- The Honourable Sir Walter Scott [Chronology]
HumanitiesWeb HumanitiesWeb
Periods Alphabetically Nationality Topics Themes Genres Glossary

Selected Works
According To...
Suggested Reading
Other Resources
Related Materials


Get Your Degree!

Find schools and get information on the program that’s right for you.

Powered by Campus Explorer

& etc

All Rights Reserved.

Site last updated
28 October, 2012
Real Time Analytics

Sir Walter Scott
(1771 - 1832)


VA : Jean Honoré Fragonard : The Meeting
PH : Gustav III succeeds his father as king of Sweden
VA : Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin : Self Portrait at the Easel
VA : Claude-Joseph Vernet : Clair de lune
VA : Joseph Wright of Derby : The Alchemist in Search of the Philosophers Stone
PH : Adolphus Frederick of Sweden dies; succeeded by Gustavus III
ED : Encyclopaedia Britannica, first edition
RP : John William Fletcher: Five Checks to Antinomianism
ED : William Robertson: History of America
VA : Horace Walpole: Anecdotes of Painting
ST : Luigi Galvani discovers electrical nature of nervous impulse
ST : The Smeatonian Club for engineers founded in London
DL : The Assembly room, Bath, England, opened
DL : New York Hospital founded
VA : Baron Antoine-Jean Gros born 16 March
LT : Sir Walter Scott born 15 August


VA : Louis Tocqué dies
LT : Anna Lætitia Barbauld: Poems
M : Joseph Haydn : Symphony No.45, 'Farewell'
PH : Boston Assembly demands rights of colonies, threatens secession
DL : Royal Marriage Act in Britain to prevent undesirable royal marriages
PH : First Partition of Poland
LT : The Göttinger Hainbund, society of young patriotic German poets, formed
ED : Herder: On the Origin of Speech, on comparative philology
RP : Inquisition abolished in France
RP : Mirabeau: Essai sur le despotisme
RP : F.S. Sullivan, Irish jurist: Lectures on the Feudal Law and the Constitution and Laws of England
M : Flight and Kelly, London firm of organ builders, produces first barrel organs
ST : Leonhard Eurler: Lettres à une princesse d'Allemagne, on mechanics, optics, acoustics, and astronomy
ST : Daniel Rutherford and Joseph Priestley independently discover nitrogen
DL : Judge William Murray decides in the Somerset case that a slave is free on landing in England
LT : Samuel Taylor Coleridge born 21 October


LT : Johann Wolfgang von Goethe: Götz von Berlichingen
M : Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart : Exsultate, Jubilate ('Exult, Rejoice') for soprano and orchestra.
VA : Sir Joshua Reynolds : Ladies Adorning
a Term of Hymen
VA : Hubert Robert : Landscape with an Arch and The Dome of St Peter's in Rome
VA : Joseph Marie Vien : Young Greek Maidens Deck Sleeping Cupid With Flowers
VA : Joseph Marie Vien : Lover Crowning His Mistress
VA : Joseph Wright of Derby : The Iron Forge Viewed from Without
LT : Swedish national theatre established in Stockholm
RP : Pope Clement XIV dissolves Jesuit Order
RP : John Eerskine: Institutes of the Law in Scotland
RP : Joseph II expels Jesuits from the Empire
M : Charles Burney: The Present State of Music in Germany, the Netherlands, and the United Provinces
M : The waltz becomes fashionable in Vienna
ED : Philadelphia Museum founded
DL : 10 May - British East India Company Regulating Act
DL : 29-30 November - Boston Tea Party: protest against tea duty


PH : Louis XVI becomes King of France
LT : Johann Wolfgang von Goethe: The Sorrows of Werther
M : Christoph Willibald Gluck : Opera, Iphigénie en Aulide
M : Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart : Symphony No.29
VA : Francesco Zuccarelli : Landscape with the Education of Bacchus
PH : Quebec Act, to secure Canada's loyalty to Great Britain, established Roman Catholicism in Canada
PH : Louis XV, King of France, dies; succeeded by his grandson Louis XVI
PH : First Continental Congress meets    GO !
PH : Accession of Abdul Hamid I as Sultan of Turkey
LT : Lord Chesterfield: Letters to His Son, on how a gentleman should behave
RP : John Campbell: A Political Survey of Great Britain
RP : John Cartwright: American Independence, the Glory and Interest of great Britain
RP : Jesuits expelled from Poland
RP : Anne Lee of Massachusetts settles in New York to begin a spiritualist revival
ST : Aust. physician F.A. Mesmer uses hypnosis for health purposes
ED : Swiss educator Johan Heinrich Pestalozzi founds school for orphaned and neglected children in Zurich to enable them to lead productive lives
VA : Caspar David Friedrich born 5 September


LT : Anna Lætitia Barbauld: Devotional Pieces
VA : Gavin Hamilton : Priam Pleading with Achilles
for the Body of Hector
PH : Peasant's revolts in Bohemia against servitude
PH : American Revolution begins    GO !
RP : Cardinal Gianangelo Braschi elected in Feb as Pope Pius VI after a long conclave
RP : Justus Moser: Patriotische Phantasien, plea for one organic Germany
ST : Digitalis used for first time as a diuretic in dropsy
ST : J.C. Fabricius: Systema entomolgiae, classification of insects
ST : Pierre-Simon Girard invents water turbine
ST : James Watt perfects his invention of the Steam engine
DL : First British banks' clearinghouse established in Lombard Street, London
DL : First Thames Regatta
VA : Joseph Mallord William Turner born 23 April


VA : Jean Honoré Fragonard : A Young Girl Reading
PH : Treaty of Copenhagen between Russia and Denmark
RP : John Cartwright: Take your Choice, on parliamentary reform
ED : Edward Gibbon: Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire
RP : Richard Price:Observations on Civil Liberty and the Justice and Policy of the War with America
RP : Adam Smith: An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations
M : Charles Burney: History of Music
M : Concerts of Ancient Music, London
DL : U.S. Congress institutes a national lottery
DL : Military ski competitions in Norway
VA : Corrado Giaquinto dies
M : Ernst Theodor Amadeus Hoffmann born 24 January
VA : John Constable born 11 June
PH : 4 July - Second Continental Congress adopts the Declaration of Independence    GO !


RP : Christianity introduced in Korea
M : Christoph Willibald Gluck : Opera, Armide
VA : Jean-Baptiste Greuze : The Paternal Curse
LT : Court and National Theatre, Mannheim, founded
RP : Joseph Priestley: Disquisition Relating to Matter and Spirit
ST : American engineer David Bushnell invents torpedo
ST : Lavoisier proves that air consists mainly of oxygen and nitrogen
DL : Stars and Stripes adopted as Continental Congress flag
M : Heinrich Heine born 13 December


PH : War of Bavarian Succession
LT : Anna Lætitia Barbauld: Lessons for Children of Two to Three Years Old and Lessons for Children of Three Years Old
M : Christoph Willibald Gluck : Opera, Iphigénie en Tauride
VA : Jean-Baptiste Greuze : Portrait of Count
Stroganov as a Child
VA : Jean-Baptiste Greuze : The Wicked
Son Punished
VA : Benjamin West : Romeo and Juliet
PH : American colonies sign treaties with France and Holland    GO !
RP : G.L.L. Buffon: Epoques de la Nature
RP : J.A. Deluc: Lettres physiques et morals sur les montagnes
M : La Scala, Milan, opened
ST : James cook discovers Hawaii
DL : Act of Congress prohibits import of slaves into the U.S.
VA : Giovanni Battista Piranesi dies 9 November


M : C.P.E. Bach : Heilig for two choruses
M : Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart : Sinfonia Concertante
VA : Joseph Wright of Derby : Firework Display at the Castel Sant' Angelo in Rome
PH : Spain declares war on Britian
PH : British war against Mahrattas in India
LT : Samuel Johnson: Lives of the Poets
RP : David Hume: Dialogues of Natural Religion (posth.)
ST : James Rennel: "Bengal Atlas"
DL : First children's clinic, London
DL : The Derby established at Epson racetrack, Surrey, England
DL : Pope Pius VI begins draining Pontine Marshes
DL : First 'velocipedes' appear in Paris
VA : Anton Raphael Mengs dies 29 June
VA : Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin dies 6 December


VA : Jean Honoré Fragonard : Education is Everything
VA : Jean Honoré Fragonard : Fête at Rambouillet
VA : Jean-Baptiste Greuze : Young Woman
in a White Hat
PH : Henry Grattan demands Home Rule for Ireland
PH : Gordon riots in London ("No Popery")
DL : Serfdom abolished in Bohemia and Hungary
PH : Empress Maria Theresa dies; succeeded by her son Joseph II
PH : Outbreak of Second Mysore War
PH : Rebellion in Peru against Spanish rule
RP : Gaetano Filangieri: Science of Legislation
M : Spanish dance 'bolero' invented
M : Sébastien Erard makes first modern pianoforte
ST : Circular saw invented by Gervinus
ST : American Academy of Sciences founded at Boston
DL : Scheller constructs first fountain pen
DL : The British Gazette and Sunday Monitor, first Sunday newspapers, appear in London
VA : Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres born 29 August
VA : Bernardo Bellotto dies 17 October
VA : Jean Honoré Fragonard : The Stolen Kiss


