Lord Byron: Beppo and Childe Harold canto IV
M : Giaocchino Antonio Rossini : Opera, Mosè in Egitto
M : Ludwig van Beethoven : 'Hammerklavier' Piano Sonata
VA : Caspar David Friedrich : Wanderer above the Sea of Fog
VA : Jean Louis André Théodore Géricault : Severed Heads
PH : Act suspending Habeas Corpus is repealed
PH : Charles XIII of Sweden dies; succeeded by Jean Bernadotte as Charles XIV
PH : Chile proclaims its independence
PH : Border between Canada and U.S. agreed upon
ED : Bonn University founded
ED : Josef Dobrovsky: History of the Czech language
ED : Henry Hallam: The View of the State of Europe during the Middle Ages
ED : Prado Museum, Madrid, founded
ST : F.W. Bessel: Fundamenta Astronomiae, catalog of 3,222 stars
ST : Berzelius publishes molecular weights of 2,000 chemical compounds
ST : Cadmium discovered
DL : British Order of St. Michael and St. George instituted by the Prince Regent
DL : "Savannah" becomes the first steamship to cross the Atlantic (26 days)
M : Charles-François Gounod born 18 June

1819

LT : William Wordsworth: Peter Bell and The Waggoner
LT : Sir Walter Scott: The Bride of Lammermoor, Ivanhoe, and A Legend of Montrose
LT : George Gordon, Lord Byron: Mazeppa and Don Juan cantos I and II
M : Carl Maria von Weber : Invitation to the Dance for piano (later orchestrated by Berlioz)
M : Franz Schubert : 'Trout' Quintet
VA : Jean Louis André Théodore Géricault : The Raft of the Medusa
VA : John Crome : Yarmouth Beach
PH : Florida purchased by U.S. from Spain
PH : Bolivar becomes President of Colombia
RP : Georg Hermes: Philosophical Introduction to Christian Theology
RP : Jean Sismondi: Nouveaux principes d'economie politique
ST : Mitscherelich discovers isomorphism
ST : David Napier constructs the flat-bed cylinder for printing
ST : Danish physicist Hans Oersted discovers electromagnetism
DL : Opening of Burlington Arcade, Piccadilly, London
VA : Mehemet Ali presents Cleopatra's Needle to Britain
DL : Freedom of the press in France
DL : Maximum 12-hour working day for juveniles in England
M : Franz von Suppé born 18 April
LT : Walt Whitman born 31 May
VA : Gustave Courbet born 10 June
M : Jacques Offenbach born 20 June
M : Clara Wieck Schumann born 13 September

1820

LT : John Clare: Poems Descriptive of Rural Life and Scenery
LT : Elizabeth Barret Browning: Battle of Marathon
LT : William Blake: Jerusalem
VA : John Constable : Dedham Lock and Mill
VA : Henry Fuseli : Solitude at Dawn
PH : Revolution in Spain - King Ferdinand VII forced to restore Constitution of 1812
PH : King George III of England dies; succeeded by Prince Regent as George IV
DL : U.S. Land Law fixes land price at a minimum of $1.25 per acre
RP : Thomas Brown: Lectures on the Philosophy of the Human Mind
RP : Thomas Erskine: Internal Evidence for the Truth of Revealed Religion
RP : J.J. Görres: Germany and the Revolution
RP : Jesuits driven out of Rome
RP : T. R. Malthus: Principles of Political Economy
VA : Discovery of the Venus de Milo
ST : André Ampère: Laws of the Electrodynamic Action
DL : Washington Colonization Society founds Liberia for repatriation of Negros
VA : Benjamin West dies 11 March
LT : Joseph Rodman Drake dies 21 September

1821

VA : Francisco José de Goya Y Lucientes : The Great He-Goat
LT : Sir Walter Scott: Kenilworth
LT : John Clare: The Village Minstrel
LT : George Gordon, Lord Byron: Marino Faliero, Don Juan cantos III-V, Cain, The Two Foscari, and Sardanapalus
VA : John Constable : Study of Clouds at Hampstead
VA : John Constable : The Hay Wain
M : Carl Maria von Weber : Opera, Der Freischütz
PH : James Monroe begins second term as U.S. president
PH : Revolution in Piedmont: Victor Emmanuel abdicates, names his brother Charles Felix successor
PH : Reign of Terror begins between Greeks and Turks
PH : Peru proclaimed independent from Spain, followed by Guatemala, Panama, and Santo Domingo
ED : Ecole des Chartes founded in Paris for historical studies
RP : George Grote: Statement of the Question of Parliamentary Reform
RP : Hegel: Grundlinien der Philosophie des Rechts
ED : Champollion deciphers Egyptian hieroglyphics using Rosetta Stone
ST : Faraday discovers fundamentals of electromagnetic rotation
ST : T.J. Seebeck discovers thermoelectricity
ST : Sir Charles Wheatstone demonstrates sound reproduction
DL : London Co-operative Society founded
DL : Manchester Guardian founded
LT : John Keats dies 23 February
VA : John Crome dies 22 April

