The Venetian StyleWhen we think of Venice, Italy, we conjure up images of grand palaces on a Grand Canal with gondolas bobbing up and down in a romantic haze of watery loveliness. The second association with Venice however is painting, particularly from the sixteenth century from whence came what art historians have come to call the Venetian Style. Although four artist are closely associated with this school (Giorgione, Titian, Tintoretto, and Veronese) the seeds for its ascendancy were planted a generation before by the Bellini family, Jacopo, who painted from 1423 until his death in 1470, but most particularly through the work of his sons, Gentile and Giovanni. Building on a family trait of placing a single perspective vanishing point in the lower third of a composition, they influenced the art of this prosperous mercantile city for the next hundred years.
In the sixteenth century, as the Bellini seeds matured, two names in Venetian painting are so inextricably linked they must be discussed as if they were one--Giorgio da Castelfranco (known as Giorgione), and Tiziano Vecelli (known as Titian). Both men were born within a year of each other around 1478. Giorgione died from the black plague in 1510. He was 32. Titian, however, went on to a long and illustrious career, living to the ripe old age of 98. Both had studied under Giovanni Bellini and by the time Giorgione died, their style was so identical Titian was able to flawlessly complete one of his friend's commissions. So brief was Giorgione's life, only four or five paintings are attributed to him, while Titian's number in the hundreds.
One of Titian's most interesting works is Venus with a Mirror painted around 1555. The painting depicts a rather voluptuous, semi-nude Venus attended by two cupids supporting a mirror in which is seen an oblique reflection of the goddess of love. Although the work is typical of the rich, glazing effects that make Venetian oil painting so distinctively beautiful, what's most interesting about this work is what you donít see. The painting, rendered on a vertical plane, was originally a double portrait painted in a horizontal format. Apparently Titian was quite fond of a hand and arm grasping a velvet coat that swept up over the man's shoulder in the earlier work. He kept this section of the first painting as the right arm of his Venus holding the same velvet garment used to cover her lower extremities while painting out the rest of the double portrait. This has been confirmed by x-rays which, in fact, show that an even older painting exists beneath the partially obscured double portrait.
Contributed by Lane, Jim
17 May 1998