VA : Henry Fuseli : Nightmare
ST : William Herschel discovers the Planet Uranus
LT : Anna Lætitia Barbauld: Hymns in Prose for Children
M : Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart : Piano Sonata No.11 in A
M : Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart : Horn Concerto No.4
M : Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart : Serenade No.10
M : Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart : Opera, Idomeneo
PH : Warren Hastings deposes Rajah of Benares, plunders treasure of the Nabob of Oudh
ED : Clarendon Press, Oxford, established
RP : Franciscan monks settle at Los Angeles
DL : Joseph II grants patent of religious tolerance and freedom of press in Austria
RP : Kant: Critique of Pure Reason, fundamental work of modern philosophy
RP : Moses Mendelssohn: On the Civil Amelioration of the Condition of the Jews
M : Johann Adam Hiller establishes the Gewandhaus concerts at Leipzig
ST : Herschel discovers the planet Uranus
ST : Composition of mineral tungsten discovered
DL : Serfdom abolished in Aust. dominions


VA : Henry Fuseli : The Three Witches
LT : William Blake: Poetical Sketches
M : Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart : Opera, The Abduction from the Seraglio
M : Joseph Haydn : Six string quartets published as Opus 33
VA : Francesco Guardi : Concert
VA : George Romney : Lady Hamilton as 'Nature'
PH : Tippoo Sahib succeeds Hyder Ali in Mysore
PH : Rama I founds new dynasty in Siam, makes Bangkok his capital
PH : Pope Pius VI in Vienna fails to persuade Joseph II to rescind program of tolerance
RP : Joseph Priestley: A History of the Corruptions of Christianity
ED : Royal Irish Academy, Dublin, founded
RP : Dugald Stewart: Elements of the Philosophy of the Human Mind
ST : Montgolfier brothers construct air balloon
ST : James Watt invents double-acting rotary steam engine
PH : Bank of North America established in Philadelphia
VA : Richard Wilson dies 15 May
M : Nicolò Paganini born 27 October


ST : First successful hot-air ballon flight
VA : Jean-Baptiste Perronneau dies
M : Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart : Symphony No.36, 'Linz'
PH : Great Britain recognises American independence
DL : Joseph II enforces Germ. language in Bohemia
DL : Famine in Japan
ST : William Herschel: Motion of the Solar System in Space
RP : Kant: Prolegomen to Any Possible Metaphysics
RP : Moses Mendelssohn: Jerusalem, plea for freedom of conscience
RP : Charles Simeon begins evangelical movement at Cambridge
DL : Bank of Ireland founded
DL : Civil marriage and divorce in Aust. dominions


VA : Sir Joshua Reynolds : Portrait of Mrs. Siddons
as the Tragic Muse
VA : Jacques-Louis David : The Oath of the Horatii
VA : Henry Fuseli : Lady Macbeth
PH : Treaty of Constantinople: Turkey agrees to Russian annexation of the Crimea
PH : Joseph II abrogates constitution in Hungary, suppressing feudal rights
RP : First Anglican bishop for the colonies
ED : Bengal Asiatic Society (study of Sanskrit) founded by William Jones
RP : Bernardin de Saint-Pierre: Etudes de la nature
RP : Herder: Ideas Toward a Philosophy of History
RP : Kant: Notion of a Universal History in a Cosmopolitan Sense
RP : John Wesley's Deed of Declaration, the charter of Wesleyan Methodism
ST : Swiss inventor Aimé Argant designs oil burner
ST : Eng. mathematician George Atwood accurately determines acceleration of a free-falling body
ST : Joseph Bramah constructs first patent lock
ST : Goethe discovers human intermaxillary bone
ST : Scot. millwright Andrew Meikle invents threshing machine
ED : First school for the blind in Paris
DL : Serfdom abolished in Denmark
VA : Allan Ramsay dies 10 August


VA : Thomas Gainsborough : Mrs. Richard Brinsley Sheridan
M : Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart : Piano Concerto No.20
M : Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart : Piano Concerto No.21
VA : George Stubbs : Haymaking
PH : Der Fürstenbund (League of German Princes) formed by Frederick the Great against Joseph II
PH : Commercial Treaty signed between Prussia and the U.S.
LT : The Reverend James Wilmot of Warwickshire identifies Francis Bacon, as author of Shakespeare's plays
ED : Educational reforms in Germany
RP : Kant: Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Ethics
PH : James Madison's Religious Freedom Act abolishes religious tests in Virginia
RP : William Paley: Principles of Moral and Political Philosophy
ST : Salsano: seismograph for measuring earthquakes
VA : Pietro Longhi dies 8 May


M : Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart : Symphony No.38, 'Prague'
M : Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart : Piano Concerto No.23
M : Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart : Opera, The Marriage of Figaro
M : Joseph Haydn : 'Paris' symphonies (including No.82 and No.83, 'The Bear' and 'The Hen')
M : Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart : Piano Concerto No.24
VA : Henry Fuseli : Oedipus Cursing His Son, Polynices
PH : Frederick the Great dies; succeeded by his nephew Frederick William II
LT : Berlin Court Theatre opens
RP : Mennonites from Central Europe settle in Canada
ST : William Herschel: Catalogue of Nebulae
ST : M.H.Klaproth, Ger. chemist, discovers uranium
ST : American inventor H.James Rumsey designs first mechanically driven boat
ST : Earliest attempts at internal gas lighting in Germany and England
M : Carl Maria von Weber born 18 November


VA : Thomas Gainsborough : The Woodsman
M : Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart : Serenade, Eine kleine Nachtmusik
M : Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart : Opera, Il dissoluto punito, ossia Il Don Giovanni ('The Rake Punished, or Don Giovanni')
VA : Sir Joshua Reynolds : Heads of Angels
VA : Jacques-Louis David : The Death of Socrates
VA : Hubert Robert : The Pont du Gard
VA : George Romney : Miss Constable
PH : Aust. Netherlands declared province of Hapsburg monarchy
PH : Parliament of Paris demands summoning of States-General
PH : Turkey declares war on Russia
RP : John Adams: A Defence of the Constitution of Government of the U.S.A.
RP : Jeremy Bentham: Defence of usury
ED : Imperial Russian Dictionary with 285 words in 200 languages
RP : James Madison: The Vices of the Political System of the United States
ST : Lavoisier: Méthode de nomenclature chimique
DL : Dollar currency introduced in the US
DL : English settlement founded for freed slaves in Sierra Leone
VA : Pompeo Girolamo Batoni dies 4 February


DL : London's Daily Universal Register becomes the Times
LT : William Blake: Natural Religion
M : C.P.E. Bach : Double Concerto for Harpsichord, Piano and Orchestra in Eb
M : Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart : Symphony No.39
M : Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart : Concerto for Flute and Harp in C Major
M : Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart : Symphony No.40
M : Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart : Symphony No.41 ('Jupiter')
PH : Austria declares war on Turkey
DL : Brit. parliamentary motion for abolition of slave trade
PH : George III's first attack of mental illness; regency crisis in England
RP : Kant Critique of Practical Reason
ED : John Lemprière: Classical Dictionary
RP : Hannah More: Thoughts on the Importance of the Manners of the Great to General Society
ST : James Hutton: New Theory of the Earth
ST : Marquis Pierre Simon de Laplace: Laws of the Planetary System
DL : Bread riots in France
DL : First German cigar factory opens
LT : George Gordon, Lord Byron born 22 January
VA : Maurice Quentin de La Tour dies 17 February
VA : Thomas Gainsborough dies 2 August
M : C.P.E. Bach dies 14 December
VA : Francesco Zuccarelli dies 30 December


PH : George Washington elected the First President of the United States     GO !
PH : The French Revolution begins
ST : Planetary satellites of Saturn, Enceladus and Mimas were discovered by Herschel
LT : William Wordsworth: An Evening Walk
LT : William Blake: Songs of Innocence
M : Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart : Opera, Cosi fan tutte ('Women Are All the Same')
VA : Jacques-Louis David : The Lictors Bring to Brutus the Bodies of His Sons
VA : George Romney : Tom Hayley as Robin Goodfellow
PH : King George II of England recovers
PH : Aust. Netherlands declare independence as Belgium
PH : Abdul Hamid I dies; succeeded as Sultan of Turkey by his nephew Selim III
RP : Jeremy Bentham: Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation
M : Charles Burney: History of Music
ST : Antoine Jussieu: Genera plantarum, modern classification of plants
ED : Pennsylvania State University
DL : Journal des dèbates founded in Paris
DL : Tammany founded as benevolent institution, but shortly after becomes political
VA : Claude-Joseph Vernet dies 3 December


LT : William Blake: Marriage of Heaven and Hell
LT : Anna Lætitia Barbauld: An Address to the Opposers of the Repeal of the Corporation and Test Acts
VA : Henry Fuseli : Thor in the Boat of Hymir
VA : Joseph Wright of Derby : An Italian Landscape with Mountains and a River
PH : Joseph of Austria dies; succeeded by his brother Leopold II
PH : Festival of Champs de Mars, Paris; Louis XVI accepts the constitution
PH : Third Mysore War
LT : Royal Literary Fund initiated by David Williams
RP : Edmund Burke: Reflections on the Revolution in France
RP : Jews in France are granted civil liberties
RP : Kant : Kritik der Urteilskraft
RP : The first Roman Catholic bishop consecrated in America
M : First musical competition in America
ST : Lavoisier: Table of Thirty-One Chemical Elements
RP : Alexander Raditcheff: Journey from St. Petersburg to Moscow, a plea for the emancipation of serfs
DL : Washington, D.C., founded
PH : First session of the Supreme Court of the U.S.
VA : William Blake : The Marriage of Heaven & Hell