1822

LT : William Wordsworth: Ecclesiastical Sketches
LT : Sir Walter Scott: The Fortunes of Nigel and Halidon Hill
LT : George Gordon, Lord Byron: Vision of Judgment
VA : Eugène Delacroix : Dante and Virgil
in Hell
M : Franz Schubert : Fantasia in C, 'Wanderer' Fantasy
M : Franz Schubert : Symphony No.8, 'Unfinished'
M : Ludwig van Beethoven : Mass in D (Missa Solemnis)
VA : William Blake : The Parable of the Wise and Foolish Virgins
PH : Greeks adopt liberal republican constitution and proclaim independence
PH : Augustin de Iturbide elected Emperor of Mexico
PH : Brazil becomes independent of Portugal
PH : Congress of Verona opens to discuss European problem
PH : Bottle riots in Dublin, viceroy attacked by Orangemen
ED : Colebrooke founds Royal Asiatic Society (study of Eastern languages)
RP : Jean B. J. Fourier: Thèorie analytique de la chaleur
ST : J.V. Poncelet: Traité des propriétés projectives des figures on projective geometry
M : Royal Academy of Music, London, founded
VA : Daguerre and Bouton invent the diorama, paintings illuminated in dark room to give illusion of reality
ST : A.J. Fresnel perfects lenses for lighthouses
DL : Streets of Boston, Mass., lit by gas
DL : Sunday Times, London, founded
M : Franz Strauss born 26 February
M : ErnstTheodor Amadeus Hoffmann dies 25 June
LT : Mathew Arnold born 24 December

1823

VA : Alexandre Cabanel born
LT : Sir Walter Scott: Macduff's Cross, Peveril of the Peak and Quentin Durward
LT : George Gordon, Lord Byron: Don Juan cantos VI-XIV
M : Carl Maria von Weber : Opera, Euryanthe
M : Franz Schubert : Moments Musicaux
M : Franz Schubert : Incidental music to Rosamunde
M : Franz Schubert : Song-cycle, Die schöne Müllerin
M : Giaocchino Antonio Rossini : Opera, Semiramide
M : Ludwig van Beethoven : 'Diabelli' Piano Variations
M : Ludwig van Beethoven : Symphony No.9 ('Choral')
PH : Mexico becomes republic, Iturbide forced to abdicate
PH : Guatemala, San Salvador, Nicaragua, Honduras, and Costa Rica form Confederation of United Provinces of Central America
PH : The Monroe Doctrine closes American continent to colonial settlements by European powers    GO !
RP : Oxford Union Society founded
RP : Pope Pius VII dies; succeeded by Pope Leo XII (Annibale de la Genga)
RP : Saint-Simon: Catéchisme des industriels
ED : Louis Thiers: Histoire de la Révolution Française
ED : Sir Robert Smirke designs British Museum, London
ST : Charles Babbage's early attempts to construct a calculating machine
ST : Faraday succeeds in liquefying chlorine
ST : Charles Macintosh invents waterproof fabric
ED : Mechanic's Institute founded in London and Glasgow
ST : Walter Oudney, discovers Lake Chad in Central Africa
ST : British medical journal The Lancet first issued
DL : First Cologne Carnival festivities
DL : Death penalty for over 100 crimes abolished in Britain
ED : George IV presents the library of George III to British Museum
DL : Founding of Royal Thames Yacht Club
DL : Rugby Football originates at Rugby School, England
VA : Pierre-Paul Prud'hon dies 16 February
VA : Sir Henry Raeburn dies 8 July

1824

VA : Anne-Louis Girodet-Trioson dies
VA : Eugène Delacroix : Massacre at Chios
M : Franz Schubert : Sonata for two pianos, 'Grand Duo'
M : Franz Schubert : Octet in F
M : Franz Schubert : String Quartet No.14, 'Der Tod und das Mädchen
M : Mikhail Glinka : Symphony in B-flat
M : Ludwig van Beethoven : Last five string quartets
VA : Caspar David Friedrich : Evening
PH : Bolivar proclaimed Emperor of Peru
PH : Frontier treaty signed between Russia and U.S.
PH : U.S. House of Representatives elects John Quincy Adams as president when none of the four candidates wins a majority in the national election    GO !
ED : August Böckh: Corpus Inscriptionum Graecum (ed.)
ED : Carlo Botta: History of Italy, 1789-1814
ED : Leopold von Ranke: History of the Latin and Teutonic People, 1494-1535
RP : Sunday School Union formed in U.S.
VA : National Gallery, London, founded
ST : Portland Cement developed
ST : Nicolas Carnot: Puissance motrice du feu (on therodynamics)
DL : Founding of Athenaeum Club, London
DL : Combinations Law of 1799-1800 repealed; British workers are allowed to unionise
DL : Le Globe, Paris begins publication
DL : R.S.P.C.A. founded in London
VA : Jean Louis André Théodore Géricault dies 26 January
M : Bedrich Smetana born 2 March
LT : George Gordon, Lord Byron dies 19 April
VA : Jean Léon Gérôme born 11 May
M : Anton Bruckner born 4 September