LT : William Blake: The French Revolution
LT : Anna Lætitia Barbauld: Epistle to William Wilberforce, Esq. on the Rejection of the Bill for Abolishing the Slave Trade of 1791
M : Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart : Requiem Mass
M : Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart : German Dances (set of 3), 'Sleigh Ride'
M : Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart : Piano Concerto No.27
M : Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart : Clarinet Concerto
M : Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart : Opera, The Magic Flute
VA : Benjamin West : The Expulsion of Adam and Eve from Paradise
PH : Louis XVI, trying to leave France with his family is caught at Varennes and returned to Paris
PH : Massacre of the Champ de Mars, Paris
PH : Fr. National Assembly dissolves
PH : First ten amendments to U.S. constitution (Bill of Rights) ratified    GO !
PH : Canada Constitutional Act divides the country into two provinces, Upper and Lower Canada
RP : Herder: Ideen zur Philosophie die Geschichte der Menschheit
RP : Thomas Paine: The Rights of Man, Part I
RP : Philippe Pinel: Traitè mèdico-philosophique sur l'aliènation mentale
M : The waltz becomes fashionable in England
DL : Bank of North America founded
DL : Wilberfource's motion for abolition of slave trade carried through Parliament
ED : London School of Veterinary Surgery founded
VA : Jean Louis André Théodore Géricault born 26 September
M : Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart dies 5 December


LT : The Old Farmers Almanac is published for the first time
LT : Anna Lætitia Barbauld: Remarks on Gilbert Wakefield's Enquiry into . . . Public or Social Worship
M : Joseph Haydn : 'London' symphonies (including No.94 'The Surprise')
PH : Peace of Jassy ends war between Russia and Turkey
PH : Leopold II of Austria dies; succeeded as Holy Roman Emperor by his son Francis II
PH : The Girondists form ministry in France; the royal family imprisoned
PH : Gustavus II assassinated in Stockholm Opera House: succeeded as King of Sweden by Gustavus IV
PH : France declares war on Austria, Prussia, and Sardinia
DL : Denmark is the first nation to abolish the slave trade
PH : Two political parties formed in the U.S.: The Republican and the Federalist
RP : Baptist Missionary Society founded in London
RP : Thomas Paine: Rights of Man, Part II
RP : Mary Wollstonecraft: Vindication of the Rights of Women
ST : Worlds's first chemical society founded, Philadelphia
ST : French engineer Claude Chappe invents mechanical semaphore signal
ST : Illuminating gas used in England for the first time
DL : Libel Act passed in Britain
DL : Dollar coinage minted in U.S.
M : Giaocchino Antonio Rossini born 29 February


PH : Reign of Terror in France
LT : William Wordsworth: Descriptive Sketches
LT : William Blake: America: A Prophecy and Visions of the Daughters of Albion
LT : Anna Lætitia Barbauld: Sins of Government, Sins of the Nation
VA : Jacques-Louis David : Marat Assassinated
VA : Anne-Louis Girodet-Trioson : Endymion Asleep
VA : George Stubbs : William Anderson with Two Saddle-horses
PH : Louis XVI executed
PH : Reign of Terror begins
RP : Roman Catholicism banned in France
PH : Queen Marie Antoinette executed
PH : Holy Roman Empire declares war on France
PH : Second Partition of Poland
ED : Compulsory public education in France from the age of six
RP : The Feast of Reason in St. Eustache Church, Paris
RP : William Godwin; The Inquiry concerning Political Justice
RP : Kant: Religion innherhalb der Grenzen der blossen Vernunft (Religion within the limits of mere reason)
ST : Kermadec Islands discovered
ST : Eli Whitney invents the cotton gin
DL : Board of Agriculture established in Britain
DL : U.S. law compels escaped slaves to return to their owners
VA : Francesco Guardi dies in January
LT : John Clare born 13 July


LT : Johann Wolfgang von Goethe: Wilhelm Meister’s Apprenticeship
LT : William Blake: Songs of Innocence and of Experience and The First Book of Urizen
VA : Jacques-Louis David : Self Portrait
VA : Sir Henry Raeburn : Portrait of Sir John Sinclair
VA : William Blake : God as an Architect
PH : "Feast of the Supreme Being" in Paris
PH : The Commune of Paris abolished
PH : Jacobin Club closed
PH : Habeas Corpus Act suspended in Britian
PH : Agha Mohammed founds the Kajar dynasty in Persia
PH : U.S. Navy established
LT : Drury Lane Theatre, London, reopened
ST : Erasmus Darwin: Zoonomia, or the Laws of Organic Life
RP : Thomas Paine: The Age of Reason
ST : Adrien Legendre: Elèments de gèomètrie
ST : First telegraph, Paris - Lille
DL : Slavery abolished in French colonies
ED : Ecole Normale founded in Paris
ED : Ecole Polytechnique, the word's first technical college, opens in Paris
LT : William Cullen Bryant born 3 November


LT : William Blake: The Song of Los
M : Joseph Haydn : Six more 'London' symphonies (including No.100 'The Military', and No.101, 'The Clock'
VA : Baron François Gérard : Jean-Baptiste Isabey and his Daughter
VA : Sir Henry Raeburn : Miss Eleanor Urquhart
PH : Bread riots and White Terror in Paris
PH : Napoleon appointed commander-in-chief, Italy
PH : Secret treaty between Austria and Russia for Third Partition of Poland; joined by Prussia
PH : Third Partition of Poland
PH : King Stanislas II abdicates
PH : Treaty of San Lorenzo between U.S. and Spain settles boundary with Florida
RP : Freedom of worship in France
RP : Kant: Zum ewigen Frieden
M : Paris Conservatoire de Musique founded
ST : Joseph Bramah invents hydraulic press
ED : Institute National, Paris, to replace the abolished academies
ST : Metric system adopted in France
DL : Speenhamland Act for poor relief in Britain
VA : Sir Joshua Reynolds dies 23 February
LT : Joseph Rodman Drake born 7 August
LT : John Keats born 31 October


LT : Samuel Taylor Coleridge: Poems on Various Subjects
M : Joseph Haydn : Trumpet Concerto
PH : John Adams elected second president of the U.S.    GO !
PH : Spain declares war on Britain
PH : Agha Mohammed of Persia siezes Khurasan in Khuzistan
PH : Kau-Tsung, great Manchu Emperor of China dies, succeeded by Kia-King
RP : Louis de Bonald: Thèorie du pouvoir politique et religieux
RP : Jean Jacques Cambacérès: Projet de code civil
RP : Joseph de Maistre: Considérations sur la France
RP : Richard Watson: An Apology for the Bible
ST : G.L.C. Cuvier founds the science of comparative zoology
ST : C.W.Hufeland: Macrobiotics, or The Art to Prolong One's Life
ST : Engl. physician Edward Jenner introduces vaccination against smallpox
ST : J.T. Lowitz prepares pure ethyl alcohol
DL : Edict of Peking forbids import of opium into China
DL : Freedom of press in France
ED : Royal Technical College, Glasgow, founded
VA : Camille Corot born 16 July


LT : Samuel Taylor Coleridge: Poems, Second Edition
M : Joseph Haydn : Six string quartets published as Opus 76 (including 'Emperor Quartet')
VA : Anne-Louis Girodet-Trioson : Portrait of Jean-Baptiste Belley
PH : Napoleon proclaims Venetian Constitution, founds Ligurian Republic in Genoa
PH : Peace of Campo Formio between France and Austria
PH : Final treaty of Polish partition
PH : Frederick William II dies; succeeded as King of Prussia by his son Frederick William III
PH : Fath Ali, Shah of Persia
RP : Chateaubriand: Essai historique, politique, et moral sur les révolutions
RP : Kant: Metaphysik der Sitten
RP : Schelling: Idden zu einer Philosophie der Natur
RP : Wackenroder and Tieck: Outpourings of a Monk, romantic religious essays
RP : William Wilberforce: Practical View of the Religious System
ST : Thomas Bewick: British Birds
ST : J.L.Langrange: Théorie des fonctions analytiques
ST : Ger. astronomer H.W.M.Olbers publishes his method of calculating the orbits of comets
ST : Nicolas de Saussure: Recherches chimiques sur la végétation
DL : First copper pennies minted in England and first one-pound notes issued
M : Franz Schubert born 31 January
VA : Joseph Wright of Derby dies 29 August
M : Gaetano Domenico Maria Donizetti born 29 November


LT : Samuel Taylor Coleridge: Lyrical Ballads
M : Joseph Haydn : Oratorio The Creation
M : Ludwig van Beethoven : Piano Concerto No.1
VA : Joseph Mallord William Turner : Buttermere Lake: A Shower
VA : Baron François Gérard : Cupid and Psyche
PH : French capture Rome: proclaim Roman Republic; Pope Pius VI leaves the city for Valence
PH : Napoleon master of Egypt
PH : King Ferdinand IV of Naples declares war on France and enters Rome
PH : Treaty of Hyderabad between Britain and the Nizam
PH : The last King of Poland, Augustus Stanislas II dies
RP : T.R.Malthus: Essay on the Principle of Population
ST : Ger. inventor Aloys Senefelder invents lithography
DL : Income tax of 10% of all incomes over £200 introduced in Britain as wartime measure
VA : Gavin Hamilton dies 4 January
VA : Eugène Delacroix born 26 April


M : ErnstTheodor Amadeus Hoffmann : Die Maske three-act singspiel
M : Ludwig van Beethoven : Pathétique Piano Sonata
PH : Austria declares war on France
PH : Britain joins Russo-Turk alliance
PH : Kingdom of Mysore divided between Britain and Hyderabad
RP : Church Missionary Society founded in London
RP : Fichte: System der Sittenlehre
RP : Herder: Metakritik, attacks Kant and Fichte
RP : Schlegel: Geschichte der Poesie der Griechen und Römer
RP : Schleiermacher: Reden über die Religion
ED : Universities of Cologne and Mainz closed
ED : Egyptian Institute founded at Cairo
ED : Pestalozzi's school in Burgdorf, Switzerland, opened
ED : Rosetta Stone found - deciphering of hieroglyphics now possible


M : Ludwig van Beethoven : Symphony No.1
VA : Francisco José de Goya Y Lucientes : Nude Maja
VA : Jacques-Louis David : Portrait of Madame Récamier
VA : Sir Henry Raeburn : Portrait of Lieutenant Colonel William Shirriff H.E.I.C.S.
VA : Sir Henry Raeburn : Lady Anne Torphicen
VA : William Blake : Job and his Daughters
PH : U.S. federal offices are moved from Philadelphia to Washington, D.C. - the new capital city
PH : Napoleon appoints committee of jurists to draw up Civil Code
RP : Cardinal Barnaba Chiaramonti elected Pope Pius VII
RP : Fichte: Der geschlossene Handelsstaat
RP : Arnold Heeren: European Political Systems
RP : Schelling: System des transzendentalen Idealismus
RP : Church of United Brethren in Christ founded in the U.S.
ST : German physician F.J. Gall founds practice of phrenology
ST : William Herschel discovers existence of infrared solar rays
ED : Royal College of Surgeons, London, founded
ST : Alessandro Volta produces electricity from cell; first battery of zinc and copper plates
ST : Eli Whitney makes muskets with interchangeable parts
DL : Letter post introduced in Berlin
DL : Robert Owen takes over New Lanark mills and starts social reforms


M : ErnstTheodor Amadeus Hoffmann : Overture, Musica per la chiesa
M : Joseph Haydn : Oratorio The Seasons
M : Ludwig van Beethoven : 'Moonlight' Piano Sonata
M : Ludwig van Beethoven : Piano Concerto No.3
PH : Act of Union of Great Britain and Ireland comes into force
PH : Peace of Lunéville between Austria and France marks the actual end of the Holy Roman Empire
PH : Thomas Jefferson inaugurated President of U.S.    GO !
PH : Czar Paul I assassinated; succeeded by Alexander I
RP : K.F. Gauss: Disquisitiones arithmeticae
RP : Hegel and Schelling published the Critical Journal of Philosophy
ST : M.F.X. Bichat: Anatomie générale
ST : American civil engineer Robert Fulton produces the first submarine "Nautilus"
ST : J.J. Lalande catalogues 47,390 stars
DL : Bank of France founded
DL : The Union Jack becomes official flag of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
ST : Victoria Regia discovered in Amazon Territory
M : Vincenzo Bellini born 3 November


LT : Samuel Taylor Coleridge: Poems
M : Ludwig van Beethoven : Symphony No.2
VA : Baron François Gérard : Madame Récamier
PH : Napoleon becomes President of Italian Republic
PH : Peace of Amiens between Britain and France
RP : Jeremy Bentham: Civil and Penal Legislation
ED : G.F. Grotefend deciphers Babylonian cuneiform
RP : Daniel Webster: The Rights of Neutral Nations in Time of War
VA : Period of the Classicist Empire style
ST : John Dalton introduces atomic theory into chemistry
ST : William Herschel discovers binary stars
ST : German naturalist Gottfried Trevinarus coins the term "biology"
DL : Peerage published in London by John Debrett
DL : The Duke of Richmond introduces horse racing at Goodwood
DL : "Health and Morals of Apprentices" Act in Britain
VA : George Romney dies 15 November


LT : Sir Walter Scott: Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border
M : ErnstTheodor Amadeus Hoffmann : Mass in G (lost)
M : Ludwig van Beethoven : 'Kreutzer' Violin Sonata
PH : Swiss cantons regain independence (Act of Mediation)
PH : U.S. buys large tract of land from Louisiana Purchase    GO !
PH : Second Mahratta War against Sindhia of Gwalior
RP : Greek patriot Adamantios Coräes publishes his Present Conditions of Civilisation in Greece
RP : Joseph Lancaster: Improvements in Education as it Respects the Industrious Classes
ST : Claude Berthollet: Essai de statique chimique
ST : Lazare Carnot: Principes fondamentaux de l'équilibre et du mouvement
ST : Robert Fulton propels a boat by steam power
ST : Henry Shrapnel invents shell
ST : Building of Caledonian Canal begins
ED : Technical College, Prague, founded
M : Adolphe Adam born 24 July
M : Hector Berlioz born 11 December


M : Ludwig van Beethoven : 'Waldstein' Piano Sonata
M : Ludwig van Beethoven : Symphony No.3 ('Eroica')
VA : Joseph Mallord William Turner : The Passage
of the St. Gothard
VA : Baron Antoine-Jean Gros : Napoleon in the
Pesthouse at Jaffa
VA : Pierre-Paul Prud'hon : Innocence Preferring Love to Wealth
PH : Napoleon, proclaimed emperor by Senate and Tribunate, is crowned in the presence of Pope Pius VII in Paris
PH : Francis II assumes the title of Emperor of Austria as Francis I
PH : Spain declares war on Britain
RP : British and Foreign Bible Society founded in London
PH : Code Napoléon promulgated
ST : Thomas Brown Inquiry into the Relation of Cause and Effect
VA : English Water Colour Society founded
ST : Thomas Bewick completes his History of British Birds
DL : The first dahlias in England
M : Mikhail Glinka born 1 June


LT : William Wordsworth: Elegiac Stanzas
LT : Sir Walter Scott: The Lay of the Last Minstrel
M : ErnstTheodor Amadeus Hoffmann : Mass in D Minor
M : ErnstTheodor Amadeus Hoffmann : Singspiel, Die lustigen Musikanten
M : Nicolò Paganini : 24 Caprices for solo violin
M : Ludwig van Beethoven : Opera, Fidelio
M : Ludwig van Beethoven : 'Appasionata' Piano Sonata
VA : Pierre-Paul Prud'hon : The Empress Josephine
VA : Benjamin West : The Fatal Wounding of Sir Philip Sidney
PH : Thomas Jefferson begins his second term as President of U.S.    GO !
PH : Treaty of St. Petersburg by Britain and Russia against France, joined by Austria
PH : Napoleon crowned as King of Italy in Milan
PH : Peace of Pressburg between Austria and France; Bavaria and Württemberg becomes kingdoms
PH : Establishment of modern Egypt; Mehemet Ali proclaimed Pasha
RP : Hosea Ballou: A Treatise on Atonement
RP : Lord Liverpool: Treatise on the Coins of the Realm
ST : Rockets, originally constructed by Sir William Congreve, are reintroduced as weapons into the British army
ST : F.W.A. Sartürner isolates morphine
DL : Napoleon abandons French revolutionary calendar
ED : Pestalozzi school at Yverdun, Switzerland
VA : Jean-Baptiste Greuze dies 21 March
M : Luigi Boccherini dies 28 May


LT : George Gordon, Lord Byron: Fugitive Pieces privately printed
M : ErnstTheodor Amadeus Hoffmann : Symphony, Eb
M : Ludwig van Beethoven : 'Razumovsky' String Quartets
M : Ludwig van Beethoven : Violin Concerto
M : Ludwig van Beethoven : Piano Concerto No.4
M : Ludwig van Beethoven : Symphony No.4
VA : Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres : Napoleon
PH : Joseph Bonaparte named King of Naples
PH : Louis Bonaparte named King of Holland
PH : Napoleon's Berlin Decree begins "Continental System"
PH : Confederation of Rhine founded
PH : Peace of Posen: Saxony is made a kingdom
ED : J.C. Adelun: Mithridates, a History of Languages and Dialects
RP : Fichte: Bericht über die Wissenschaftslehre
ED : Institute de France created by combining Académie Française with other academies
RP : James Madison: An Examination of the British Doctrine which Subjects to Capture a Neutral Trade not Open in Time of Peace
RP : Napoleon establishes a consistorial organisation for Jews in France
ST : P.A. Latreille: Genera Crustaceorum et Insectorum
ST : Sir Francis Beaufort designs scale to indicate wind strength
LT : Elizabeth Barret Browning born 6 March
VA : George Stubbs dies 10 July
VA : Jean Honoré Fragonard dies 22 August


LT : William Wordsworth: Poems in two volumes
LT : George Gordon, Lord Byron: Hours of Idleness
M : ErnstTheodor Amadeus Hoffmann : Quintet for piano, two violins, viola, doublebass
M : ErnstTheodor Amadeus Hoffmann : Quintet for harp, two violins, viola, cello
M : ErnstTheodor Amadeus Hoffmann : Singspiel, Liebe und Eifersucht
M : Carl Maria von Weber : Symphonies No.1 and No.2
VA : Pierre-Paul Prud'hon : Portrait of Count Alexander Osterman-Tolstoy
PH : Treaty of Tilsit between Napoleon, the Czar, and the King of Prussia
PH : Jerome Bonaparte becomes King of Westphalia
PH : Napoleon ensures dictatorship by suppressing Tribunate
PH : Sultan Selim III of Turkey deposed and succeeded by Mustafa IV
DL : Baron von Stein emancipates serfs
PH : France invades Portugal: dethroned Portuguese royal family flees to Brazil
RP : U.S. Evangelical Association, founded by Jacob Albright, holds its first convention
PH : Commercial Law Code introduced in France
RP : Hegel: Phänomenologie des Geistes
RP : Gottlieb Hufeland: New Foundations of Political Economy
ST : Charles Bell: System of Comparative Surgery
ED : Alexander von Humboldt and Bonpland: Voyage aux régions équinoxiales du nouveau continent, 1799-1804, on Spanish America (first of 30 volumes)
DL : Horse racing: First Ascot Gold Cup
DL : England prohibits slave trade
DL : Street lighting by gas in London