1825

VA : Eugène Delacroix : Female Nude
Reclining on a Divan
LT : William Wordsworth: Yarrow Revisited, and Other Poems
LT : Sir Walter Scott: The Talisman
M : Felix Mendelssohn : Octet for strings
M : Vincenzo Bellini : Opera, Adelson e Salvini
VA : William Blake : The Body of Abel Found by Adam & Eve
VA : William Blake : Queen Katherine's Dream
PH : Ferdinand IV of Naples dies; succeeded by Francis I
PH : Anglo-Russian Treaty of British territory in north-western N. America
PH : Bolivia becomes independent of Peru, Uruguay of Brazil
PH : Maximilian I, King of Bavaria, dies; succeeded by his son Louis I
PH : Czar Alexander I dies; succeeded by Nicholas I
RP : William Hazlitt: The Spirit of the Age, or Contemporary Portraits
RP : French law makes sacrilege a capital offence
ED : Augustin Thierry: Histoire de la Conquête de l'Angleterre par les Normands
ST : Faraday isolates benzene
ST : Oxygen-hydrogen limelight invented
ED : Hungarian Academy of Sciences founded in Budapest
DL : Opening of Stockton-Darlington railroad - the first line to carry passengers
DL : A Baseball Club organised at Rochester, New York
DL : Tea roses from China introduced in Europe
LT : Anna Lætitia Barbauld dies 9 March
VA : Henry Fuseli dies 16 April
M : Johann Strauss II born 25 October
VA : Sir Adolph William Bouguereau born 30 November
VA : Jacques-Louis David dies 29 December

1826

LT : Sir Walter Scott: Woodstock
LT : Elizabeth Barret Browning: An Essay on Mind and Other Poems published anonymously
LT : William Blake: Job
M : Carl Maria von Weber : Opera, Oberon
M : Franz Schubert : Symphony No.9
M : Nicolò Paganini : Violin Concerto No.3
M : Nicolò Paganini : Violin Concerto No.2, including La campanella ('The Little Bell')
M : Felix Mendelssohn : Overture, A Midsummer Night's Dream
M : Vincenzo Bellini : Opera, Bianca e Gernando
M : Hector Berlioz : Opera, Les Francs-juges
VA : William Blake : Satan Inflicting Boils on Job
PH : Treaty of Yandabu ends Burmese War
PH : John VI, King of Portugal, dies; succeeded by Peter IV
PH : Russia declares war on Persia
PH : Dost Mohammed becomes Amir of Kabul
RP : Ngüan Ngüan edits the writings of Confucius
VA : U.S. Academy of Design founded
ST : André Ampère: Electrodynamics
ST : N.J. Lobachevsky develops his system of non-Euclidean geometry
ED : Munich University founded
ST : Galvanometer invented
DL : Unter den Linden, Berlin, lit by gas
ST : Stamford Raffles founds Royal Zoological Society, London
DL : First railroad tunnel, on Liverpool-Manchester line, in England
M : Carl Maria von Weber dies 5 June

1827

VA : Eugène Delacroix : Death of Sardanapalus
LT : Alfred, Lord Tennyson: Poems by Two Brothers
LT : Sir Walter Scott: The Surgeon's Daughter and Life of Napoleon
LT : John Clare: The Shepherd's Calendar with Village Stories and Other Poems
M : Franz Schubert : Song-cycle, Winterreise ('Winter Journey')
M : Frederic Chopin : Nocturne in E-flat
M : Frederic Chopin : Variations for piano and orchestra on 'La ci darem la mano' (aria from Mozart opera Don Giovanni
M : Vincenzo Bellini : Opera, Il pirata ('The Pirate')
PH : Count Kapodistrias elected President of Greece
PH : By the Treaty of London the Allies agree to force a truce on the Sultan
RP : John Darby founds the Plymouth Brethren
ED : Henry Hallam: The Constitutional History of England
RP : John Keble: The Christian year
ST : J. J. Audubon : Birds of North American
ST : Karl von Baer: Epistola de Ova Mammalium et Hominis Generis
ST : English physician describes Bright's disease
VA : Joseph Niepce produces photographs on a metal plate
ST : George Ohm formulates Ohm's Law, defining electrical current potential and resistance
ST : James Simpson constructs sand filter for purification of London's water supply
DL : Karl Baedeker begins publishing his travel guides
DL : Evening Standard, London, appears
DL : Sulfur friction matches introduced by John Walker
M : Ludwig van Beethoven dies 26 March
VA : William Holman Hunt born 26 April
LT : William Blake dies 12 August
Personae

Terms Defined

Referenced Works