VA : Francisco José de Goya Y Lucientes : The Colossus
LT : Sir Walter Scott: Marmion
LT : Johann Wolfgang von Goethe: Faust
M : ErnstTheodor Amadeus Hoffmann : Canzoni
M : ErnstTheodor Amadeus Hoffmann : Opera, Der Trank der Unsterblichkeit
M : Ludwig van Beethoven : 'Für Elise' (completed 1810)
M : Ludwig van Beethoven : Symphonies No.5 and No.6
VA : Baron François Gérard : Caroline Murat and her Children
VA : Anne-Louis Girodet-Trioson : The Entombment of Atala
VA : Baron Antoine-Jean Gros : Napoleon on the Battlefield
of Eylau on 9 February 1807
VA : Pierre-Paul Prud'hon : David Johnston
DL : U.S. prohibits importation of slaves from Africa
PH : Joseph Bonaparte becomes king of Spain, Joachim Murat becomes King of Naples
PH : Erfurt Congress
PH : Rebellion in Madrid: King Joseph flees; Napoleon takes city
LT : Théâtre St. Philippe, New Orleans, opened
RP : John Dalton: New System of Chemical Philosophy
RP : J.F. Fries: New Critique of Reason
RP : Napoleon abolishes the Inquisition in Spain and Italy
RP : Schlegel: Von der Sprache und Weisheit der Inder
ST : J.L.Gay-Lussac: The Combination of Gases
ST : The source of the Ganges River discovered
DL : Baronetage published in London by John Debrett
DL : Disappearance of fashion of pigtails in men's hair
ED : Extensive excavations begin at Pompeii
DL : Henry Crabb Robinson, the first war correspondent, sent by The Times of London to Spain to report on the Peninsular War
VA : Hubert Robert dies 15 April


VA : Caspar David Friedrich : Abbey in an Oak Forest
VA : Joseph Marie Vien dies
LT : Johann Wolfgang von Goethe: Elective Affinities
LT : George Gordon, Lord Byron: English Bards and Scotch Reviewers
M : ErnstTheodor Amadeus Hoffmann : Piano Trio
M : ErnstTheodor Amadeus Hoffmann : Miserere in Bb
M : Carl Maria von Weber : Incidental music to the play Turandot
M : Ludwig van Beethoven : Piano Concerto No.5 ('Emperor')
PH : Treaty of Dardanelles between Britain and Turkey
PH : War between France and Austria
PH : Peace of Schönbrunn
PH : Austria joins Continental System
PH : James Madison becomes 4th President of the U.S.    GO !
PH : King Gustavus IV of Sweden deposed; succeeded by Charles XIII
PH : Marshal Jean Bernadotte elected Crown Prince of Sweden
PH : Treaty of friendship between Britain and the Sikhs at Amritsar
PH : Napoleon annexes Papal States; Pope Pius VII taken prisoner
PH : Ecuador gains independence from Spain
M : Felix Mendelssohn born 3 February
M : Joseph Haydn dies 31 May
LT : Alfred, Lord Tennyson born 6 August


VA : Caspar David Friedrich : Morning in the Riesengebirge
LT : Sir Walter Scott: The Lady in the Lake
M : Carl Maria von Weber : Piano Concerto No.1
M : Ludwig van Beethoven : Overture and incidental music to Egmont
VA : Caspar David Friedrich : Cloister Graveyard in the Snow
PH : Napoleon annexes Holland, Hanover, Bremen, Hamburg, Lauenburg, and Lübeck
PH : Venezuela breaks away from Spain
RP : Lazare Carnot: De la défense des places fortes
RP : Société de Amis formed in Geneva by Protestant revivalists
RP : Joseph de Maistre: Essay on the Generation of Political Constitutions
VA : The "Nazarenes" founded by J.F. Overbeck to revive German religious art
ST : Gail and Spurzheim: Anatomie et physiologie du systèm nerveux
ST : Samuel Hahnemann founds homeopathy
ST : François Appert develops techniques for canning food
DL : First public billiards rooms in England at the Piazza, Covent Garden, London
M : Frederic Chopin born 1 March
M : Robert Schumann born 8 June


LT : Anna Lætitia Barbauld: Eighteen Hundred And Eleven, A Poem
M : Carl Maria von Weber : Opera, Abu Hassan
M : Carl Maria von Weber : Clarinet Concertos No.1 and No.2
M : Ludwig van Beethoven : 'Archduke' Piano Trio
VA : Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres : Jupiter and Thetis
PH : George III of England insane; Prince of Wales becomes Prince Regent
DL : Austria bankrupt
PH : Paraguay independent of Spain
RP : K.A. Böttiger: Kunstmythologie
PH : Civil Code introduced in Austria
RP : "Great Schism" of Welsh Protestants; two thirds leave Anglican Church
ED : Barthold G. Niebuhr: Roman History
ED : J.P.A. Récusat: Essai sur la langue et la littérature
ED : University of Christiania, Oslo, founded
ED : National University of Nicaragua founded
DL : John Rennie begins the building of Waterloo Bridge, London
M : Prague Conservatoire is opened
ST : Amadeo Avogadro: hypothesis of the molecular composition of gases
ST : Sir Charles Bell: New Idea of the Anatomy of the Brain
ST : S.O. Poisson: Traité de Mécanique
DL : French Press Agency founded (later to becomes Agence Havas)
DL : "Luddites" destroy industrial machines in North England
M : Franz Liszt born 22 October


LT : George Gordon, Lord Byron: Childe Harold cantos I and II, published
M : ErnstTheodor Amadeus Hoffmann : Opera, Aurora
M : Carl Maria von Weber : Piano Concerto No.2
M : Giaocchino Antonio Rossini : Comic Opera, La scala di seta ('The Silken Ladder')
M : Ludwig van Beethoven : Symphonies No.7 and No.8
VA : Jacques-Louis David : Napoleon in His Study
PH : U.S. declares war on Britain    GO !
RP : Baptist Union of Great Britain formed
ED : H.F. Genesius: Hebrew and Chaldaic Dictionary
RP : Hegel: Die objective Logik
RP : Jews in Prussia emancipated (Hardenberg reforms)
VA : Elgin Marbles brought to England
M : Founding of Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde, Vienna
VA : Swiss explorer Burckhardt discovers the Great Temple of Abu Simbel
ST : Georges Cuvier: Recherches sur les ossements fossiles de quadrupèdes
ST : Humphry Davy: Elements of Chemical Philosophy
ST : Philippe Girard invents machine for spinning flax
ST : Laplace: Thérie analytique
DL : Royal Yacht Squadron founded
DL : Gas, Light and Coke Company, London developed by F.A. Winsor
VA : Pierre-Etienne-Théodore Rousseau born 15 April
LT : Robert Browning born 7 May


LT : Sir Walter Scott: Rokeby
LT : Johann Wolfgang von Goethe: Aus meinem Leben: Dichtung und Wahrheit
LT : George Gordon, Lord Byron: The Giaour and The Bride of Abydos
M : Giaocchino Antonio Rossini : Comic Opera, L'italiana in Algeri ('The Italian Girl in Algiers')
M : Nicolò Paganini : Le streghe ('Witches Dance')
PH : Prussia declares war on France
PH : Austria declares war on France
PH : French expelled from Holland; return of William of Orange
PH : Simón Bolivar becomes dictator of Venezuela
PH : Mexico declares itself independent
RP : J.F. Herbart: Introduction to Philosophy
RP : Methodist Missionary Society founded
RP : Robert Owen: A New View of Society
RP : Schopenhauer: Über die vierfache Wurzel des Satzes vom sureichenden Grunde
M : London Philharmonic Society founded
DL : Last gold guinea coins issued in England
M : The waltz conquers the European ballrooms
M : Richard Wagner born 22 May
M : Giuseppe Verdi born 10 October


LT : William Wordsworth: The Excursion
LT : Sir Walter Scott: Waverly
LT : George Gordon, Lord Byron: The Corsair and Lara published
M : Franz Schubert : Song, Gretchen am Spinnerade ('Gretchen and the Spinning Wheel')
VA : Francisco José de Goya Y Lucientes : The Third of May, 1808
VA : Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres : Grand Odalisque
VA : Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres : Raphael
and the Fornarina
PH : Napoleon abdicates and is banished to Elba
PH : Louis XVIII enters Paris and takes up the throne as his hereditary right
PH : Congress of Vienna opens
PH : Christian Frederick of Denmark elected King of Norway
PH : Treaty of Ghent ends British-American war    GO !
PH : Hanover proclaimed a kingdom
PH : Lord Hastings, Governor-General of India, declares war on the Gurkhas (Nepal)
ED : Chateaubriand: De Buonaparte et le Bourbons
RP : Pope Pius VII returns to Rome and restores the Inquisistion
RP : Savigny: The Claim of Our Age on Legislation
VA : Dulwich Gallery, London, opened
M : J.N. Maelzel invents the metronome
ST : Berzelius: Theory of Chemical Proportions and the Chemical Action of Electricity
ST : M.J.B. Orfila: Toxicologie générale
ST : At Killingworth Colliery, George Stephenson constructs the first practical steam locomotive
DL : English Statute of Apprentices (1563) repealed
M : Johann Friedrich Reichardt dies 27 June
VA : Jean-François Millet born 4 October


LT : William Wordsworth: Collected Poems
LT : Sir Walter Scott: Guy Mannering
LT : Sir Walter Scott: The Lord of the Isles
LT : Samuel Taylor Coleridge: Biographia Literaria
LT : George Gordon, Lord Byron: Hebrew Melodies
M : Carl Maria von Weber : Clarinet Quintet
M : Franz Schubert : Songs, Der Erlkönig, Heidenröslein
PH : Napoleon leaves Elba; the "Hundred Days"; Napoleon abdicates again and is banished to St. Helena
PH : Swiss Federal Pact ratified; the Confederation now consists of 22 cantons
PH : Joachim Murat, King of Naples executed after attempt to regain Naples
PH : Brazil declares itself an independent empire
RP : Protestant Baseler Missiongesellschaft founded
RP : T.R. Malthus: An Inquiry into the Nature and Progress of Rent
ED : Savigny: History of Roman Law in the Middle Ages
RP : Dugald Stewart: Progress of Metaphysical, Ethical, and Political Philosophy
VA : The Biedermeier styles arrives
ST : Miner's safety lamp invented
ST : Augustin Fresnel: research on the diffraction of light
ST : Lamarck: Histoire naturelle des animaux
ST : L.J. Prout: hypothesis on relation between specific gravity and atomic weight
DL : Apothecaries Act forbids unqualified doctors to practice in Britain
DL : British income tax ended
DL : British road surveyor John Macadam constructs roads of crushed stone
DL : Eruption of Sumbawa Volcano in Indonesia - more than 50,000 dead
ED : Technological College, Vienna, founded
VA : Ernest Meissonier born 21 February


LT : Sir Walter Scott: Tales of my Landlord
LT : George Gordon, Lord Byron: Childe Harold canto III and The Prisoner of Chillon
LT : George Gordon, Lord Byron: The Siege of Corinth and Parisina
M : ErnstTheodor Amadeus Hoffmann : Opera, Undine
M : Franz Schubert : Symphonies No.4 'Tragic', and No.5
M : Giaocchino Antonio Rossini : Comic Opera, Il barbiere di Siviglia ('The Barber of Seville')
PH : Maria I, Queen of Portugal dies; succeeded by her son, Dom John VI
PH : Argentina declared independent
PH : Prince Metternich opens Diet of German Confederation at Frankfurt
RP : American Bible Society founded
ED : Nikolai Karamzin: History of the Russian Empire
ST : Sir David Brewster invents kaleidoscope
ST : Stethoscope invented
DL : Blackwood's Magazine founded, Edinburgh
DL : English economic crisis causes large-scale emigration to Canada and U.S.


LT : Sir Walter Scott: Rob Roy
LT : John Keats: Poems
LT : George Gordon, Lord Byron: Manfred
LT : William Cullen Bryant: Thanatopsis
M : Franz Schubert : Songs, Die Forelle ('The Trout'), Der Tod und das Mädchen (Death and the Maiden'), An die Musik
M : Giaocchino Antonio Rossini : Opera, Armida
M : Giaocchino Antonio Rossini : Opera, La gazza ladra ('The Thieving Magpie')
M : Giaocchino Antonio Rossini : Comic Opera, La Cenerentola ('Cinderella')
M : Nicolò Paganini : Violin Concerto No.1
VA : Caspar David Friedrich : Cemetery at Dusk
VA : Caspar David Friedrich : City at Moonrise
PH : James Monroe inaugurated as fifth President of the U.S.    GO !
PH : Wartburg Festival of revolutionary German students
RP : August Böckh: The Public Economy of Athens
RP : Lutheran and Reformed Churches in Prussia form Evangelical Union
RP : Hegel: Encyclopaedia of the Philosophical Sciences
RP : H.F.R. de Lamennais: Essai sur l'indifférence en matière de religion
ED : Juan Llorente, a former secretary of the Inquisition, publishes his History of the Inquisition in Spain
RP : Joseph de Maistre: Du Pape
ED : Braccia Nuova begins building of Vatican Museum, Rome
ST : Berzelius discovers selenium and lithium
ST : Karl Ritter: Geographie in ihrer Beziehung zu Natur und Geschichte
DL : Riots in Derbyshire, England, against low wages
DL : Opening of Waterloo Bridge, London (replaced 1945)
VA : Charles-François Daubigny born 15 February


LT : Sir Walter Scott: The Heart of Midlothian
LT : John Keats: Endymion
LT : George Gordon, Lord Byron: Beppo and Childe Harold canto IV
M : Giaocchino Antonio Rossini : Opera, Mosè in Egitto
M : Ludwig van Beethoven : 'Hammerklavier' Piano Sonata
VA : Caspar David Friedrich : Wanderer above the Sea of Fog
VA : Jean Louis André Théodore Géricault : Severed Heads
PH : Act suspending Habeas Corpus is repealed
PH : Charles XIII of Sweden dies; succeeded by Jean Bernadotte as Charles XIV
PH : Chile proclaims its independence
PH : Border between Canada and U.S. agreed upon
ED : Bonn University founded
ED : Josef Dobrovsky: History of the Czech language
ED : Henry Hallam: The View of the State of Europe during the Middle Ages
ED : Prado Museum, Madrid, founded
ST : F.W. Bessel: Fundamenta Astronomiae, catalog of 3,222 stars
ST : Berzelius publishes molecular weights of 2,000 chemical compounds
ST : Cadmium discovered
DL : British Order of St. Michael and St. George instituted by the Prince Regent
DL : "Savannah" becomes the first steamship to cross the Atlantic (26 days)
M : Charles-François Gounod born 18 June


LT : William Wordsworth: Peter Bell and The Waggoner
LT : Sir Walter Scott: The Bride of Lammermoor, Ivanhoe, and A Legend of Montrose
LT : George Gordon, Lord Byron: Mazeppa and Don Juan cantos I and II
M : Carl Maria von Weber : Invitation to the Dance for piano (later orchestrated by Berlioz)
M : Franz Schubert : 'Trout' Quintet
VA : Jean Louis André Théodore Géricault : The Raft of the Medusa
VA : John Crome : Yarmouth Beach
PH : Florida purchased by U.S. from Spain
PH : Bolivar becomes President of Colombia
RP : Georg Hermes: Philosophical Introduction to Christian Theology
RP : Jean Sismondi: Nouveaux principes d'economie politique
ST : Mitscherelich discovers isomorphism
ST : David Napier constructs the flat-bed cylinder for printing
ST : Danish physicist Hans Oersted discovers electromagnetism
DL : Opening of Burlington Arcade, Piccadilly, London
VA : Mehemet Ali presents Cleopatra's Needle to Britain
DL : Freedom of the press in France
DL : Maximum 12-hour working day for juveniles in England
M : Franz von Suppé born 18 April
LT : Walt Whitman born 31 May
VA : Gustave Courbet born 10 June
M : Jacques Offenbach born 20 June
M : Clara Wieck Schumann born 13 September


LT : John Clare: Poems Descriptive of Rural Life and Scenery
LT : Elizabeth Barret Browning: Battle of Marathon
LT : William Blake: Jerusalem
VA : John Constable : Dedham Lock and Mill
VA : Henry Fuseli : Solitude at Dawn
PH : Revolution in Spain - King Ferdinand VII forced to restore Constitution of 1812
PH : King George III of England dies; succeeded by Prince Regent as George IV
DL : U.S. Land Law fixes land price at a minimum of $1.25 per acre
RP : Thomas Brown: Lectures on the Philosophy of the Human Mind
RP : Thomas Erskine: Internal Evidence for the Truth of Revealed Religion
RP : J.J. Görres: Germany and the Revolution
RP : Jesuits driven out of Rome
RP : T. R. Malthus: Principles of Political Economy
VA : Discovery of the Venus de Milo
ST : André Ampère: Laws of the Electrodynamic Action
DL : Washington Colonization Society founds Liberia for repatriation of Negros
VA : Benjamin West dies 11 March
LT : Joseph Rodman Drake dies 21 September


VA : Francisco José de Goya Y Lucientes : The Great He-Goat
LT : Sir Walter Scott: Kenilworth
LT : John Clare: The Village Minstrel
LT : George Gordon, Lord Byron: Marino Faliero, Don Juan cantos III-V, Cain, The Two Foscari, and Sardanapalus
VA : John Constable : Study of Clouds at Hampstead
VA : John Constable : The Hay Wain
M : Carl Maria von Weber : Opera, Der Freischütz
PH : James Monroe begins second term as U.S. president
PH : Revolution in Piedmont: Victor Emmanuel abdicates, names his brother Charles Felix successor
PH : Reign of Terror begins between Greeks and Turks
PH : Peru proclaimed independent from Spain, followed by Guatemala, Panama, and Santo Domingo
ED : Ecole des Chartes founded in Paris for historical studies
RP : George Grote: Statement of the Question of Parliamentary Reform
RP : Hegel: Grundlinien der Philosophie des Rechts
ED : Champollion deciphers Egyptian hieroglyphics using Rosetta Stone
ST : Faraday discovers fundamentals of electromagnetic rotation
ST : T.J. Seebeck discovers thermoelectricity
ST : Sir Charles Wheatstone demonstrates sound reproduction
DL : London Co-operative Society founded
DL : Manchester Guardian founded
LT : John Keats dies 23 February
VA : John Crome dies 22 April


LT : William Wordsworth: Ecclesiastical Sketches
LT : Sir Walter Scott: The Fortunes of Nigel and Halidon Hill
LT : George Gordon, Lord Byron: Vision of Judgment
VA : Eugène Delacroix : Dante and Virgil
in Hell
M : Franz Schubert : Fantasia in C, 'Wanderer' Fantasy
M : Franz Schubert : Symphony No.8, 'Unfinished'
M : Ludwig van Beethoven : Mass in D (Missa Solemnis)
VA : William Blake : The Parable of the Wise and Foolish Virgins
PH : Greeks adopt liberal republican constitution and proclaim independence
PH : Augustin de Iturbide elected Emperor of Mexico
PH : Brazil becomes independent of Portugal
PH : Congress of Verona opens to discuss European problem
PH : Bottle riots in Dublin, viceroy attacked by Orangemen
ED : Colebrooke founds Royal Asiatic Society (study of Eastern languages)
RP : Jean B. J. Fourier: Thèorie analytique de la chaleur
ST : J.V. Poncelet: Traité des propriétés projectives des figures on projective geometry
M : Royal Academy of Music, London, founded
VA : Daguerre and Bouton invent the diorama, paintings illuminated in dark room to give illusion of reality
ST : A.J. Fresnel perfects lenses for lighthouses
DL : Streets of Boston, Mass., lit by gas
DL : Sunday Times, London, founded
M : Franz Strauss born 26 February
M : ErnstTheodor Amadeus Hoffmann dies 25 June
LT : Mathew Arnold born 24 December


VA : Alexandre Cabanel born
LT : Sir Walter Scott: Macduff's Cross, Peveril of the Peak and Quentin Durward
LT : George Gordon, Lord Byron: Don Juan cantos VI-XIV
M : Carl Maria von Weber : Opera, Euryanthe
M : Franz Schubert : Moments Musicaux
M : Franz Schubert : Incidental music to Rosamunde
M : Franz Schubert : Song-cycle, Die schöne Müllerin
M : Giaocchino Antonio Rossini : Opera, Semiramide
M : Ludwig van Beethoven : 'Diabelli' Piano Variations
M : Ludwig van Beethoven : Symphony No.9 ('Choral')
PH : Mexico becomes republic, Iturbide forced to abdicate
PH : Guatemala, San Salvador, Nicaragua, Honduras, and Costa Rica form Confederation of United Provinces of Central America
PH : The Monroe Doctrine closes American continent to colonial settlements by European powers    GO !
RP : Oxford Union Society founded
RP : Pope Pius VII dies; succeeded by Pope Leo XII (Annibale de la Genga)
RP : Saint-Simon: Catéchisme des industriels
ED : Louis Thiers: Histoire de la Révolution Française
ED : Sir Robert Smirke designs British Museum, London
ST : Charles Babbage's early attempts to construct a calculating machine
ST : Faraday succeeds in liquefying chlorine
ST : Charles Macintosh invents waterproof fabric
ED : Mechanic's Institute founded in London and Glasgow
ST : Walter Oudney, discovers Lake Chad in Central Africa
ST : British medical journal The Lancet first issued
DL : First Cologne Carnival festivities
DL : Death penalty for over 100 crimes abolished in Britain
ED : George IV presents the library of George III to British Museum
DL : Founding of Royal Thames Yacht Club
DL : Rugby Football originates at Rugby School, England
VA : Pierre-Paul Prud'hon dies 16 February
VA : Sir Henry Raeburn dies 8 July


VA : Anne-Louis Girodet-Trioson dies
VA : Eugène Delacroix : Massacre at Chios
M : Franz Schubert : Sonata for two pianos, 'Grand Duo'
M : Franz Schubert : Octet in F
M : Franz Schubert : String Quartet No.14, 'Der Tod und das Mädchen
M : Mikhail Glinka : Symphony in B-flat
M : Ludwig van Beethoven : Last five string quartets
VA : Caspar David Friedrich : Evening
PH : Bolivar proclaimed Emperor of Peru
PH : Frontier treaty signed between Russia and U.S.
PH : U.S. House of Representatives elects John Quincy Adams as president when none of the four candidates wins a majority in the national election    GO !
ED : August Böckh: Corpus Inscriptionum Graecum (ed.)
ED : Carlo Botta: History of Italy, 1789-1814
ED : Leopold von Ranke: History of the Latin and Teutonic People, 1494-1535
RP : Sunday School Union formed in U.S.
VA : National Gallery, London, founded
ST : Portland Cement developed
ST : Nicolas Carnot: Puissance motrice du feu (on therodynamics)
DL : Founding of Athenaeum Club, London
DL : Combinations Law of 1799-1800 repealed; British workers are allowed to unionise
DL : Le Globe, Paris begins publication
DL : R.S.P.C.A. founded in London
VA : Jean Louis André Théodore Géricault dies 26 January
M : Bedrich Smetana born 2 March
LT : George Gordon, Lord Byron dies 19 April
VA : Jean Léon Gérôme born 11 May
M : Anton Bruckner born 4 September


VA : Eugène Delacroix : Female Nude
Reclining on a Divan
LT : William Wordsworth: Yarrow Revisited, and Other Poems
LT : Sir Walter Scott: The Talisman
M : Felix Mendelssohn : Octet for strings
M : Vincenzo Bellini : Opera, Adelson e Salvini
VA : William Blake : The Body of Abel Found by Adam & Eve
VA : William Blake : Queen Katherine's Dream
PH : Ferdinand IV of Naples dies; succeeded by Francis I
PH : Anglo-Russian Treaty of British territory in north-western N. America
PH : Bolivia becomes independent of Peru, Uruguay of Brazil
PH : Maximilian I, King of Bavaria, dies; succeeded by his son Louis I
PH : Czar Alexander I dies; succeeded by Nicholas I
RP : William Hazlitt: The Spirit of the Age, or Contemporary Portraits
RP : French law makes sacrilege a capital offence
ED : Augustin Thierry: Histoire de la Conquête de l'Angleterre par les Normands
ST : Faraday isolates benzene
ST : Oxygen-hydrogen limelight invented
ED : Hungarian Academy of Sciences founded in Budapest
DL : Opening of Stockton-Darlington railroad - the first line to carry passengers
DL : A Baseball Club organised at Rochester, New York
DL : Tea roses from China introduced in Europe
LT : Anna Lætitia Barbauld dies 9 March
VA : Henry Fuseli dies 16 April
M : Johann Strauss II born 25 October
VA : Sir Adolph William Bouguereau born 30 November
VA : Jacques-Louis David dies 29 December


LT : Sir Walter Scott: Woodstock
LT : Elizabeth Barret Browning: An Essay on Mind and Other Poems published anonymously
LT : William Blake: Job
M : Carl Maria von Weber : Opera, Oberon
M : Franz Schubert : Symphony No.9
M : Nicolò Paganini : Violin Concerto No.3
M : Nicolò Paganini : Violin Concerto No.2, including La campanella ('The Little Bell')
M : Felix Mendelssohn : Overture, A Midsummer Night's Dream
M : Vincenzo Bellini : Opera, Bianca e Gernando
M : Hector Berlioz : Opera, Les Francs-juges
VA : William Blake : Satan Inflicting Boils on Job
PH : Treaty of Yandabu ends Burmese War
PH : John VI, King of Portugal, dies; succeeded by Peter IV
PH : Russia declares war on Persia
PH : Dost Mohammed becomes Amir of Kabul
RP : Ngüan Ngüan edits the writings of Confucius
VA : U.S. Academy of Design founded
ST : André Ampère: Electrodynamics
ST : N.J. Lobachevsky develops his system of non-Euclidean geometry
ED : Munich University founded
ST : Galvanometer invented
DL : Unter den Linden, Berlin, lit by gas
ST : Stamford Raffles founds Royal Zoological Society, London
DL : First railroad tunnel, on Liverpool-Manchester line, in England
M : Carl Maria von Weber dies 5 June


VA : Eugène Delacroix : Death of Sardanapalus
LT : Alfred, Lord Tennyson: Poems by Two Brothers
LT : Sir Walter Scott: The Surgeon's Daughter and Life of Napoleon
LT : John Clare: The Shepherd's Calendar with Village Stories and Other Poems
M : Franz Schubert : Song-cycle, Winterreise ('Winter Journey')
M : Frederic Chopin : Nocturne in E-flat
M : Frederic Chopin : Variations for piano and orchestra on 'La ci darem la mano' (aria from Mozart opera Don Giovanni
M : Vincenzo Bellini : Opera, Il pirata ('The Pirate')
PH : Count Kapodistrias elected President of Greece
PH : By the Treaty of London the Allies agree to force a truce on the Sultan
RP : John Darby founds the Plymouth Brethren
ED : Henry Hallam: The Constitutional History of England
RP : John Keble: The Christian year
ST : J. J. Audubon : Birds of North American
ST : Karl von Baer: Epistola de Ova Mammalium et Hominis Generis
ST : English physician describes Bright's disease
VA : Joseph Niepce produces photographs on a metal plate
ST : George Ohm formulates Ohm's Law, defining electrical current potential and resistance
ST : James Simpson constructs sand filter for purification of London's water supply
DL : Karl Baedeker begins publishing his travel guides
DL : Evening Standard, London, appears
DL : Sulfur friction matches introduced by John Walker
M : Ludwig van Beethoven dies 26 March
VA : William Holman Hunt born 26 April
LT : William Blake dies 12 August


LT : Sir Walter Scott: Anne of Geierstein
LT : Samuel Taylor Coleridge: Poetical Works (3 volumes) and Work without Hope
M : Franz Schubert : String Quintet in C
M : Franz Schubert : Song-cycle, Schwanengesang ('Swan Song')
M : Giaocchino Antonio Rossini : Comic Opera, Le Comte Ory ('Count Ory')
M : Hector Berlioz : Overture, Waverly
PH : Maria II deposed, Dom Miguel proclaimed King of Portugal
PH : Russia declares war on Turkey
PH : Mehemet Ali agrees to Britain's demand to quit Greece
PH : Uruguay becomes independent republic following Treaty of Rio de Janeiro
PH : Liberal revolt in Mexico, Vincente Guerrero becomes president
DL : British Test and Corporation Acts repealed; Catholics and Nonconformists may hold public office
VA : German scholar K.O. Müller publishes his treatise on Etruscan antiquities
ED : University College, London, opened
ED : American Dictionary of the English Language, by Noah Webster, published
ST : John Franklin publishes an account of his Arctic explorations
ST : Cap and ring spinning machines invented
ST : Friedrich Wöhler's synthesis of urea begins organic chemistry
DL : London weekly Athenaeum issued
DL : The Spectator, London weekly periodical, founded
DL : Working Men's Party founded in New York
VA : Francisco José de Goya Y Lucientes dies 16 April
VA : Dante Gabriel Rossetti born 12 May
LT : Dante Gabriel Rossetti born 12 May
M : Franz Schubert dies 19 November


VA : Anthony Frederick Sandys born
M : Giaocchino Antonio Rossini : Opera, Guillaume Tell ('William Tell')
M : Nicolò Paganini : Variations on 'God Save The King' for violin and orchestra
M : Felix Mendelssohn : Book I of 'Songs Without Words' (Lieder ohne Worte), for piano
M : Vincenzo Bellini : Opera, Zaira
M : Vincenzo Bellini : Opera, La straniera ('The Foreigner')
PH : Andrew Jackson inaugurated at President of the U.S.    GO !
DL : New Act of Parliament establishes an effective police force in London
PH : Peace of Adrianople ends Russo-Turk. war
DL : Slavery abolished in Mexico
PH : President Guerrero of Mexico overthrown by General Anastasio Bustamante
DL : Catholic Emancipation Act allows Roman Catholics in Great Britain to sit in Parliament and to hold almost any public office
RP : Pope Leo XII dies; Cardinal Francisco Castiglione elected Pope Pius VIII
M : The concertina patented
VA : L.J.M. Dagueerre forms a partnership with J.N. Niepce for the development of their photographic inventions
ST : Dobereiner: classification of similar elements
ST : Von Drayse invents the breechloading needle gun
ST : American physicist John Henry constructs and early version of the electromagnetic motor
ST : Hydropathy, the system of treating diseases by water, developed by Silesian farmer Vincenz Priessnitz
DL : The first co-operative stores in America
DL : The omnibus becomes part of London public transport
DL : First Oxford-Cambridge boat race takes place at Henley; Oxford wins
DL : Suttee, the Indian custom of immolating a widow along with her dead husband, abolished in British India
DL : The first U.S. patent on a typewriter granted this year
ST : The Royal Zoological Society takes over the menagerie at the Tower of London (origin of the London Zoo at Regent's Park)
PH : Uruguay declares war against Argentina
PH : Treaty of London settles the dispute between the Dutch and their former Belg. subjects
PH : Outbreak of First Opium War between Britain and China
PH : Frederick IV, King of Denmark dies; succeeded by Christian VIII
PH : The independent republic of Natal founded by the Boers
PH : Abdul Mejid becomes Sultan of Turkey
ED : Franz Bopp identifies Celtic as part of the Indo-European language family
ED : John Lloyd Stephens discovers and examines the antiquities of the ancient Maya culture in Central America
ST : Charles Goodyear makes possible the commercial use of rubber by discovering the process of "vulcanisation"
ST : Metallic element lanthanum discovered
ST : Ozone discovered
ST : First electric clock built
DL : Electrotyping process developed by Moritz Jacobi
DL : Abner Doubleday lays out first baseball field and conducts first baseball game ever played
RP : Louis Blanc publishes: L'Organization du Travail
DL : First Grand National run at Aintree, England
DL : Prussia restricts juvenile labour to a maximun of 10 hours a day
ED : Lowell Institute, Boston, founded
DL : George Weed's anti-slavery pamphlet, Slavery As It Is
M : Louis Moreau Gottschalk born 8 May
VA : Sir John Everett Millais born 8 June
M : Anton Grigoryevich Rubinstein born 28 November


LT : Sir Walter Scott: The Doom of Devorgoil, a Melodrama and Auchindrane
M : Gaetano Domenico Maria Donizetti : Opera, Anna Bolena ('Anne Boleyn')
M : Robert Schumann : Abegg Variations, for piano
M : Nicolò Paganini : Violin Concertos No.4 and No.5
M : Felix Mendelssohn : Overture, The Hebrides (Fingal's Cave)
M : Frederic Chopin : Piano Concertos No.1 and No.2
M : Vincenzo Bellini : Opera, I Capuleti e i Montecchi ('The Capulets and the Montagues)
M : Hector Berlioz : Symphony Fantastique
VA : Eugène Delacroix : The 28th July:
Liberty Leading the People
PH : Revolution in Paris
PH : William IV becomes King of Great Britain and Ireland
PH : Charles X, King of France abdicates
PH : Louis Philippe, King of the French, "the Citizen King"
PH : Peter II, last of the Vladikas dynasty ascends the throne of Montenegro
PH : Serbia a fully autonomous state
RP : Jeremy Bentham: Constitutional Code for all Nations
RP : William Cobbett: Rural Rides
RP : The religious society of Mormons (now known as Latter Day Saints) founded by Joseph Smith and his friends in New York
RP : Pope Pius VIII dies
ST : Robert Brown, Scottish botanist, discovers the cell nucleus in plants
ST : Scottish geologist Charles Lyell divides the geological system into three groups which he names eocene, miocene, and pliocene
ST : Paraffin discovered
ST : Founding of Royal Geographic Society, London
VA : End of the Nazarene Brotherhood
ST : French tailor Barthélemy Thimmonier devises a machine for utilitarian stitching (beginning of the sewing machine)
M : Hans von Bülow born 8 January
VA : Camille Pissarro born 10 July
VA : Lord Frederic Leighton born 3 December
LT : Christina Rossetti born 5 December
LT : Emily Dickinson born 10 December


M : Vincenzo Bellini : Opera, La sonnambula ('The Sleepwalker')
M : Hector Berlioz : Overture, King Lear
M : Hector Berlioz : Overture, The Corsair
PH : Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg elected Leopold I, King of the Belgians
PH : Separation of Belgium from the Netherlands
PH : Southampton insurrection: Virginia slave revolt led by Nat Turner
PH : The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, divided into two parts, the larger of which goes to Belgium
DL : Wretched conditions of the working classes in Lyons, France, lead to uprisings
DL : Mass demonstrations in Swiss cities lead to introduction for more liberal legislation and the principle of popular sovereignty
PH : Emperor Pedro I of Brazil abdicates; succeeded by Pedro II, his son
DL : U.S. Copyright law amended: 28 years, renewable for 14 years
M : Samuel Francis Smith writes the words to "My Country, Tis of Thee" (one of the national anthems until 1931)
RP : Cardinal Mauro Capellari elected Pope Gregory XVI
RP : William Miller, leader of the Second Adventists in America, begins his preachings
ST : Chloroform invented
ST : Sir James Clark Ross determines position of magnetic North Pole
DL : The great cholera pandemic, which began in India in 1826, spread from Russia into Central Europe, reaching Scotland in 1832
DL : William Lloyd Garrison begins publishing the abolitionist periodical The Liberator, in Boston
DL : Légion Etrangère (French Foreign Legion) formed
DL : London Bridge opened
DL : First horse-drawn trolleys appear in New York


LT : Alfred, Lord Tennyson: Poems
M : Gaetano Domenico Maria Donizetti : Opera, L'Elisir d'amore ('The Elixir of Love')
M : Felix Mendelssohn : Piano Concerto No.1
M : Frederic Chopin : 12 piano studies, Opus 10, including 'Black Key', 'Tristesse', and 'Revolutionary' studies
VA : Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres : M. Bertin
DL : Mass demonstrations at Hambach, Germany, in favour of the liberal and national cause
DL : The First Reform Act to enfranchise the upper-middle classes passed by the House of Lords; number of voters increased from 500,000 to 1,000,000
PH : Andrew Jackson re-elected President of the U.S.    GO !
PH : Giuseppe Mazzini, Italian patriot, founds the organisation "Giovine Italia" (Italian Youth), with the aim of achieving national independence
RP : The word "socialism" comes into use in English and French
ED : Zurich University founded
VA : Ando Hiroshige, great master of Japanese colour prints (Ukiyoe) publishes his series Fifty-three stages of the Tokaido
DL : The first French railroad line (from St. Etienne to Andrézieux) begins to carry passengers
ST : Hungarian mathematician Bolyai publishes his system of non-Euclidean geometry
ST : Reichenback discovers creosote in wood tar
DL : New England Anti-Slavery Society founded in Boston
VA : Edouard Manet born 23 January
VA : Arthur Hughes born 27 January
LT : Lewis Carroll born 27 January
LT : Johann Wolfgang von Goethe dies 22 March
LT : Sir Walter Scott dies 21 September

Terms Defined

Referenced Works